Year 2020, Volume 6 , Issue 2, Pages 550 - 569 2020-07-21

Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi

Pinar AKGÜL [1]


Literatürde özellikle Soğuk Savaşın bitimiyle daha belirgin hale gelen Karadeniz bölgesi yeni uluslararası ilişkiler kavramlarının geliştirilmesiyle klasik bir güvenlik/politik değerlendirmeyle ele alınamayacağını farklı kavramların iç içe olduğu eklektik bir yapıyla incelenebileceğini göstermiştir. Çünkü bu yeni teorik kavramlarda hem güvenlik kavramı hem de analizi yapılan yapı/aktör görüşü değişmiştir. Bu bağlamda hem bölgesellik hem de bölgesel güvenlik kompleksi kavramlarından ilham alan bu çalışma Karadeniz’i incelemiştir. İki kavramın seçilmesinin nedeni hem bölgeyi yeni bir aktör olarak uluslararası ilişkiler literatürüne sokmayı sağlayan bir teorik çerçeve oluşturması hem de güvenliği klasik askeri güvenlikten çıkarıp, politik, ekonomik, çevre ve toplumsal güvenliği de göz önüne almalarıdır. Bu durum bölge çalışmalarının içeriğini ve kapsamını zenginleştirmiştir. İlk olarak, bölge ülkelerinin ulusal güvenlik hassasiyetlerinin irdelendiği çalışmada devamında örgütsel yapılanmalar ortaya konarak bölgesel güvenlik kompleksi oluşturabilecek tehditler incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda Karadeniz’in, bazı istisnaları göz önünde bulundurarak, hem bölge olarak kabul edilebileceği hem de bölgesel güvenlik kompleksi oluşturabilecek potansiyele sahip olduğu savunulmuştur. Bu durum Karadeniz’i sui generis bir bölge ve bölgesel güvenlik kompleksi olarak ortaya koymaktadır.

Karadeniz, bölgeselleşme, bölgesel güvenlik kompleksi teorisi
  • Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission “European Neighbourhood Policy Strategy Paper”, COM (2004) 373 final. Brüksel. 12/05/2004. Commission of the European Communities. Communication from the Commission to the European Council and the European Parliament “Black Sea Synergy-A New Regional Cooperation Initiative”, COM (2007) 160 final, Brüksel, 11/04/2007. Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council “Eastern Partnership”, COM (2008) 823 final, Brüksel, 3/12/2008. Council of European Union (2003), European Security Strategy, Brüksel, 15895/03, 12.03.2017 tarihinde http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/03/st15/st15849.en03.pdf adresinden erişilmiştir.GUAM websitesi (2015), About GUAM, 12.06.2018 tarihinde http://guam-organization.org/en adresinden erişilmiştir.International Trade Center (ITC), Trademap, 14.08.2017 tarihinde https://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=1%7c%7c40%7c%7c40%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c3%7c2%7c1%7c3%7c1%7c1adresinden erişilmiştir.KEİT websitesi (y.y.), BSEC at a glance, 12.03.2017 tarihinde http://www.bsec-organization.org/Information/Pages/bsec.aspx adresinden erişilmiştir.KEİT websitesi (2015), Point of Reference for Regional Cooperation and Understanding, 14.05.2017 tarihinde http://www.bsec-organization.org/Downloads/Brochure%202015%20last%20version%20as%20published%20for%20the%20website.pdf adresinden erişilmiştir.NATO websitesi (2004), Istanbul Summit Communique, 17.09.2017 tarihindehttp://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2004/p04-096e.htm adresinden erişilmiştir.Türkiye Dışişleri Bakanlığı websitesi (y.y.), BLACKSEAFOR, 06.03.2017 tarihinde http://www.mfa.gov.tr/blackseafor.en.mfa adresinden erişilmiştir.Adamides, C. ve Christou, O. (2015).Beyond Hegemony: Cyprus, Energy Securitisation and the Emergence of New Regional Security Complexes, içinde Litsas, S. ve Tziampiris, A. (eds) (2015), The Eastern Mediterranean in Transition: Multipolarity, Politics and Power(ss.179-190), Surrey: Ashgate. Adler, E. ve Barnett, M. (1998), Security communities in theoretical perspective, in Adler E. ve Barnett, M. (eds) (1998), Security communities (ss.3-28), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Akgül-Açıkmeşe, S. (2011), Algı mı, Söylem mi? Kopenhag Okulu ve Yeni Klasik Gerçekçilikte Güvenlik Tehditleri, Uluslararası Ilişkiler, 8:30, ss.43-73.
