Year 2018, Volume 24 , Issue 2, Pages 269 - 277 2018-06-01

Proteolysis in the Beyaz (White) Cheese Produced From Various Milk

Zübeyde Öner [1] , Mine Sarıdağ [2]

The aim of this study was to investigate proteolysis development and peptide changes during the storage period of Beyaz (White) cheese which is produced from various types of milk, such as sheep, goat and cow milk. Three types of cheese were produced using goat, sheep and cow milk, and all analyses were performed in duplicate. Proteolytic changes were observed in cheese on the 1st day, 3rd, 6th, and 9th month. The total protein was investigated through using water-soluble nitrogen, soluble nitrogen in 12% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), soluble nitrogen in 5% Phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and free amino acids. Proteolytic changes and peptide formations were observed during maturation by HPLC. While the total protein was 14.33% in sheep Beyaz cheese on the 1st day, this value decreased during the maturation period and reduced to 6.9% in the 9th month. These values were 13.55 and 7.95 for cow cheese and 16.30% and 7.95% for goat cheese, respectively. The water-soluble protein value increased during the maturation period. The value was 1.41% in sheep cheese on the 1st day, and increased to 6.24% in the 9th month. These values were 2.16% and 4.92% for goat cheese, and 1.79% and 8.53% for cow cheese, respectively. 12% TCA soluble nitrogen had been 0.211% at the beginning and was 0.51% in the 9th month. The ripening value based on 12% TCA changed between 9.41%-47.22%. 5% PTA soluble nitrogen changed between 0.075%- 0.25 %. The ripening value based on 5% PTA changed between 3.34-23.14. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening were tracked. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free amino

 groups in all ripening stages was detected. It is observed that amino acids and smaller peptides-have concentration significantly (P<0.05) increased during ripening. The total free amino acid was found as 0.24 mg lysine g-1 in sheep cheese, 0.215 mg lysine g-1 in goat cheese and 0.208 mg lysine g-1 in cow cheese at the end of ripening period. 

