Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Donald Trump’ın İsrail ve İran’a Yönelik Politikalarında Evanjelizm Etkisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 12 - 25, 15.09.2021

Öz

2016 yılında Donald Trump’ın Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Başkanlığı’na seçilmesinin ardından geçen dört yılda ABD ile İsrail arasındaki askeri, istihbarî ve diplomatik iş birliği her zamankinden daha kapsamlı ve derin bir hale gelmiştir. İlişkilerin gelişiminde gerek Trump yönetiminin kritik pozisyonlarında yer alan Dış İşleri Bakanı Mike Pompeo ve Başkan Yardımcısı Mike Pence gibi Evanjelik isimlerin varlığı gerekse ülke içindeki Evanjelik lider ve grupların aktivizmi önemli bir paya sahip olmuştur. Evanjeliklerin dış politika yaklaşımının birincil unsuru, ABD’nin İsrail’e koşulsuz destek vermesi gerektiği inancıdır. Bu anlayışın temelinde Evanjeliklerin büyük kısmının üzerinde mutabık kaldığı ahir zaman kehanetlerine dayanan teopolitik bir anlatı olan aşamalı kadercilik bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışma, Evanjeliklerin Trump yönetiminin dış politika kararları üzerindeki etkisini bahsi geçen teo-politik bağlam temelinde ve Evanjelik grupların örnek vakalardaki faaliyetleri üzerinden incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. İlk bölümde Evanjelik dış politika anlayışının üzerine inşa edildiği aşamalı kaderci inancın tarihsel arka planına değinilmiştir. İkinci bölümde ABD’nin İsrail Büyükelçiliğini Kudüs’e taşımasında aşamalı kaderci teolojinin ve Evanjelik grupların rolü, Amerika’nın Kudüs’ün statüsüne yönelik tarihsel politikası ile birlikte incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde ise İsrail-Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri barış anlaşması ve genel olarak Arap-İsrail ilişkilerinin gelişiminde başlıca faktör olan İran’a yönelik düşmanlık algısının oluşumunda aşamalı kaderci anlatının rolüne atıfta bulunarak bu süreçlerde Evanjeliklerin etkisine odaklanılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, A. S. (October 19, 2019). Khashoggi’s murder should have made Saudi Arabia a pariah. 7 men made sure that didn’t happen. The Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/saudi-seven-khashoggi_n_5d975e49e4b02911e11a38b1.
  • Aljazeera. (November 16, 2017). Israel ‘willing to share’ Iran intelligence with Saudis. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/11/16/israel-willing-to-share-iran- intelligence-with-saudis.
  • Aljazeera. (April 30, 2018). MBS: Palestinians should ‘accept Trump proposals or shut up’. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/4/30/mbs-palestinians-should-accept-trump-proposals-or-shut-up.
  • Aljazeera. (August 13, 2020). “Netanyahu says West Bank annexation plans still ‘on the table”. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/8/13/netanyahu-says-west-bank-annexation-plans-still-on-the-table.
  • Amos, O. (January 5, 2018). Why do US evangelicals support Trump's Jerusalem policy?. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-42402350.
  • Bailey, S. P. (March 22, 2019). Pompeo: Perhaps Trump is, like the Bible’s Esther, meant to save the Jewish people from Iran. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/2019/03/22/pompeo-perhaps trump-is-like-bibles-esther-meant-save-jewish-people-iran/.
  • Batrawy, A. (September 11, 2019). US Christian evangelical delegation meets Saudi crown prince. The Associated Press. https://apnews.com/article/e7f10269e60b46dabe31c455fa04017e.
  • Bird, M. F. (2013). Evangelical Theology: A biblical and systematic introduction. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Academic.
  • Black, I. (March 19, 2019). Why Israel is quietly cosying up to Gulf monarchies. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/mar/19/why-israel- quietly-cosying-up-to-gulf-monarchies-saudi-arabia-uae.
  • Boorstein, M. (November 2, 2018). Trump’s evangelical advisers meet with Saudi Crown Prince and discuss Jamal Khashoggi’s murder, “human rights,” spokesman says. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/2018/11/01/it-is-our-desire-lift-up- name-jesus-trumps-evangelical-advisers-meet-with-saudi-crown-prince- mohammed-bin-salman/.