  • Antonenko, O. (2009), Towards a comprehensive regional security framework in the Black Sea region after the Russia-Georgia war, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 9:3, ss.259-269.Aras, B. ve Polat, R. (2008), From conflict to cooperation: De-securitization of Turkey’s relations with Syria and Iran, Security Dialogue, 39:5, ss.495–515.
  • Asmus, R.D. ve Jackson B.P. (2004), The Black Sea and the Frontiers of Freedom,içinde Asmus, R.D., Dimitrov, K. ve Forbrig, J. (eds) (2004), A New Euro-Atlantic Strategy for the Black Sea Region (ss.17-26), Washington: The German Marshall Fund of the United States.Aybak, T. (2001),Introduction,içinde Aybak, T. (ed) (2001), Politics of the Black Sea: Dynamics of Cooperation and Conflict (ss.1-14), New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. Aydın, M. (2009), Geographical blessing versus geopolitical curse: great power security agendas for the Black Sea region and a Turkish alternative, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 9:3, ss.271-285.Babalı, T. (2009), Turkey at the Energy Crossroads: Turkey, Present and Past, Middle East Quarterly, 16:2,14.03.2016 tarihinde http://www.meforum.org/2108/turkey-at-the-energy-crossroads adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Barrinha, A. (2013), The Ambitious Insulator: Revisiting Turkey’s Position in Regional Security Complex Theory, Mediterranean Politics,2013, ss.1-18. Bilgin, P. (2008), The securityness of secularism? The case of Turkey, Security Dialogue, 39:6, ss.593-614.
  • Buzan, B. (1983), People, States and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations, 1st edition, Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books Ltd.Buzan, B., Wæver, O. ve De Wilde, J. (1998), Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Buzan, B. (2003), Regional Security Complex Theory in the Post-Cold War World, içinde Soderbaum, F., ve Shaw, T. (eds) (2003), Theories of New Regionalism (ss.140-159), Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Buzan, B. ve Wæver, O. (2003), Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security, New York: Cambridge University Press. Buzan, B. (2012), How regions were made, and the legacies for world politics: an English School reconnaissance, içinde Paul, T.V. (ed) (2012), International Relations and Regional Transformation (ss.22-46), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Celac, S. ve Manoli, P. (2006), Towards a new model of comprehensive regionalism in the Black Sea area, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 6:2, ss.193-205.Ciută, F. (2005), Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security by Barry Buzan; Ole Wæver, The Slavonic and East European Review, 83:1, ss.166-168.Ciută, F. (2008), Region? Why Region? Security, Hermeneutics, and the Making of the Black Sea Region, Geopolitics, 13:1, ss.120-147.Cornell, S., Jonsson, A., Nilsson, N. ve Haggström, P. (2006), The Wider Black Sea Region: An Emerging Hub in European Security, Uppsala: Uppsala University. Diez, T. (2005) Turkey, the European Union and Security Complexes Revisited, Mediterranean Politics, 10:2, ss.167-180.
