Last Issue

Volume: 36 - Issue: 2

Year: 2022

Makaleler

Trends in Business and Economics (Trend Bus Econ) is an international, scientific, open access, online-only periodical published in accordance with independent, unbiased, and double-blinded peer-review principles. The journal is official publication of the Ataturk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and published quarterly publication in January, April, July, and October. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish and English.

Trends in Business and Economics aims to contribute to the literature by publishing articles at the highest scientific level in economics. The journal publishes original articles, reviews and letters to editors prepared in accordance with ethical rules. The scope of the journal includes economics and business writings. Trends in Business and Economics deals with original articles that have theoretical foundations and are supported by empirical findings.

The target audience of the journal includes academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.

Trends in Business and Economics is currently indexed in TUBITAK ULAKBIM TR Index, Directory of Research Journals Indexing, Scientific Indexing Service, Index Copernicus, Directory of Research Journals Indexing, Ebsco, and EbscoBusiness.

The editorial and publication processes of the journal are shaped in accordance with the guidelines of the Council of Science Editors (CSE), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), European Association of Science Editors (EASE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). The journal is in conformity with the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (doaj.org/bestpractice).

Disclaimer
Statements or opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in the journal reflect the views of the author(s) and not the opinions of the editors, editorial board, and/or publisher; the editors, editorial board, and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials.

Open Access Statement
Trends in Business and Economics is an open access publication, and the journal’s publication model is based on Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) declaration. Authors retain the copyright of their published work in the Trends in Business and Economics. The journal’s content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Submission Fee Policy
Authors should pay a one-time non-refundable submission fee for all articles to help to fund editorial and peer review administration. There are no surcharges based on the length of an article, figures or supplementary data. The standard, non-refundable submission fee for Trends in Business and Economics is 250 TL (including taxes).

Please note that all submissions are evaluated by the Editorial Board and external reviewers in terms of scientific quality and ethical standards. Submission fee payments have no effect on the outcome of the article’s evaluation and/or publication priority.

Authors are required to make the submission fee payment at the time of their manuscript submission and submit the payment receipt to the Editorial Office (tbej@atauni.edu.tr). The evaluation process of the article will begin once the full payment is received. Please note that the the corresponding bank’s fees should not be deducted from the total amount.

Banka Bilgileri
IBAN: TR73 000 1000 1123 4897 3345 001
Banka: Ziraat Bankası
Şube Kodu: 00112
Hesap No: 348973345001
Adres: Atatürk Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Erzurum, Türkiye.
Telefon: +90 442 231 12 31

Baş Editör: Vedat Kaya
Adres: Atatürk Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Erzurum, Türkiye.
E-mail: tbej@atauni.edu.tr

Yayıncı: AVES
Adres: Büyükdere Caddesi, 105/9 34394 Şişli, İstanbul, Turkey
Tel: +90 212 272 13 50
Fax: +90 212 217 22 92
E-mail: info@avesyayincilik.com
Webpage: www.avesyayincilik.com 

Trends in Business and Economics (Trend Bus Econ) is an international, scientific, open access, online-only periodical published in accordance with independent, unbiased, and double-blinded peer-review principles. The journal is official publication of the Ataturk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and published quarterly publication in January, April, July, and October. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish and English.


Trends in Business and Economics aims to contribute to the literature by publishing articles at the highest scientific level in economics. The journal publishes original articles, reviews and letters to editors prepared in accordance with ethical rules. The scope of the journal includes economics and business writings. Trends in Business and Economics deals with original articles that have theoretical foundations and are supported by empirical findings.
The target audience of the journal includes academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.

EDITORIAL AND PUBLICATION PROCESS
The editorial and publication processes of the journal are shaped in accordance with the guidelines of the Council of Science Editors (CSE), the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the European Association of Science Editors (EASE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). The journal conforms to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (doaj.org/bestpractice).

Originality, high scientific quality, and citation potential are the most important criteria for a manuscript to be accepted for publication. Manuscripts submitted for evaluation should not have been previously presented or already published in an electronic or printed medium. The journal should be informed of manuscripts that have been submitted to another journal for evaluation and rejected for publication. The submission of previous reviewer reports will expedite the evaluation process. Manuscripts that have been presented in a meeting should be submitted with detailed information on the organization, including the name, date, and location of the organization.

