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Preliminary Research on Gastropoda Fauna in Some Fresh Waters of The Black Sea Region, Turkey

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3, 339 - 347, 15.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2022.1169861

Abstract

Commonly found in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, Gastropoda members are the class with the highest number of species within the Mollusca. Freshwater Gastropods which are generally listed in primary consumer play a crucial part in aquatic environments by feeding numerous fish species and vertebrate species. They include species that are widely distributed in rivers and lakes and are used as indicators in aquatic systems monitoring studies. In Turkey, the Black Sea Region is also a privileged geography in terms of its topography and historical development history of aquatic systems, rich in rivers and lakes. In this research, field studies were conducted from 20 different stations in the Black Sea region in 2017-2018. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from lakes and rivers with an Ekman grab sampler and hand net. Samples were washed in situ and fixed with 70% ethyl alcohol. Totally 10442 benthic macroinvertebrate members belong to 21 taxa were determined in the study. In the region, Oligochaeta was the dominant taxa with 56.80% dominancy value and followed by Chironomidae and Gastropoda with 18.26 and 8.24, respectively. As third dominant taxa, Gastropoda members were consist of 870 individuals belong to 11 taxa. It was determined that Gyraulus elenae and Radix labiata from Gastropoda were widely distributed in the region. These species have broad tolerance to pollution. In the study, it was determined that both densities of species and population were increased in the regions of the rivers that are far from the settlement areas or that have not been intervened and in the littoral parts of the lakes. In general, a decrease was observed not only in the Gastropoda members but also in the expected population density of the macrozoobenthos members in the parts of the streams that are under pressure.