  • Emerson, M. (2008), The EU’s New Black Sea Policy, içinde Hamilton, D. & Mangott, G. (eds), The Wider Black Sea Region in the 21th Century: Strategic, Economic and Energy Perspective (ss.253-276), Washington, D.C.: Central for Transatlantic Relations. Erşen. E. ve Dal, E.P. (2018), Türk-Rus İlişkilerinin Karadeniz-Kafkasya Boyutu: Uçak Krizi ve Sonrası, Karadeniz ve Kafkaslar: Riskler ve Fırsatlar, 14.07.2019 tarihinde http://www.tasam.org/Files/Icerik/File/Pages_from_karadenizkafkaskong_pdf_24fdc87b-8d1d-4a3a-a8cb-96e1c1a896a3.pdf adresinden erişilmiştir.Fawcett, L. ve Hurrell, A. (1995), Regionalism in world politics: regional organization and international order, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Fenopetov, V., Lawlor, B., Japaridze, T., Tsantoulis, Y. ve Schmid, A. (2011), New Security Threats- Old Security Architecture and Mind-Sets: Countering the Threat of Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism in the Black Sea Region, American Foreign Policy Interest: The Journal of National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 33:5, ss.197-208.Fotiou, E. (2009), “Caucasus Stability and Cooperation Platform”: What is at Stake for Regional Cooperation, ICBSS Policy Brief, no:16, June 2009, ss.1-22.Germond, B. (2015), The Maritime Dimension of European Security: seapower and the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan.Glebov, S. (2009), Black Sea security as a regional concern for the Black Sea states and the global power, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 9:3, ss.351-365.Grant, C. (2011), A new neighbourhood policy for the EU, Centre for European Reform Policy Brief, March, ss.1-13.Hajizada, M. ve Marciacq, F. (2013), New regionalism in Europe’s Black Sea Region: the EU, BSEC and changing practices of regionalism, East European Politics, 29:3, ss.305-327.Hajizada, M. (2014), Patterns of Regional Collaboration and Institutional Cooperation Around the Black Sea, Perceptions, 19:3, ss.101-121.Hale, W. (2013), Turkish Foreign Policy since 1774, Third Edition, Oxon: Routledge. Hamilton, D. ve Mangott, G. (eds) (2008), The Wider Black Sea Region in the 21th Century: Strategic, Economic and Energy Perspective, Washington: Central for Transatlantic Relations.Hatto, R. ve Tomescu, O. (2008), The EU and the Wider Black Sea Region: Challenges and Policy Options, Garnet Policy Brief, No:5, ss.1-8.Hettne, B. (2003), The New Regionalism Revisited, içinde Soderbaum, F., ve Shaw, T. (eds) (2003), Theories of New Regionalism (ss.22-42), Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Ivan, R. (2012), Introduction, içinde Ivan, R. (ed) (2012), New Regionalism or No Regionalism? Emerging Regionalism in the Black Sea Area, Surrey: Ashgate.King, C. (2008), The Wider Black Sea Region in the Twenty-First Century, içinde Hamilton, D. ve Mangott, G. (eds) (2008), The Wider Black Sea Region in the 21th Century: Strategic, Economic and Energy Perspective (ss.1-19), Washington: Central for Transatlantic Relations.Larrabee, F.S. (2009), The United States and security in the Black Sea region, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 9:3, ss.301-315.Lesser, I. (2007), Global trends, regional consequences: Wider strategic influences on the Black Sea, Xenophon Paper, 4:13.Lo, B. (2003), Vladimir Putin and the Evolution of Russian Foreign Policy, London: Chatham House. Maior, G.C. ve Matei, M. (2005), The Black Sea region in an enlarged Europe: changing patterns, changing politics, Mediterranean Quarterly, 16:1, ss.33-51.Makarychev, A. (2009), Russia’s Perspectives of Black Sea Regionalism, Turkish Policy Quarterly, 8:3,ss.60-72.Manoli, P. (2010), Where is Black Sea Regionalism heading?, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 10:3, ss.323-339.Manoli, P. (2011), Black Sea Regionalism in Perspective, Neighbourhood policy paper, December 2011:02, ss.1-9.Manoli, P. (2012), The Dynamics of Black Sea Subregionalism, Surrey: Ashgate. Nalbandov, R. (2016), Not by Bread Alone: Russian Foreign Policy under Putin, Potomac Books, Nebraska: Nebraska UP. Oğuzlu, T. (2007), Soft power in Turkish foreign policy, Australian Journal of international affairs, 61:1, ss.81-97.Pavliuk, O. (2004), Introduction, içinde Pavliuk, O. ve Klympush-Tsintsadze, I. (eds) (2004), The Black Sea Region: Cooperation and Security Building (ss.3-12), New York: EastWest Institute (EWI).Rumer, E.B. ve Simon, J. (2010), Towards a Euro-Atlantic Strategy for the Black Sea Region, içinde Haro, F.W. (ed) (2010), Georgia and the Caucasus Region (ss.17-40), New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Ryabtsev, V. (2006), Why is there no “security complex” in the Black Sea-Caucasus Region, OSCE Yearbook 2006, 15.02.2017 tarihinde https://ifsh.de/file-CORE/documents/yearbook/english/06/Ryabtsev-en.pdf adresinden erişilmiştir.Saari, S. (2011) Managing distrust in the wider Black Sea region, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 11:3, ss.215-225.