PEER REVIEW PROCESS
Manuscripts submitted to Trends in Business and Economicswill go through a double-blind peer-review process. Each submission will be reviewed by at least two external, independent peer reviewers who are experts in their fields in order to ensure an unbiased evaluation process. The editorial board will invite an external and independent editor to manage the evaluation processes of manuscripts submitted by editors or by the editorial board members of the journal. The Editor in Chief is the final authority in the decision-making process for all submissions.

ETHICAL GUIDELINES
The authors are expected to submit researches that comply with the general ethical principles which include; scientific integrity, objectivity, collegiality, data integrity, institutional integrity and social responsibility.


PLAGIARISM AND ETHICAL MISCONDUCT
Trends in Business and Economicsis extremely sensitive about plagiarism. All submissions are screened by a similarity detection software (iThenticate by CrossCheck) at any point during the peer-review and/or production process.

When you are discussing others' (or your own) previous work, please make sure that you cite the material correctly in every instance.

Authors are strongly recommended to avoid any form plagiarism and ethical misconduct that are exemplified below.

Self- plagiarism (text-recycling): Overlapping sections or sentences with the author’s previous publications without citing them. Even if you are the author of the phrases or sentences, the text should not have unacceptable similarity with the previously published data.
Salami slicing: Using the same data of a research into several different articles. Reporting the same hypotheses, population, and methods of a study is into different papers is not acceptable.
Data Fabrication: It is the addition of data that never occurred during the gathering of data or the experiments. Results and their interpretation must be based on the complete data sets and reported accordingly.
Data Manipulation/Falsification: It means manipulating research data with the intention of giving a false impression. This includes manipulating images (e.g. micrographs, gels, radiological images), removing outliers or ‘inconvenient’ results, changing data points, etc.

In the event of alleged or suspected research misconduct, e.g., plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, the Editorial Board will follow and act according to COPE flowcharts.


PREPRINT
Trends in Business and Economicsdoes not consider preprint publications as prior publication. In other words, authors are allowed to present and discuss their findings on a non-commercial preprint server before submission to a journal.

Authors must provide the journal with the pre-print server deposition of their article accompanying its DOI during initial submission.

If the article is published in the Trends in Business and Economics, it is the responsibility of the authors to update the archived preprint and link it to the published version of the article.

AUTHORSHIP
Each person listed as an author should fulfill the authorship criteria recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - www.icmje.org). The ICMJE recommends that authorship is based on the following four criteria:

1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he/she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. Also, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.

All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged in the title page of the manuscript.

Trends in Business and Economicsrequires corresponding authors to submit a signed and scanned version of the Copyright Agreement and Acknowledgement of Authorship form (available for download at www.economics-ataunipress.org) during the initial submission process to act appropriately on authorship rights and to prevent ghost or honorary authorship. If the editorial board suspects a case of “gift authorship,” the submission will be rejected without further review. As part of the submission of the manuscript, the corresponding author should also send a short statement declaring that he/she accepts to undertake all the responsibility for authorship during the submission and review stages of the manuscript.

CHANGE OF AUTHORSHIP

Trends in Business and Economics reviews the authorship according to the author’s declaration in the Title Page, thus it is the authors responsibility to send the final order of the complete author names. Requests in the change of authorship (e.g. removal/addition of the authors, change in the order etc) after submission are subject to editorial approval. Editorial Board will investigate this kind of cases and act following COPE flowcharts.

Change of authorship requests should be submitted to the Editorial Office with an official letter stating the reasons of the change. The letter must be signed by all authors and include their approval on the change in authorship. If the request is approved by the Editorial Board, authors need to submit a new Copyright Agreement Form according to the final order list.