  • Bova, G. (August 9, 2018). Under Trump, Islamophobic pastor John Hagee’s star rises again. Texas Observer. https://www.texasobserver.org/trump- pastor-john-hagee-texas-jerusalem/.
  • Boyer, P. (1994). When time shall be no more: Prophecy belief in modern American culture. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
  • Burke, D. (December 6, 2017). Why evangelicals are 'ecstatic' about Trump's Jerusalem move. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2017/12/06/politics/american- evangelicals jerusalem/index.html.
  • Casper, J. (January 15, 2020). The Top 50 Countries Where It’s Hardest to Be a Christian. Christianity Today. https://www.christianitytoday.com/news/2020/january/top-christian- persecution-open-doors-2020-world-watch-list.html.
  • Cooper, H. W., Robert F. (September 1, 1982). In Arab Spring, Obama Finds a Sharp Test. Council on Foreign Relations. “The Reagan Plan: U.S. Policy for Peace in the Middle East. https://www.cfr.org/israel/reagan-plan-us- policy-peace-middle-east/p14140.
  • Duerr, G. M.E. & Thorne-Hamilton, A. Conceptualizing Evangelical Influence in U.S. Foreign Policy: Caught between Structural Realism and Neoliberal Institutionalism. International Studies Association Annual. New Orleans.
  • Duz, Z. (September 21, 2020). Bahrain's king: Deal with Israel ‘historic step’”. Anadolu Agency.https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/bahrains-king- deal-with-israel historic-step-/1980873.
  • Entous, A. (June 18, 2018). Donald Trump's New World Order. Newyorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/06/18/donald-trumps-new-world order.
  • Fars News Agency. (April 30, 2018). Riyadh: Palestinians should come to negotiating table or shut up. https://www.farsnews.ir/en/news/13970210000327/Riyadh- Palesinians-Shld- Cme-Negiaing-Table-r-Sh-Up.
  • Gorski, P. (2017). American Covenant: A History of Civil Religion from the Puritans to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hankins, B. (2008). American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Henne, P. (September 13, 2019). US-Israeli Christian leader discusses peace process with Saudi crown prince. Duckofminerva. https://duckofminerva.com/2019/09/if-you-mention-the-evangelical- delegation-to-saudi-arabia-id-have-to-ask-which-one.html.
  • Herbers, J. (October 21, 1984). Religious Leaders tell of worry on Armageddon view ascribed to Reagan. The Newyork Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/21/us/religious-leaders-tell-of-worry-on- armageddon-view-ascribed-to-reagan.html.
  • Ignatius, D. (September 11, 2020). Bahrain’s diplomatic agreement with Israel is a building block toward Middle East stability. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/09/11/bahrains-diplomatic- agreement-with-israel-is-building-block-toward-middle-east-stability/.
  • IMFA, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (October 1, 2013). PM Netanyahu addresses UN General Assembly. http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2013/Pages/PM-Netanyahu- addresses-UN- General-Assembly-1-Oct-2013.aspx.
  • Jaffe-Hoffman, M. (August 13, 2020). How Trump traded annexation for his Christian base. The Jerusalem Post. https://www.jpost.com/american- politics/how-trump- traded-annexation-for-his-christian-base-analysis-638578.
  • Jewish Teleghraphic Agency. (August 29, 1974). Ford backs off on his former proposal that the U.S. move its embassy in Israel to Jerusalem. https://www.jta.org/1974/08/29/archive/ford-backs-off-on-his-former-proposal- that-the-u-s-move-its-embassy-in-israel-to-jerusalem.
  • Jewish Telegraphic Agency. (September 2, 1976). Carter reserves decision on moving U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem. https://www.jta.org/1976/09/02/archive/carter-< reserves-decision-on-moving-u- s-embassy-in-israel-to-jerusalem.
  • Jones, E. (August 18, 2020). Trump says he moved US Embassy to Jerusalem ‘For the Evangelicals’. The Christian Broadcasting Network. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2020/august/trump-says-he-moved-nbsp-us-embassy-to-jerusalem-lsquo-for-the-evangelicals-rsquo.