Proteolysis; Sheep milk cheese; Goat milk cheese; Cow milk cheese
  • AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC Ardo Y & Polychroniadou A (1999). Laboratory Manual for Chemical Analysis of Cheese. Luxembourg Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
  • Bezerra T A K, Ribeiro de Araujo A R, Santos do Nascimento S, de Matos Paz J, Gadelha C A & Gadelha T A (2016). Proteolysis in goat ‘‘coalho” cheese supplemented with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Food Chemistry 196: 359-366
  • Combes C, Paterson E & Amadòr R (2002). Isolation and ıdentification of low-molecular- weight peptides from Emmentaler cheese. Journal of Food Science 67: 553-560
  • Feeney E P, Fox P F & Guinee T P (2001). Effect of ripening temperature on the quality of low moisture Mozzarella cheese: 1. Composition and proteolysis. Lait 81: 463-474
  • Folkertsma B & Fox P F (1992). Use of the Cd-ninhydrin reagent to assess proteolysis in cheese during ripening. Journal of Dairy Research 59: 217-224
  • Fox P F (1989). Proteolysis during cheese manufacture and ripening. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 1379-1400 Fox P F, Law J, Mc Sweeney P L H & Wallace J (1993). Biochemistry of cheese ripening. In: Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology (Edited by P.F. Fox), London:Chapman and Hall, pp. 389-438
  • Fox P F, Wallace J M, Morgan S, Lynch C M, Niland E J & Tobin J (1996). Acceleration of cheese ripening. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 70: 271-297
  • Fox P F, Guinee T P, Cogan T M & McSweeney P L H (2000). Fundamentals of Cheese Sciences. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers
  • Freitas A C, Fresno J, Prieto M B, Malcata F X & Carballo J (1997). Effects of ripening time and combination of sheep and caprine milks on proteolysis of Picante cheese. Food Chemistry 60: 219-229
  • Gomez M J, Garde S, Gaya P, Medına M & Nunez M (1997). Relationship between levels of hydrophobic peptides and bitterness in cheese made from pasteurized and raw milk. Journal of Dairy Research 64: 289-297
  • Güler Z & Uraz T (2004). Relationships between proteolytic and lipolytic activity and sensory properties of traditional Turkish Beyaz cheese. International Journal Dairy Technology 57(4): 237-241
  • Guven M, Yerlikaya S & Hayaloglu A A (2006). Influence of salt concentration on the characteristics of Beyaz cheese, a Turkish whitbrined cheese. Lait 86: 73-81
  • Hannon J A, Wilkinson M G, Delahunty C M, Wallace J M, Morrıssey P A & Beresford T P (2003). Use of autolytic starter systems to accelerate the ripening of cheddar Cheese. International Dairy Journal 13: 313-323
  • Hayaloğlu A A (2003). Starter kültür olarak kullanılan bazı lactococcus suşlarının Beyaz peynirlerin özellikleri ve olgunlaşmaları üzerine etkileri. Doktora tezi, Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü (Basılmamış), Adana
  • Hayaloglu A A & Karabulut İ (2013). Primary and secondary proteolysis in eleven Turkish cheese varieties International Journal of Food Properties, 16: 1663-1675
  • Hayaloğlu A A, Güven M & Fox P F (2002). Microbiological, biochemical and technological properties of Turkish White Cheese (Beyaz Peynir). International Dairy Journal 12: 635-648
  • Hayaloglu A A, Guven M, Fox P F, Hannon J A & Mcsweeney P L H (2004). Proteolysis in Turkish white-brined cheese made with defined strains of Lactococcus. International Dairy Journal 14: 599-610
  • Hesari J, Ehsani M R, Khosroshahi A & Mcsweeney P L H (2006). Contribution of rennet and starter to proteolysis in Iranian UF white cheese. Lait 86: 291-302
  • Hickey D K, Kilcawley K N, Beresford T P & Sheehan E M (2007). Starter strain related effects on the biochemical and sensory properties of Cheddar cheese. Journal of Dairy Research 74: 9-17
  • IDF (1993). Milk Determination of the Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Method) and Calculation of the Crude Protein Content. IDF Standard 20B, Brussels: International Dairy Federation
  • Kuchroo C N & Fox P F (1982). Soluble nitrogen in Cheddar cheese: comparison of extraction procedures. Milchwissenschaft 37: 331-335
  • Mc Sweeney P L H & Fox P F (1997). Chemical methods for the characterisation of proteolysis in cheese during ripening. Lait 77: 41-76
  • Oneca M, Ortigosa M, Irigoyen A & Torre P (2007). Proteolytic activity of some Lactobacillus paracasei strains in a model sheep milk curd system: Determination of free amino acids by RP-HPLC. Food Chemistry 100: 1602-1610
  • Öner Z, Karahan A G & Aloğlu H (2006). Changes in the microbiological and chemical characteristics of an artisanal Turkish white cheese during ripening. LWT 39: 449-454
  • Özer B, Atasoy F & Akin S (2002). Some properties of Urfa cheese (a traditional white-brined Turkish cheese) produced from bsheep and sheep milks. International Journal of Dairy Technology 55: 94-99
  • Pavia M, Trujillo A J, Guamis B & Ferragut V (2000a). Ripening control of salt-reduced Manchego-type cheese obtained by brine vacuum impregnation. Food Chemistry 70: 155-162
  • Pavia M, Trujillo A J, Guamis B & Ferragut V (2000b). Proteolysis in Manchego type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation. Journal of Dairy Science 83: 1441-1447
  • Polychroniadou A, Michaelidou A & Paschaloudis N (1999). Effect of time, temperature and extraction method on the trichloroacetic acidsoluble nitrogen of cheese. International Dairy Journal 9: 559-568
  • Radeljević B, Mikulec N, Antunac N, Prpić Z, Maletić M & Havranek J (2013). Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese. Mljekarstvo 63(1): 15-21
  • Sousa M J, Ardö Y & Mc Sweene P L H (2001). Advances in the study of proteolysis during cheese ripening. International Dairy Journal 11: 327-345
  • Wishah R (2007). Peynir üretiminde starter kültüre ek olarak bazı bakteri suşlarının kullanımı ve bunun peynir üzerine etkisi. Yüksek lisans tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü (Basılmamış), Ankara
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Makaleler

Author: Zübeyde Öner (Primary Author)
Institution: Suleyman Demirel University, Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department Isparta, TURKE
Country: Turkey

Author: Mine Sarıdağ
Institution: Suleyman Demirel University, Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department Isparta, TURKE
Country: Turkey


Application Date : August 19, 2016
Acceptance Date : January 18, 2018
Publication Date : June 1, 2018

EndNote %0 Journal of Agricultural Sciences Proteolysis in the Beyaz (White) Cheese Produced From Various Milk %A Zübeyde Öner , Mine Sarıdağ %T Proteolysis in the Beyaz (White) Cheese Produced From Various Milk %D 2018 %J Journal of Agricultural Sciences %P -2148-9297 %V 24 %N 2 %R doi: 10.15832/ankutbd.446454 %U 10.15832/ankutbd.446454