DECLARATION OF INTEREST
Trends in Business and Economicsrequires and encourages the authors and the individuals involved in the evaluation process of submitted manuscripts to disclose any existing or potential conflicts of interests, including financial, consultant, and institutional, that might lead to potential bias or a conflict of interest. Any financial grants or other support received for a submitted study from individuals or institutions should be disclosed to the Editorial Board. To disclose a potential conflict of interest, the ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form should be filled in and submitted by all contributing authors. The journal’s Editorial Board resolves cases of a potential conflict of interest of the editors, authors, or reviewers within the scope of COPE and ICMJE guidelines.

APPEALS AND COMPLAINT
The Editorial Board of the journal handles all appeal and complaint cases within the scope of COPE guidelines. In such cases, authors should get in direct contact with the editorial office regarding their appeals and complaints. When needed, an ombudsperson may be assigned to resolve claims that cannot be resolved internally. The Editor in Chief is the final authority in the decision-making process for all appeals and complaints.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Trends in Business and Economicsrequires each submission to be accompanied by a Copyright Agreement and Acknowledgement of Authorship form (available for download at www.economics-ataunipress.org). By signing this form, authors retain the copyright of their work and agree that the article, if accepted for publication by the Trends in Business and Economics. The journal’s content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. which permits third parties to share and adapt the content for non-commercial purposes by giving the appropriate credit to the original work.

When using previously published content, including figures, tables, or any other material in both print and electronic formats, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder. Legal, financial and criminal liabilities in this regard belong to the author(s).

DISCLAIMER
Statements or opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in Trends in Business and Economicsreflect the views of the author(s) and not the opinions of the editors, the editorial board, or the publisher; the editors, the editorial board, and the publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials. The final responsibility regarding the published content rests with the authors.

MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
The manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in December 2021 - http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). Authors are required to prepare manuscripts in accordance with the CONSORT guidelines for randomized research studies, STROBE guidelines for observational original research studies, STARD guidelines for studies on diagnostic accuracy, PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis, ARRIVE guidelines for experimental animal studies, and TREND guidelines for non-randomized public behavior. To find the right guideline for your research, please complete the questionnaire by Equator Network here.

The style of the manuscripts should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), Seventh Edition.

Manuscripts can only be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission and evaluation system, available at www.economics-ataunipress.org. Manuscripts submitted via any other medium and submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be evaluated.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will first go through a technical evaluation process where the editorial office staff will ensure that the manuscript has been prepared and submitted in accordance with the journal’s guidelines. Submissions that do not conform to the journal’s guidelines will be returned to the submitting author with technical correction requests.

Authors are required to submit the following:
· Copyright Agreement and Acknowledgement of Authorship Form, and
· ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form (should be filled in by all contributing authors) during the initial submission. These forms are available for download at www.economics-ataunipress.org.

Preparation of the Manuscript
Title page:
A separate title page should be submitted with all submissions and this page should include:
· The full title of the manuscript as well as a short title (running head) of no more than 50 characters,
· Name(s), affiliations, highest academic degree(s), and ORCID IDs of the author(s),
· Grant information and detailed information on the other sources of support,
· Name, address, telephone (including the mobile phone number), and email address of the corresponding author,
· Acknowledgment of the individuals who contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria.


Abstract: An abstract should be submitted with all submissions except for Letters to the Editor. The abstract of Research Articles should be unstructured. Please check Table 1 below for word count specifications.

Keywords: Each submission must be accompanied by a minimum of three to a maximum of five keywords for subject indexing at the end of the abstract. The keywords should be listed in full without abbreviations. The keywords should be selected from the National Library of Medicine, Medical Subject Headings database (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html).


Manuscript Types
Research Articles
: This is the most important type of article since it provides new information based on original research. Acceptance of original papers will be based upon the originality and importance of the investigation. The main text of original articles should be structured with Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion subheadings. Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Original Articles.

Reporting Statistical Analysis
Statistical analysis to support conclusions is usually necessary. Statistical analyses must be conducted in accordance with international statistical reporting standards (Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ, Pocock SJ. Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. Br Med J 1983: 7; 1489-93). Information on statistical analyses should be provided with a separate subheading under the Methods section and the statistical software that was used during the process must be specified.

Please do not use a zero before decimal fraction when statistic cannot be greater than 1 (e.g., correlations, proportions, levels of statistical significance).
r(24) = ⁠– .43, p = .028

For APA requirements for reporting statistical analysis, please refer to “Statistical and Mathematical Copy” section in the Publication Manual of the APA, Seventh Edition.