References

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  • [2] Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) (2013). Animal Biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3703, 1-82.
  • [3] Strong, E. E., Gargominy, O., Ponder, W. F. & Bouchet, P. (2008). Global diversity of gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595, 149-166.
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  • [6] Gürlek, M. E., Koşal Şahin, S., Dökümcü, N. & Yıldırım, M. Z. (2019). Checklist of the Freshwater Mollusca of Turkey (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Bivalvia). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 28(4), 2992-3013.
  • [7] T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü. (2020). Çoruh ve Doğu Karadeniz Havzaları Taşkın Yönetim Planının Hazırlanması Projesi Doğu Karadeniz Havzası Taşkın Yönetim Planı Taslak Stratejik Çevresel Değerlendirme Raporu.
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  • [13] Glöer, P. & Meier-Brook, C. (1998). Süsswassermollusken, Ein Bestimmungschlüssel für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. DJN, Hamburg, 136 pp.
  • [14] Schütt, H. (1965). Zur Systematik und Ökologie Türkischer Süßwasserprosobranchier. Zoologische Mededelingen Uitgegevendoor Het Rijksmuseum Van Natuurlijke Historie Teleiden. Düsseldorf. Deel, 41, 44-72.
  • [15] Gérard, C., Blanc, A. & Costil, K. (2003). Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) in continental aquatic gastropod communities: impact of salinity and trematode parasitism. Hydrobiologia, 493, 167-172.
  • [16] Dillon, R. T., Wethington, A. R., Rhett, J. M. & Smith, T. P. (2002). Populations of the European freshwater pulmonate Physella acuta are not reproductively isolated from American Physella heterostropha or Physella integra. Invertebrate Biology, 121(3), 226-234.
  • [17] Semenchenko, V., Laenko, T. & Razlutskij, V. 2008. A new record of the North American gastropod Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) from the Neman Stream Basin, Belarus. Aquatic Invasions, 3(3), 359-360.
  • [18] Ponder, W. F. (1988). Potamopyrgus antipodarum-a molluscan colonizer of Europe and Australia. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 54, 271-285.
  • [19] Alonso, A. & Castro-Díez, P. (2012). Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations. NeoBiota, 14, 67-74.
  • [20] Alonso, A. & Castro-Díez, P. (2008). What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)? Hydrobiologia, 614(1), 107-116.
  • [21] Yıldırım, M. Z. (1999). The Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mollusca) Species of Turkey and Their Zoogeographic Distribution 1. Fresh and Brackish Water. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 23(3), 877-900.
  • [22] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2001a). Gediz Deltası ve Sazlıgöl (Menemen-İzmir)’ün Tatlısu Mollusk faunası. Paper presented at: XI. Ulusal Su Ürünleri Symposium; Hatay, Turkey.
  • [23] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2001b). The Mollusc Fauna of Lake Işıklı (Çivril-Denizli). Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 18(1-2), 135-139.
  • [24] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2003). The mollusca fauna of Yuvarlakçay (Köyceğiz, Muğla). Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 20(3-4), 433-438.
  • [25] Demir, M. (2003). Shells of Mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 27, 101-140.
  • [26] Özbek, M., Gökoğlu, M., Ustaoğlu, M. R. & Sarı, H. M. (2004). Kırkgöz (Antalya)’ün tatlısu Mollusca faunası. Paper presented at: Ulusal Su Günleri 2004; İzmir, Turkey.
  • [27] Yıldırım, M. Z., Koca Bahadır, S. & Kebapçı, Ü. (2006). Supplement to the Prosobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Fauna of Freshwater and Brackish Waters of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 30, 197-207.
  • [28] Kalyoncu, H., Barlas, M., Yıldırım, M. Z. & Yorulmaz, B. (2008). Gastropods of two important streams of Gökova bay (Muğla, Turkey) and their relationships with water quality. International Journal of Science & Technology, 3(1), 27-36.
  • [29] Kılıçarslan, I. & Özbek, M. (2010). Contributions to the knowledge on the distribution of freshwater Mollusca species of Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 127-144.
  • [30] Kebapçı, Ü. & Yıldırım, M. Z. (2010). Freshwater snails fauna of lakes region (Göller Bölgesi), Turkey. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia. Studii şi comunicari. Ştiintele Naturii, 26(2), 75-83.
  • [31] Gürlek, M. E. (2015). Present distribution and a new locality record of the invasive freshwater mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) (Gastropoda: Tateidae) in Turkey. Ecologica Montenegrina, 2(3), 191-193.
  • [32] Odabaşı, S., Arslan, N., Özdilek, Ş. Y. & Odabaşı, D. A. (2019). An Invasion Report of The New Zealand Mud Snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) in Turkish Freshwaters: Delice River and Kocabaş Stream. Journal of Limnnology and Freshwater Research, 5(3), 213-219.
  • [33] Yılmaz C. 2005. Sarıkum Gölü (Sinop) Ekosistemi. O.M.Ü. Fen Edeb. Fak., Türkiye Kuvanter Sempozyumu 219-223s.
  • [34] Akbulut, M., Öztürk, M. & Öztürk, M. (2002). Sarıkum Gölü ve kaynak sularının bentik makroomurgasız faunası. Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, 8, 103-119.
  • [35] Yardım, Ö., Şendoğan, E., Bat, L., Sezgin, M. & Çulha, M. (2008). Sarıkum Gölü (Sinop) Makrobentik Mollusca ve Crustacea Faunası. E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 25(4), 301-309.
  • [36] Tibbets, T.M., Krist, A.C., Hall, R.O. & Riley, L. A. (2010). Phosphorus-mediated changes in life history traits of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Oecologia, 163, 549-559.
  • [37] Adema, C.M., Lan, C. M., Hanelt, B. & Seville, R. S. (2009). Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 224-227.
  • [38] Levri, E. P., Landis, S., Smith, B. & Colledge, E. (2017). Variation in predator-induced behavioral changes within introduced and native populations of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Aquatic Invasions, 12, 499-508.
  • [39] Jungbluth, J. H. & Knorre, D. Von. (2009). Rote Liste der Binnenmollusken [Schnecken (Gastropoda) und Muscheln (Bivalvia)] in Deutschland. 6. Revidierte und erweiterte Fassung 2008. Mitt. dtsch. Malakozool. Ges., 81, 1-28.
  • [40] Zettler, M. L. (2012). A remarkable record of a very rare freshwater snail Borysthenia naticina (Menke, 1845) in North-East Germany compared with three Lithuanian records. Folia Malacology, 20, 105-110.
  • [41] Hart, C. W. & Samuel L. H. F. (1974). Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York.
  • [42] Erturk, A., Sivri, N., Şeker, D. Z., Gurel, M., Ozman, A. N., Tanik, A. & Ozturk, I. (2014). Analysis of the distribution of phytoplankton and enteric bacteria in Efteni Lake, Turkey. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8(21), 2144-2154.