  • Kershner, I. & Halbfinger, D. M. (January 31, 2020). Capital in Trump Middle East plan makes ‘a joke’ of Palestinian aspirations. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/31/world/middleeast/trump-mideast-plan- jerusalem.html.
  • Landau, N. (September 16, 2020). FULL TEXT: The Israel-UAE-Bahrain Abraham accords peace agreement. Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/middle- east- news/.premium-full-text-the-israel-uae-bahrain-abraham-accords- declaration- 1.9159509.
  • LaHaye, T & Benkins, J. B. (1995). Left Behind: A novel of the earth’s last days. Carol Stream: Tyndale House.
  • Lahr, A. M. (2007). Millennial dreams and apocalyptic nightmares: The Cold War origins of political evangelicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Leonard, R. (2010). Visions of apocalypse. Maryland: John Hopkins University Applied Physics Labaratory.
  • Lewis, J. (March 3, 2015). That secret Iranian ‘Nuclear Facility’ you just found? Not so much. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/03/03/that- secret-iranian-nuclear-facility-you-just-found-not-so-much/.
  • Lindsey, H. (1970). The Late great planet earth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970.
  • Lipka, M. (October 3, 2013). More White Evangelicals than American Jews say God gave Israel to the Jewish People. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/10/03/more-white-evangelicals- than-american-jews-say-god-gave-israel-to-the-jewish-people/.
  • Marsden, G. M. (2006). Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Martinez, J. S. & Gregory, A. (November 9, 2016). How the faithful voted: A preliminary 2016 analysis. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/how-the-faithful-voted-a- preliminary-2016-analysis/.
  • Middle East Eye. (February 4, 2020). Israel and UAE held secret anti-Iran meeting at White House: Report. https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/israel-uae- secret-anti-iran-white-house.
  • Mitchell, C. (October 31, 2018). Freedom Is Unfolding in This Arab Country: US Evangelicals Find UAE 'Treasure of Moderation'. CBN News. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/world/2018/october/freedom-is-unfolding-in- this-arab-country-us-evangelicals-find-uae-treasure-of-moderation.
  • Mitchell, C. (November, 13, 2019). Evangelical Leaders See the Untold Story of Saudi Arabia in 'Historic' Trip. CBN News. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2019/september/evangelical-leaders- see-the-untold-story-of-saudi-arabia-in-historic-trip.
  • Noll, M. A. (1993). The American Revolution and Protestant Evangelicalism. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 23(3), 617-627, 1993.
  • Paker, P. (November 19, 2016). An Embassy in Jerusalem? Trump Promises, but So Did Predecessors. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/19/world/middleeast/jerusalem-us-embassy- trump.html.
  • PASIA, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs. (2007). Documents on Jerusalem. Jerusalem: PASSIA Publication. http://passia.org/media/filer_public/e7/d1/e7d1d05e-6c27-43f3-9ea4-384ad43c7746/vol-1-documents-on-jerusalem.pdf.
  • Pfeffer, A. (July 26, 2010). Mossad Chief Reportedly Visited Saudi Arabia for Talks on Iran. Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/1.5152341.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (May 23, 2018). Secretary Pompeo’s Iran speech: Tehran hated it. But most Arab & Israeli leaders loved it. So did I. Here’s why. https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2018/05/.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (July 20, 2020). Pompeo in Iowa makes case to Evangelical conference that Trump team is the most pro-Israel administration in US history. But makes no mention of annexation. https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2020/07/20/exclusive-pompeo-in- iowa-makes-case-to-evangelical-conference-that-trump-team-is-the-most-pro- israel-administration-in-us-history-but-makes-no-mention-of-annexation-is- annexation-off-us-agenda-for/.
  • Rosenberg, Joel C. “Israel and UAE agree to full normalisation of relations” (August 13, 2020). https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2020/08/13/breaking- israel-and-uae-agree-to-full-normalization-of-relations/.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (September 29, 2020). Iran’s terror regime the “most terrible institution in the world,” US Secretary of State Pompeo tells. https://allarab.news/irans-terror-regime-the-most-terrible-institution-in-the- world-us-secretary-of-state-pompeo-tells-all-arab-news/. Sanger, D. E & Kirkpatrick, D. D. (May 8, 2018). Behind Trump’s Termination of Iran deal is a Risky Bet. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/08/us/politics/trump-iran-nuclear-deal- news-analysis-.html.