Units should be prepared in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

Editorial Comments: Invited brief editorial comments on selected articles are published in the Trends in Business and Economics. Editorials should not be longer than 1000 words excluding references. Editorial comments aim to provide a brief critical commentary by reviewers with expertise or with high reputation in the topic of the research article published in the journal. Authors are selected and invited by the journal to provide such comments. Abstract, Keywords, and Tables, Figures, Images, and other media are not included.

Review Articles: Reviews prepared by authors who have extensive knowledge on a particular field and whose scientific background has been translated into a high volume of publications with a high citation potential are welcomed. These authors may even be invited by the journal. Reviews should describe, discuss, and evaluate the current level of knowledge of a topic in clinical practice and should guide future studies. The subheadings of the review articles should be planned by the authors. However, each review article should include an “Introduction” and a “Conclusion” section. Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Review Articles.

Letters to the Editor: This type of manuscript discusses important parts, overlooked aspects, or lacking parts of a previously published article. Articles on subjects within the scope of the journal that might attract the readers’ attention, particularly educative cases, may also be submitted in the form of a “Letter to the Editor.” Readers can also present their comments on the published manuscripts in the form of a “Letter to the Editor.” Abstract, Keywords, and Tables, Figures, Images, and other media should not be included. The text should be unstructured. The manuscript that is being commented on must be properly cited within this manuscript.


Table 1. Limitations for each manuscript type

Type of manuscript 
Word limit*
Abstract word limit 
Reference limit 
Table limit 
 Figure limit
Research Article
7500
250(Structured)
5085 or total of 10 images
Review Article
500025050610 or total of 15 images
Letter to the Editor
40055No tables
No media

 *Word limit should not include the abstract, references, tables, and figure legends.

Tables
Tables should be included in the main document, presented after the reference list, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text. A descriptive title must be placed above the tables in title case in italics. Abbreviations used in the tables should be defined below the tables by footnotes (even if they are defined within the main text). Tables should be created using the “insert table” command of the word processing software and they should be arranged clearly to provide easy reading. Data presented in the tables should not be a repetition of the data presented within the main text but should be supporting the main text.


Table Examples in APA Format

download

Source: Sample Tables, APA accessed https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/sample-tables

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Figures and Figure Legends
Figures, graphics, and photographs should be submitted as separate files (in TIFF or JPEG format) through the submission system. The files should not be embedded in a Word document or the main document. When there are figure subunits, the subunits should not be merged to form a single image. Each subunit should be submitted separately through the submission system. Images should not be labeled (a, b, c, etc.) to indicate figure subunits. Thick and thin arrows, arrowheads, stars, asterisks, and similar marks can be used on the images to support figure legends. Like the rest of the submission, the figures too should be blind. Any information within the images that may indicate an individual or institution should be blinded. The minimum resolution of each submitted figure should be 300 DPI. To prevent delays in the evaluation process, all submitted figures should be clear in resolution and large in size (minimum dimensions: 100 × 100 mm). Figure legends should be listed at the end of the main document.

All acronyms and abbreviations used in the manuscript should be defined at first use, both in the abstract and in the main text. The abbreviation should be provided in parentheses following the definition.

When a drug, product, hardware, or software program is mentioned within the main text, product information, including the name of the product, the producer of the product, and city and the country of the company (including the state if in USA), should be provided in parentheses in the following format: “Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)”

All references, tables, and figures should be referred to within the main text, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text.

Limitations, drawbacks, and the shortcomings of original articles should be mentioned in the Discussion section before the conclusion paragraph.


References
Both in-text citations and the references must be prepared according to the APA Manual Seventh Edition.

While citing publications, preference should be given to the latest, most up-to-date publications. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. In the main text of the manuscript, references should be cited by author’s name and the publication year in parenthesis. In the case of direct citations in the main text, only publication year should be stated in parenthesis after the name of the author. Please see below the examples.

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Reference List

The reference styles for different types of publications are presented in the following examples.