Karadeniz Bölgesi’nin Bazı Tatlı Sularında Gastropoda Faunası Üzerine Ön Araştırmalar, Türkiye

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3, 339 - 347, 15.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2022.1169861

Abstract

Karasal ve sucul ekosistemlerde yaygın olarak bulunan Gastropoda üyeleri, Mollusca içinde en fazla türe sahip sınıftır. Genellikle birincil tüketici listesinde yer alan tatlı su Gastropodları, çok sayıda balık türü ve omurgalı türünün besinini oluşturduğundan sucul sistemlerde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Nehirlerde ve göllerde yaygın olarak bulunan ve sucul sistemleri izleme çalışmalarında gösterge olarak kullanılan türleri içermektedir. Türkiye'de de Karadeniz Bölgesi, topoğrafyası ve su sistemlerinin tarihsel gelişim tarihi açısından, akarsular ve göller açısından zengin, ayrıcalıklı bir coğrafyadır. Bu araştırmada 2017-2018 yılları arasında Karadeniz Bölgesi’ndeki göll ve nehirleri içeren 20 istasyondan zoobentik örneklemeler ekman kepçesi ve el kepçesi ile yapılmıştır. Çalışmada 21 taksona ait toplam 10442 bentik makroomurgasız üyesi toplanmışır. Araştırma alanında Oligochaeta üyeleri baskın (%56,80 dominansi) grup olup, bunu sırasıyla %18,26 ve % 8,24 dominansi değelei ile Chironomidae ve Gastropoda grupları izlemektedir. Üçüncü baskın grup olan Gastropoda üyelerinin 11 taksona ait 870 birey içerdiği tesspit eilmiştir. Gastropoda'dan Gyraulus elenae ve Radix labiata'nın bölgede yaygın olarak yayılış gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Bu türler kirliliğe karşı geniş toleransa sahiptir. Çalışmada, akarsuların yerleşim yerlerinden uzak veya müdahale edilmemiş bölgelerinde ve göllerin kıyı kesimlerinde hem tür hem de popülasyon yoğunluğunun arttığı tespit edilmiştir. Genel olarak sadece Gastropoda üyelerinde değil, akarsuların baskı altında olan kısımlarında makrozoobentoz üyelerinin populasyon yoğunluğunda da bir azalma gözlenmiştir.