  • Sizer, S. (2006). Christian Zionism: Road-map to Armageddon?. Westmont: IVP Academic.
  • Spiegel, S. L. (1985). The other Arab-Israeli conflict: Making American Middle East Policy, from Truman to Reagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Steding, W. (2014). Presidential faith and foreign policy: Jimmy Carter the disciple and Ronald Reagan the alchemist. Newyork: Palgrave Macmillian.
  • Stewart, K. (December 31, 2018). Why Trump reigns as King Cyrus. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/31/opinion/trump- evangelicals-cyrus-king.html.
  • Swartz, D. R. (2011). Identity Politics and the fragmenting of the 1970s Evangelical left. Religion and American Culture 21/1: 83.
  • The New York Times. (September 25, 2012). Arab spring proves a harsh test for Obamas diplomatic skill. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/25/us/politics/arab-spring-proves-a-harsh- test-for-obamas-diplomatic-skill.html.
  • U.S. Department of State. (October 11, 2019). Being a Christian Leader. https://www.state.gov/being-a-christian-leader/.
  • Wintour, P. & Holmes, O. (February 14, 2019). Mike Pence Chides US Allies at Warsaw Summit on Iran. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/14/us-and-israel-say- confrontation-with-iran-needed-for-peace.
  • Wuthnow, R. 1990. The Restructuring of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Wong, E. (March 30, 2019). The Rapture and the Real World: Mike Pompeo Blends Beliefs and Policy. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/30/us/politics/pompeo-christian- policy.html.

The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 12 - 25, 15.09.2021

Öz

U.S. and Israel’s military, intelligence, and diplomatic cooperation have become more extensive and deeper during Donald Trump’s presidency, the president has surrounded himself with Evangelicals including Secretary of State Pompeo and Vice President Pence. Beyond their presence in central leadership within the Trump administration, Evangelicals have exerted considerable influence through lobbying efforts. The primary tenet of evangelical foreign policy is that the U.S. should provide unconditional support to Israel. This understanding stems from dispensationalism, a theo-political narrative based on the End Times prophecies. This study aimed to examine the influence of evangelicals on the Trump administration's foreign policy decisions within the scope of dispensationalist theo-political context and through the activities of evangelical groups. In the first section, it looked into the historical background of dispensationalism on which evangelical foreign policy built. In the second part, it examined the U.S.’s historical policy toward the status of Jerusalem and the role of evangelicals in Trump’s decision to move the US embassy to Jerusalem. In the third part, it focused on the evangelical influence in the Israel-United Arab Emirates treaty and developing Arab-Israeli relations by referring to the role of dispensationalist narrative in the formation of the perception of the enemy against Iran.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, A. S. (October 19, 2019). Khashoggi’s murder should have made Saudi Arabia a pariah. 7 men made sure that didn’t happen. The Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/saudi-seven-khashoggi_n_5d975e49e4b02911e11a38b1.
  • Aljazeera. (November 16, 2017). Israel ‘willing to share’ Iran intelligence with Saudis. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/11/16/israel-willing-to-share-iran- intelligence-with-saudis.
  • Aljazeera. (April 30, 2018). MBS: Palestinians should ‘accept Trump proposals or shut up’. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/4/30/mbs-palestinians-should-accept-trump-proposals-or-shut-up.
  • Aljazeera. (August 13, 2020). “Netanyahu says West Bank annexation plans still ‘on the table”. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/8/13/netanyahu-says-west-bank-annexation-plans-still-on-the-table.
  • Amos, O. (January 5, 2018). Why do US evangelicals support Trump's Jerusalem policy?. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-42402350.
  • Bailey, S. P. (March 22, 2019). Pompeo: Perhaps Trump is, like the Bible’s Esther, meant to save the Jewish people from Iran. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/2019/03/22/pompeo-perhaps trump-is-like-bibles-esther-meant-save-jewish-people-iran/.
  • Batrawy, A. (September 11, 2019). US Christian evangelical delegation meets Saudi crown prince. The Associated Press. https://apnews.com/article/e7f10269e60b46dabe31c455fa04017e.