Journal Article: Klimonske, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Journal Article with more than one author: Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.” PLoS ONE, 13(3), Article e0193972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193972

Article in Turkish: Mutlu, B., & Savaşer, S. (2007). Çocuğu ameliyat sonrası yoğun bakımda olan ebeveynlerde stres nedenleri ve azaltma girişimleri [Source and intervention reduction of stress for parents whose children are in intensive care unit after surgery]. Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 15(60), 179–182.

Books
By a Single Author: Kimmel, M. S. (2007). The gendered society. Oxford University Press.
By Two or More Authors: DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumor psychology: Social and organizational approaches. American Psychological Association.
By a Corporate (Group) Author: American Sociological Association. (1975). Approaches to the study of social structure. Free Press.
Edited Book: Rhodewalt, F. (Ed.). (2008). Personality and social behavior. Psychology Press.
Book Chapter with Editor(s): McCormack, B., McCance, T., & Maben, J. (2013). Outcome evaluation in the development of person-centred practice. In B. McCormack, K. Manley, & A. Titchen (Eds.), Practice development in nursing and healthcare (pp. 190-211). John Wiley & Sons.

Dissertation or Thesis: Valentin, E. R. (2019, Summer). Narcissism predicted by Snapchat selfie sharing, filter usage, and editing [Master's thesis, California State University Dominguez Hills]. CSU ScholarWorks. https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/concern/theses/3197xm925?locale=en
No Author: The universal declaration of human rights. (1974). U.S. Catholic Conference, Division of Latin America.
Web sites: Sparks, Dana. (2018, September 12). Mayo mindfulness: Practicing mindfulness exercises. Mayo Clinic.

In the seventh edition, up to 20 authors should now be included in a reference list entry. For sources with more than 20 authors, after the 19th listed author, any additional authors' names are replaced with an ellipsis (…) followed by the final listed author's name:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.


REVISIONS
When submitting a revised version of a paper, the author must submit a detailed “Response to the reviewers” that states point by point how each issue raised by the reviewers has been covered and where it can be found (each reviewer’s comment, followed by the author’s reply and line numbers where the changes have been made) as well as an annotated copy of the main document. Revised manuscripts must be submitted within 30 days from the date of the decision letter. If the revised version of the manuscript is not submitted within the allocated time, the revision option may be canceled. If the submitting author(s) believe that additional time is required, they should request this extension before the initial 30-day period is over.

Accepted manuscripts are copy-edited for grammar, punctuation, and format by professional language editors. Once the publication process of a manuscript is completed, it is published online on the journal’s webpage as an ahead-of-print publication before it is included in its scheduled issue. A PDF proof of the accepted manuscript is sent to the corresponding author and their publication approval is requested within 2 days of their receipt of the proof.

Editor in Chief: Vedat Kaya
Address: Ataturk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
E-mail: vkaya@atauni.edu.tr

Publisher: AVES
Address: Büyükderece Cad., 105/9 34394 Şişli, İstanbul, Turkey
Phone: +90 212 217 17 00
Fax: +90 212 217 22 92
E-mail: info@avesyayincilik.com
Webpage: www.avesyayincilik.com


Trends in Business and Economics has carried out publishing process in accordance with the development and circulation of information objectively and reputably. In this sense, the publishing process has reflected on the quality of the studies of the authors and institutions which support the authors directly and objectified the scientific methods and supported. In that regard, all partners of the publishing process’ (authors, readers, researchers, publishers, peers and editors) complying with the standards has an importance. Ataturk University JEAS has expected from all the partners to bear and meet the following responsibilities of the research and ethical principles: The Ethical principles of the journal has been prepared conveniently to the policies and guides published by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (See: the COPE instruction).