References

  • [1] Bouchard, R. W. Jr. (2004). Guide to aquatic invertebrates of the Upper Midwest. Saint Paul, MN: Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota, 208 p.
  • [2] Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) (2013). Animal Biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3703, 1-82.
  • [3] Strong, E. E., Gargominy, O., Ponder, W. F. & Bouchet, P. (2008). Global diversity of gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595, 149-166.
  • [4] Demirsoy, A. (1996). Genel ve Türkiye zoocoğrafyası ”hayvan coğrafyası”. Meteksan A.Ş. Ankara, 630 s.
  • [5] Şereflişan, H. (2001, September 4-6). Tatlısu salyangozlarının (Anisus icucostamus) yaz mevsimi içinde farklı materyaller üzerindeki yaşama oranı. XI. Ulusal Su Ürünleri Sempozyumu, Hatay.
  • [6] Gürlek, M. E., Koşal Şahin, S., Dökümcü, N. & Yıldırım, M. Z. (2019). Checklist of the Freshwater Mollusca of Turkey (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Bivalvia). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 28(4), 2992-3013.
  • [7] T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü. (2020). Çoruh ve Doğu Karadeniz Havzaları Taşkın Yönetim Planının Hazırlanması Projesi Doğu Karadeniz Havzası Taşkın Yönetim Planı Taslak Stratejik Çevresel Değerlendirme Raporu.
  • [8] T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü. (2019). Batı Karadeniz Havzası Taşkın Yönetim Planı.
  • [9] T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü. (2019). Kızılırmak Havzası Taşkın Yönetim Planı.
  • [10] Zhadin, V. I. (1965). Mollusks of Fresh and Brackish Waters of the USSR. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 368 pp.
  • [11] Bilgin, F. H. (1980). Batı Anadolu'nun bazı önemli tatlı sularından toplanan mollusca türlerinin sistematiği ve dağılışı. Diyarbakır Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 8(2), 1-64.
  • [12] Glöer, P. (2002). Die Süsswassergastropoden Nord und Mitteleuropas, Bestimmungsschlüssel, Lebensweise, Verbreitung, Hakkenheim, Germany. Conch-Books.
  • [13] Glöer, P. & Meier-Brook, C. (1998). Süsswassermollusken, Ein Bestimmungschlüssel für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. DJN, Hamburg, 136 pp.
  • [14] Schütt, H. (1965). Zur Systematik und Ökologie Türkischer Süßwasserprosobranchier. Zoologische Mededelingen Uitgegevendoor Het Rijksmuseum Van Natuurlijke Historie Teleiden. Düsseldorf. Deel, 41, 44-72.
  • [15] Gérard, C., Blanc, A. & Costil, K. (2003). Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) in continental aquatic gastropod communities: impact of salinity and trematode parasitism. Hydrobiologia, 493, 167-172.
  • [16] Dillon, R. T., Wethington, A. R., Rhett, J. M. & Smith, T. P. (2002). Populations of the European freshwater pulmonate Physella acuta are not reproductively isolated from American Physella heterostropha or Physella integra. Invertebrate Biology, 121(3), 226-234.
  • [17] Semenchenko, V., Laenko, T. & Razlutskij, V. 2008. A new record of the North American gastropod Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) from the Neman Stream Basin, Belarus. Aquatic Invasions, 3(3), 359-360.
  • [18] Ponder, W. F. (1988). Potamopyrgus antipodarum-a molluscan colonizer of Europe and Australia. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 54, 271-285.
  • [19] Alonso, A. & Castro-Díez, P. (2012). Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations. NeoBiota, 14, 67-74.
  • [20] Alonso, A. & Castro-Díez, P. (2008). What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)? Hydrobiologia, 614(1), 107-116.
  • [21] Yıldırım, M. Z. (1999). The Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mollusca) Species of Turkey and Their Zoogeographic Distribution 1. Fresh and Brackish Water. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 23(3), 877-900.
  • [22] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2001a). Gediz Deltası ve Sazlıgöl (Menemen-İzmir)’ün Tatlısu Mollusk faunası. Paper presented at: XI. Ulusal Su Ürünleri Symposium; Hatay, Turkey.
  • [23] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2001b). The Mollusc Fauna of Lake Işıklı (Çivril-Denizli). Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 18(1-2), 135-139.
  • [24] Ustaoğlu, M. R., Balık, S. & Özbek, M. (2003). The mollusca fauna of Yuvarlakçay (Köyceğiz, Muğla). Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 20(3-4), 433-438.
  • [25] Demir, M. (2003). Shells of Mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 27, 101-140.
  • [26] Özbek, M., Gökoğlu, M., Ustaoğlu, M. R. & Sarı, H. M. (2004). Kırkgöz (Antalya)’ün tatlısu Mollusca faunası. Paper presented at: Ulusal Su Günleri 2004; İzmir, Turkey.
  • [27] Yıldırım, M. Z., Koca Bahadır, S. & Kebapçı, Ü. (2006). Supplement to the Prosobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Fauna of Freshwater and Brackish Waters of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 30, 197-207.
  • [28] Kalyoncu, H., Barlas, M., Yıldırım, M. Z. & Yorulmaz, B. (2008). Gastropods of two important streams of Gökova bay (Muğla, Turkey) and their relationships with water quality. International Journal of Science & Technology, 3(1), 27-36.
  • [29] Kılıçarslan, I. & Özbek, M. (2010). Contributions to the knowledge on the distribution of freshwater Mollusca species of Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 127-144.
  • [30] Kebapçı, Ü. & Yıldırım, M. Z. (2010). Freshwater snails fauna of lakes region (Göller Bölgesi), Turkey. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia. Studii şi comunicari. Ştiintele Naturii, 26(2), 75-83.
  • [31] Gürlek, M. E. (2015). Present distribution and a new locality record of the invasive freshwater mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) (Gastropoda: Tateidae) in Turkey. Ecologica Montenegrina, 2(3), 191-193.
  • [32] Odabaşı, S., Arslan, N., Özdilek, Ş. Y. & Odabaşı, D. A. (2019). An Invasion Report of The New Zealand Mud Snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) in Turkish Freshwaters: Delice River and Kocabaş Stream. Journal of Limnnology and Freshwater Research, 5(3), 213-219.
  • [33] Yılmaz C. 2005. Sarıkum Gölü (Sinop) Ekosistemi. O.M.Ü. Fen Edeb. Fak., Türkiye Kuvanter Sempozyumu 219-223s.
  • [34] Akbulut, M., Öztürk, M. & Öztürk, M. (2002). Sarıkum Gölü ve kaynak sularının bentik makroomurgasız faunası. Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, 8, 103-119.
  • [35] Yardım, Ö., Şendoğan, E., Bat, L., Sezgin, M. & Çulha, M. (2008). Sarıkum Gölü (Sinop) Makrobentik Mollusca ve Crustacea Faunası. E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 25(4), 301-309.
  • [36] Tibbets, T.M., Krist, A.C., Hall, R.O. & Riley, L. A. (2010). Phosphorus-mediated changes in life history traits of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Oecologia, 163, 549-559.
  • [37] Adema, C.M., Lan, C. M., Hanelt, B. & Seville, R. S. (2009). Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 224-227.
  • [38] Levri, E. P., Landis, S., Smith, B. & Colledge, E. (2017). Variation in predator-induced behavioral changes within introduced and native populations of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Aquatic Invasions, 12, 499-508.
  • [39] Jungbluth, J. H. & Knorre, D. Von. (2009). Rote Liste der Binnenmollusken [Schnecken (Gastropoda) und Muscheln (Bivalvia)] in Deutschland. 6. Revidierte und erweiterte Fassung 2008. Mitt. dtsch. Malakozool. Ges., 81, 1-28.
  • [40] Zettler, M. L. (2012). A remarkable record of a very rare freshwater snail Borysthenia naticina (Menke, 1845) in North-East Germany compared with three Lithuanian records. Folia Malacology, 20, 105-110.
  • [41] Hart, C. W. & Samuel L. H. F. (1974). Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York.
  • [42] Erturk, A., Sivri, N., Şeker, D. Z., Gurel, M., Ozman, A. N., Tanik, A. & Ozturk, I. (2014). Analysis of the distribution of phytoplankton and enteric bacteria in Efteni Lake, Turkey. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8(21), 2144-2154.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Mehmet Zeki YILDIRIM>
MEHMET AKİF ERSOY ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0281-2232
Türkiye