  • Bird, M. F. (2013). Evangelical Theology: A biblical and systematic introduction. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Academic.
  • Black, I. (March 19, 2019). Why Israel is quietly cosying up to Gulf monarchies. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/mar/19/why-israel- quietly-cosying-up-to-gulf-monarchies-saudi-arabia-uae.
  • Boorstein, M. (November 2, 2018). Trump’s evangelical advisers meet with Saudi Crown Prince and discuss Jamal Khashoggi’s murder, “human rights,” spokesman says. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/2018/11/01/it-is-our-desire-lift-up- name-jesus-trumps-evangelical-advisers-meet-with-saudi-crown-prince- mohammed-bin-salman/.
  • Bova, G. (August 9, 2018). Under Trump, Islamophobic pastor John Hagee’s star rises again. Texas Observer. https://www.texasobserver.org/trump- pastor-john-hagee-texas-jerusalem/.
  • Boyer, P. (1994). When time shall be no more: Prophecy belief in modern American culture. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
  • Burke, D. (December 6, 2017). Why evangelicals are 'ecstatic' about Trump's Jerusalem move. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2017/12/06/politics/american- evangelicals jerusalem/index.html.
  • Casper, J. (January 15, 2020). The Top 50 Countries Where It’s Hardest to Be a Christian. Christianity Today. https://www.christianitytoday.com/news/2020/january/top-christian- persecution-open-doors-2020-world-watch-list.html.
  • Cooper, H. W., Robert F. (September 1, 1982). In Arab Spring, Obama Finds a Sharp Test. Council on Foreign Relations. “The Reagan Plan: U.S. Policy for Peace in the Middle East. https://www.cfr.org/israel/reagan-plan-us- policy-peace-middle-east/p14140.
  • Duerr, G. M.E. & Thorne-Hamilton, A. Conceptualizing Evangelical Influence in U.S. Foreign Policy: Caught between Structural Realism and Neoliberal Institutionalism. International Studies Association Annual. New Orleans.
  • Duz, Z. (September 21, 2020). Bahrain's king: Deal with Israel ‘historic step’”. Anadolu Agency.https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/bahrains-king- deal-with-israel historic-step-/1980873.
  • Entous, A. (June 18, 2018). Donald Trump's New World Order. Newyorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/06/18/donald-trumps-new-world order.
  • Fars News Agency. (April 30, 2018). Riyadh: Palestinians should come to negotiating table or shut up. https://www.farsnews.ir/en/news/13970210000327/Riyadh- Palesinians-Shld- Cme-Negiaing-Table-r-Sh-Up.
  • Gorski, P. (2017). American Covenant: A History of Civil Religion from the Puritans to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hankins, B. (2008). American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Henne, P. (September 13, 2019). US-Israeli Christian leader discusses peace process with Saudi crown prince. Duckofminerva. https://duckofminerva.com/2019/09/if-you-mention-the-evangelical- delegation-to-saudi-arabia-id-have-to-ask-which-one.html.
  • Herbers, J. (October 21, 1984). Religious Leaders tell of worry on Armageddon view ascribed to Reagan. The Newyork Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/21/us/religious-leaders-tell-of-worry-on- armageddon-view-ascribed-to-reagan.html.
  • Ignatius, D. (September 11, 2020). Bahrain’s diplomatic agreement with Israel is a building block toward Middle East stability. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/09/11/bahrains-diplomatic- agreement-with-israel-is-building-block-toward-middle-east-stability/.
  • IMFA, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (October 1, 2013). PM Netanyahu addresses UN General Assembly. http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2013/Pages/PM-Netanyahu- addresses-UN- General-Assembly-1-Oct-2013.aspx.
  • Jaffe-Hoffman, M. (August 13, 2020). How Trump traded annexation for his Christian base. The Jerusalem Post. https://www.jpost.com/american- politics/how-trump- traded-annexation-for-his-christian-base-analysis-638578.
  • Jewish Teleghraphic Agency. (August 29, 1974). Ford backs off on his former proposal that the U.S. move its embassy in Israel to Jerusalem. https://www.jta.org/1974/08/29/archive/ford-backs-off-on-his-former-proposal- that-the-u-s-move-its-embassy-in-israel-to-jerusalem.