1. Ethical Responsibilities of Author(s)
Trends in Business and Economics has expected from the author(s) to comply with the following ethical principles and responsibilities while sending article:
(a) The articles which were sent by the author(s) have expected to be authentic. In the event that author(s) benefit from other works or use the other works it is necessary to cite, quote and use in bibliography in accordance with the spelling rule of the journal correctly and completely.
(b) It is necessary no to include the ones who have no contribution to the article as an author and if there is the relationship between authors and the conflict of interest should be explained.
(c) Author(s) may claim the data set during the process of evaluation of the article, in that case, author(s) are expected to hand over the data set and information to the editorial board.
(d) Author(s) have the responsibility of informing the editorial board in case of material error or a mistake and the demand to correct or withdraw the article together with the editorial board.
(e) Author(s) are expected not to send their articles for evaluation if they are in the evaluation process of another journal or in the process of publishing.
(f) Author(s) have responsibility of information of the presentation date, publishing date, place of publishing etc. about the articles which are presented and published in conferences, symposiums etc. to the editorial board.
(g) In the event that the articles are sent to the journal by the author(s) to be evaluated, it is assumed by the editorial board that they agree on the the aforementioned terms.
(h) In case of withdrawal of the articles due to delay or another reason, it is expected from the author(s) to contact with the editor.
(i) It is not possible to change the responsibilities of the author(s) once the evaluation process has begun and no royalty was paid to the author(s) in return for the publishing.
(j) In accordance with the ethical research principles and rules the research articles which satisfy the following conditions is required to get the documents of permission of ethical committee to be evaluated by the Ataturk University JEAS:
  •  All research which was conducted through qualitative and quantitative approach, requiring survey, interview, focal group work, observation, experiment, interview methods to collect data.
  • The cases in which animals and humanbeings (including material/data) were used for experimental or other scientific purposes.
  • The retrospective studies according to the the law on the protection of personal data.

(k) In this sense, for the evaluation of the research articles in the Ataturk University JEAS it is necessary:

  • To be stated of “informed consent form” in the case reports,
  • To get permission and to be stated of the use of the photos, surveys and scales which belong to the others,
  • To be stated of compliance of the regulations of the intellectual property rights and if there is, the information of the institution or foundation which financially support.

(l) Author(s) are responsible for obeying the related copyright terms about the materials which were borrowed or used from other sources and signing the agreement which mentions to attorn of the copyright to the Journal. All responsibilites caused by the works in the journal belong to the author(s).

2. Ethical Responsibilities of the Peers

During the publishing process the peer evaluation has been implemented according to two-way blind review principles in the Ataturk University JEAS and peers and authors cannot communicate directly and the information about the evaluation process can be followed in the journal management system. During the publishing process, article evaluation forms and the texts evaluated by the peers have been delivered to the authors by the editorial board. The ethical responsibilities which were expected from the peers are as follows:

(a) Peer evaluation should be critical and objective and carried out in accordance with confidentiality.
(b) Evaluation should be done objectively and only about the content of the article, and should not let his own idea, belief and so on affect the evaluation.
(c) Whether responded affirmatively or not, the explanatory, guiding etc. the reasonable justification should be given. In case of the negative repsonse or correction, the alternative suggestions are expected to be presented.
(d) Peers should review the articles only in terms on scientificity and should avoid the terms about the incompetency of the author(s).
(e) Due to the confidentiality principle, the articles should be obliterated after being evaluated.
(f) What is expected from the peers is not responding yes or no but giving details on their opinions and giving reasons.
(g) The peers who demand correction has right to re-examine the corrected articles.
(h) The articles cannot be sent the peers who have the following qualification(s). The ones who was/were the co-author(s) of the previous articles.

  • The ones with whom the author(s) have problems.
  • The ones who will have financial benefit from the publication of the article.
  • The ones with whom the author(s) work together (in the same department).

3. Ethical Responsibilities of the Editor

The editors who are responsible for each published article in the Trends in Business and Economics have the following role and liabilities:

(a) Editors are liable to meet the demand of the information about the publication and evaluation process coming from the authors, readers and peers and to give explanatory feedback and continue the working process without any concession to the copyright and ethical standards.

(b) Editors are liable to consider the skill, experience, expectations of the reader, researcher and practitioners and articles’ giving scientific contribution to the literature and authenticity of the work.

(c) Editors have right to have negative or positive decision on the the importance, authenticity, validity, clarity of the article based on the scope, aim and goals of the journal.

(d) Editors must publish “The Blind Review and the Evaluation Process” absolutely and prevent any possible aberrations in the defined processes.