  • Simon, J. (2006), Black Sea Regional Security Cooperation: Building Bridges and Barriers, içindeAsmus, R.D. (ed) (2006), Next Steps in Forging a Euroatlantic Strategy for the Wider Black Sea (ss.83-100), Washington: German Marshall Fund of the United States.Snetkov, A. (2012), When the internal and external collide: a social constructivist reading of Russia's security policy, Europe-Asia Studies,64:3, ss.521-542.Snetkov, A. (2015), Russia's Security Policy Under Putin: A Critical Perspective, London: Routledge.Soderbaum, F. (2016), Rethinking Regionalism, London: Palgrave.Stelmakh, A. (2010), Black Sea Region: Impact of International Organisations in forming Single Regional Security Complex, 09.10.2017 tarihinde http://www.academia.edu/1951915/BLACK_SEA_REGION_IMPACT_OF_INTERNATIONAL_ORGANIZATIONS_IN_FORMING_SINGLE_REGIONAL_SECURITY_COMPLEX_adresinden erişilmiştir. Tassinari, F. (2011), Region-building as trust-building: the EU’s faltering involvement in the Black Sea region, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies,11:3, ss.227-239.
  • Whitman, R.G. ve Wolff, S. (2010), Much Ado About Nothing? The European Neighbourhood Policy in Context, içinde Whitman, R.G. ve Wolff, S. (eds) (2010), The European Neighbourhood Policy in Perspective Context, Implementation and Impact (ss.3-26), London: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN. Wæver, O. (1995), Securitisation and Desecuritisation, içinde Lipschutz, R.D (1995) (ed), On Security (ss.46-86), New York: Columbia UP. Yanık, L.K. (2007), Allies or Partners? An Appraisal of Turkey’s ties to Russia, 1997-2007, East European Quarterly, 41:3, ss.349-370.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-8184-3103
Author: Pinar AKGÜL (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : July 21, 2020

Bibtex @research article { aeusbed607455, journal = {Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-0767}, address = {}, publisher = {Ahi Evran University}, year = {2020}, volume = {6}, pages = {550 - 569}, doi = {10.31592/aeusbed.607455}, title = {Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Akgül, Pinar} }
APA Akgül, P . (2020). Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi . Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 6 (2) , 550-569 . DOI: 10.31592/aeusbed.607455
MLA Akgül, P . "Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi" . Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 6 (2020 ): 550-569 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aeusbed/issue/56121/607455>
Chicago Akgül, P . "Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi". Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 6 (2020 ): 550-569
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi AU - Pinar Akgül Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.31592/aeusbed.607455 DO - 10.31592/aeusbed.607455 T2 - Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 550 EP - 569 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - -2149-0767 M3 - doi: 10.31592/aeusbed.607455 UR - https://doi.org/10.31592/aeusbed.607455 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi %A Pinar Akgül %T Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi %D 2020 %J Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi %P -2149-0767 %V 6 %N 2 %R doi: 10.31592/aeusbed.607455 %U 10.31592/aeusbed.607455
ISNAD Akgül, Pinar . "Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi". Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 6 / 2 (July 2020): 550-569 . https://doi.org/10.31592/aeusbed.607455
AMA Akgül P . Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2020; 6(2): 550-569.
Vancouver Akgül P . Karadeniz'in Bölgesel Güvenlik Kompleksi olarak İncelenmesi. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2020; 6(2): 550-569.