  • Jewish Telegraphic Agency. (September 2, 1976). Carter reserves decision on moving U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem. https://www.jta.org/1976/09/02/archive/carter-< reserves-decision-on-moving-u- s-embassy-in-israel-to-jerusalem.
  • Jones, E. (August 18, 2020). Trump says he moved US Embassy to Jerusalem ‘For the Evangelicals’. The Christian Broadcasting Network. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2020/august/trump-says-he-moved-nbsp-us-embassy-to-jerusalem-lsquo-for-the-evangelicals-rsquo.
  • Kershner, I. & Halbfinger, D. M. (January 31, 2020). Capital in Trump Middle East plan makes ‘a joke’ of Palestinian aspirations. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/31/world/middleeast/trump-mideast-plan- jerusalem.html.
  • Landau, N. (September 16, 2020). FULL TEXT: The Israel-UAE-Bahrain Abraham accords peace agreement. Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/middle- east- news/.premium-full-text-the-israel-uae-bahrain-abraham-accords- declaration- 1.9159509.
  • LaHaye, T & Benkins, J. B. (1995). Left Behind: A novel of the earth’s last days. Carol Stream: Tyndale House.
  • Lahr, A. M. (2007). Millennial dreams and apocalyptic nightmares: The Cold War origins of political evangelicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Leonard, R. (2010). Visions of apocalypse. Maryland: John Hopkins University Applied Physics Labaratory.
  • Lewis, J. (March 3, 2015). That secret Iranian ‘Nuclear Facility’ you just found? Not so much. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/03/03/that- secret-iranian-nuclear-facility-you-just-found-not-so-much/.
  • Lindsey, H. (1970). The Late great planet earth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970.
  • Lipka, M. (October 3, 2013). More White Evangelicals than American Jews say God gave Israel to the Jewish People. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/10/03/more-white-evangelicals- than-american-jews-say-god-gave-israel-to-the-jewish-people/.
  • Marsden, G. M. (2006). Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Martinez, J. S. & Gregory, A. (November 9, 2016). How the faithful voted: A preliminary 2016 analysis. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/how-the-faithful-voted-a- preliminary-2016-analysis/.
  • Middle East Eye. (February 4, 2020). Israel and UAE held secret anti-Iran meeting at White House: Report. https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/israel-uae- secret-anti-iran-white-house.
  • Mitchell, C. (October 31, 2018). Freedom Is Unfolding in This Arab Country: US Evangelicals Find UAE 'Treasure of Moderation'. CBN News. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/world/2018/october/freedom-is-unfolding-in- this-arab-country-us-evangelicals-find-uae-treasure-of-moderation.
  • Mitchell, C. (November, 13, 2019). Evangelical Leaders See the Untold Story of Saudi Arabia in 'Historic' Trip. CBN News. https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2019/september/evangelical-leaders- see-the-untold-story-of-saudi-arabia-in-historic-trip.
  • Noll, M. A. (1993). The American Revolution and Protestant Evangelicalism. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 23(3), 617-627, 1993.
  • Paker, P. (November 19, 2016). An Embassy in Jerusalem? Trump Promises, but So Did Predecessors. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/19/world/middleeast/jerusalem-us-embassy- trump.html.
  • PASIA, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs. (2007). Documents on Jerusalem. Jerusalem: PASSIA Publication. http://passia.org/media/filer_public/e7/d1/e7d1d05e-6c27-43f3-9ea4-384ad43c7746/vol-1-documents-on-jerusalem.pdf.
  • Pfeffer, A. (July 26, 2010). Mossad Chief Reportedly Visited Saudi Arabia for Talks on Iran. Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/1.5152341.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (May 23, 2018). Secretary Pompeo’s Iran speech: Tehran hated it. But most Arab & Israeli leaders loved it. So did I. Here’s why. https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2018/05/.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (July 20, 2020). Pompeo in Iowa makes case to Evangelical conference that Trump team is the most pro-Israel administration in US history. But makes no mention of annexation. https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2020/07/20/exclusive-pompeo-in- iowa-makes-case-to-evangelical-conference-that-trump-team-is-the-most-pro- israel-administration-in-us-history-but-makes-no-mention-of-annexation-is- annexation-off-us-agenda-for/.