(e) Editors must publish an “Author Guide” which include all topics and questions that are expected themselves.

(f) Editors are liable to appoint the peers according to the subject of the article, to provide the required information and guides for the peers to evaluate the articles, to keep secret the identity of the peers in accordance with the blind review and to examine whether there is the conflict of interest between peers and the authors.

(g) Editors are liable to provide for advancing of the process done by the scientific committee and the editorial board in accordance with the publishing policy and instructions and to keep informed by giving information to the members of the scientific committee and the editorial board about the publishing policies.

(h) Editors are responsible for the protection of the personal data that are about the evaluated article and that of the peers and readers.

(i) Editors are respobsible for the protection of the human and animal rights in the evaluated articles and rejection of the work in which the approval of the ethical committee for the subjects and the permissions about the experimental studies are absent

(j) Editors are liable to heed the complaint of the peers, readers or authors and respond them in an explanatory informative way by examining carefully. Within this context, authors, readers or the peers can inform the demand of the correction, complaint and so on (plagiarism, duplicate article etc.)by sending e-mail to iibfdergi@atauni.edu.tr.

(k) Editors guarantee the completion of the publishing process independently and objectively by taking into consideration the conflict of interest between author(s), peers and other editors.

(l) Editors have the full authority and responsibility to approve or reject and article and should not have conflict of interest for the apporved or rejected articles.


4. Exposure the Pligarism

The articles which were sent to the Trends in Business and Economics be published have been subjected to the two-way blind review evaluation by at least 2 peers. Moreover, in order to prevent unethical attempts, the articles have been subjected to the pre-evaluation through the Internet-based plagiarism detection softwares like iThenticate which have international validity before the peer review process has started. For the works which do not fit to the plagiarism policy of the journal the peer review process does not start and they are rejected. If you encounter any unethical manner or content apart from the ones which were mentioned in the Trends in Business and Economics please inform us via e-mail to iibfdergi@atauni.edu.tr.


Publication Policy

The Trends in Business and Economics is a peer reviewed and periodical journal which is published every three months in a year (January-April-July-October). Scientific articles and reviews which have theoretical grounds and empirical facts in vaiorus fields including, Economics and Business  have been given place in the journal. The academic studies which came from the other fields of the social sciences and were not mention above has not been given place. The works which were published in the journal are Turkish and English.

The articles which were sent to the journal were subjected to the pre-evaluation in terms of form and content. It is necessary to be conducted the form requirement and sending process have been in accordance with the terms of the journal. The articles which do not meet these requirements are rejected by the editorial board. The articles which were approved in terms of form and content have been submitted to the editorial board to the assignment of the peer. It has not been guaranteed that the articles which were submitted to the journal has been taken to the peer review process and the dated a definitely for the evaluation process.

The articles which were sent to the journal were sent to at least 2 peers who were expert in their fields to be evaluated and in the event that both peer reports are positive the publication of the article has been decided. If one of the reports is positive and the other is negative, then the publication decision can be made by the editorial board regarding the peer reports or if necessary, it can be sent to another third peer to be evaluated.

An author whose article has been published cannot make an application for a new article in one year and it is necessary to pass at least one year for the publication the second article of the same author.

The articles which were sent to the journal is required not to be in the evaluation process of another journal, has not been published anywhere before neither been approved for publishing. In that case, the responsibility belongs to the author(s).

Author(s) are required to pay 250TL /20USD into Ziraat Bankası Erzurum Şubesi (00112): Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi (Ziraat Bank Erzurum Branch: Ataturk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences)(TR 73 000 1000 1123 4897 3345 001/348973345001) to meet the costs of journal (Typesetting, hard copy and postage) and submit the bank receipt to Dergipark system. Preliminary examination and peer review process of the editorial board has started with the payment of the delivery cost. In the statement part of the receipt the title of the article and the information of the author in charge should be mentioned. The pay of articles which were found inappropriate by the editorial board to publish in the preliminary examination and peer review process has not been refunded. Claim for refund based on different comments about the editorial board or reviewer evaluations have been disregarded. The author(s) who are assigned as peer-review in a number of times in the journal on the condition of the 1 year are not in the pay for an article to be sent.

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