Deniz MERCAN>
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5526-8501
Türkiye


Naime ARSLAN> (Primary Author)
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9193-2510
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 16, 2022
Publication Date December 15, 2022
Submission Date September 1, 2022
Acceptance Date September 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3

Cite

APA Yıldırım, M. Z. , Mercan, D. & Arslan, N. (2022). Preliminary Research on Gastropoda Fauna in Some Fresh Waters of The Black Sea Region, Turkey . Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma , 15 (3) , 339-347 . DOI: 10.46309/biodicon.2022.1169861

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❖ Please visit ” http:// www.biodicon.com“ for instructions about articles and all of the details about journal


❖  Correspondance Adres: Prof. Ersin YÜCEL, P.K. 86, İki Eylül PTT Merkez, 26000 Eskişehir / Türkiye
E-posta / E-mail: biodicon@gmail.com;
Web Address: http://www.biodicon.com; https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/biodicon
❖ Biological Diversity and Conservation/ Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma
❖ ISSN 1308-5301 Print; ISSN 1308-8084 Online
❖ Start Date Published 2008
© Copyright by Biological Diversity and Conservation/Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma-Available online at www.biodicon.com/All rights reserved
Publisher : Ersin YÜCEL
❖ This journal is published three numbers in a year. Printed in Eskişehir/Türkiye.
❖ All sorts of responsibilities of the articles published in this journal are belonging to the authors
Editör / Editor-In-Chief : Prof.Dr. Ersin YÜCEL, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8274-7578