  • Rosenberg, Joel C. “Israel and UAE agree to full normalisation of relations” (August 13, 2020). https://flashtrafficblog.epicentermedia.net/2020/08/13/breaking- israel-and-uae-agree-to-full-normalization-of-relations/.
  • Rosenberg, J. C. (September 29, 2020). Iran’s terror regime the “most terrible institution in the world,” US Secretary of State Pompeo tells. https://allarab.news/irans-terror-regime-the-most-terrible-institution-in-the- world-us-secretary-of-state-pompeo-tells-all-arab-news/. Sanger, D. E & Kirkpatrick, D. D. (May 8, 2018). Behind Trump’s Termination of Iran deal is a Risky Bet. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/08/us/politics/trump-iran-nuclear-deal- news-analysis-.html.
  • Sizer, S. (2006). Christian Zionism: Road-map to Armageddon?. Westmont: IVP Academic.
  • Spiegel, S. L. (1985). The other Arab-Israeli conflict: Making American Middle East Policy, from Truman to Reagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Steding, W. (2014). Presidential faith and foreign policy: Jimmy Carter the disciple and Ronald Reagan the alchemist. Newyork: Palgrave Macmillian.
  • Stewart, K. (December 31, 2018). Why Trump reigns as King Cyrus. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/31/opinion/trump- evangelicals-cyrus-king.html.
  • Swartz, D. R. (2011). Identity Politics and the fragmenting of the 1970s Evangelical left. Religion and American Culture 21/1: 83.
  • The New York Times. (September 25, 2012). Arab spring proves a harsh test for Obamas diplomatic skill. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/25/us/politics/arab-spring-proves-a-harsh- test-for-obamas-diplomatic-skill.html.
  • U.S. Department of State. (October 11, 2019). Being a Christian Leader. https://www.state.gov/being-a-christian-leader/.
  • Wintour, P. & Holmes, O. (February 14, 2019). Mike Pence Chides US Allies at Warsaw Summit on Iran. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/14/us-and-israel-say- confrontation-with-iran-needed-for-peace.
  • Wuthnow, R. 1990. The Restructuring of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Wong, E. (March 30, 2019). The Rapture and the Real World: Mike Pompeo Blends Beliefs and Policy. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/30/us/politics/pompeo-christian- policy.html.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Onur Mert ÖZÇELİK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0002-0708-7941
Türkiye


Mehmet Akif OKUR>
YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-5095-6113
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ysbed941511, journal = {Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi}, eissn = {2587-2036}, address = {Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü Yıldız Kampüsü Barbaros Bulvarı 34349 Yıldız - İstanbul}, publisher = {Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, pages = {12 - 25}, title = {The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran}, key = {cite}, author = {Özçelik, Onur Mert and Okur, Mehmet Akif} }
APA Özçelik, O. M. & Okur, M. A. (2021). The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran . Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 5 (1) , 12-25 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ysbed/issue/65290/941511
MLA Özçelik, O. M. , Okur, M. A. "The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran" . Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2021 ): 12-25 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ysbed/issue/65290/941511>
Chicago Özçelik, O. M. , Okur, M. A. "The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran". Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2021 ): 12-25
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Donald Trump’ın İsrail ve İran’a Yönelik Politikalarında Evanjelizm Etkisi AU - Onur MertÖzçelik, Mehmet AkifOkur Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 12 EP - 25 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2587-2036 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran %A Onur Mert Özçelik , Mehmet Akif Okur %T The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran %D 2021 %J Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi %P -2587-2036 %V 5 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Özçelik, Onur Mert , Okur, Mehmet Akif . "The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran". Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 / 1 (Eylül 2021): 12-25 .
AMA Özçelik O. M. , Okur M. A. The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran. Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2021; 5(1): 12-25.
Vancouver Özçelik O. M. , Okur M. A. The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran. Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2021; 5(1): 12-25.
IEEE O. M. Özçelik ve M. A. Okur , "The Evangelical Effect over Donald Trump’s Policies Toward Israel and Iran", Yıldız Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, c. 5, sayı. 1, ss. 12-25, Eyl. 2021