Research Article
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Düşmanın Dilini Konuşmak: Kırımlı'da Çok Dillilik ve Çeviri Temsilleri

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 28, 110 - 125, 24.07.2020
https://doi.org/10.37599/ceviri.674790

Abstract

Bu makalede Sadık Turan isimli bir Kırım Türkü’nün İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında savaş esiri olarak rehin alınmasının hikâyesini anlatan Kırımlı (2014) filmindeki çok dillilik ve çeviri temsilleri incelenmektedir. Cengiz Dağcı’nın 1956 tarihli Korkunç Yıllar adlı hatırat romanından uyarlanan film, Türkçe, Almanca, Rusça ve Lehçe dillerinin kullanıldığı çok dilli bir anlatım sunmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, çok dilli etkileşimin ve dilsel arabuluculuğun bu savaş ve çatışma öyküsünü beyazperdeye aktarmadaki rolünü belirlemektir. Chris Wahl’un (2005) çok dilli filmleri çok dilliliğin karakter veya hikâye gelişimi üzerindeki rolüne dayanarak tanımlaması ve sınıflandırması filmdeki çok dillilik işlevleri tartışılırken bir referans noktası olacaktır. Bunu yaparken, her dilin hikâyede nasıl temsil edildiği ve, uygulanabilen durumlarda, dil temsilinin belli bir dili konuşan bir karakterin betimlenişini ne şekilde tamamladığı film analiziyle araştırılacaktır. Makalenin ikinci bölümünde, çevirinin, ve özellikle de, “anlatıdaki bir karakterin kılıcı rolü aracılığıyla öykü dünyasının içinde gerçekleşen her türlü (sözlü) çeviri eylemi” (O’Sullivan, 2011, s. 80) olan anlatı-içi çevirisinin işlevlerini belirlemeye odaklanılmaktadır. Bu sayede, çok dilli olmak ve/ya bir çevirmen rolü oynamak ile belli bir durumda avantajlı bir pozisyonda olmak arasında örtük bir bağlantı olup olmadığı da belirlenebilecektir. Böylece, makalede, filmde bu çatışmanın dilsel düzlemde kendini nasıl ifade ettiği, bir karakterin çatışma alanında düşmanıyla olan ilişkisinin yanı sıra, kullandığı dil ile kurduğu ilişkinin yansıtılması üzerinden gösterilecektir.

References

  • Arlıel, B. C. (Director). (2014). Crimean (Kırımlı) [Film]. TFT Production.
  • Arslan, S. (2011). Cinema in Turkey: A new critical history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ataman, K. (Director). (1999). Lola + Bilidikid (Lola and Billy the Kid) [Film]. Boje Buck Produktion, Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), Witch, and Zero Film GmbH.
  • Barnes, L. (2012). The role of code-switching in the creation of an outsider identity in the bilingual film. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 38(3), 247-260.
  • Berger, V., Komori, M. (2010). Introduction. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 7-12), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Bleichenbacher, L. (2012). Linguicism in Hollywood movies? Representations of, and audience reactions to multilingualism in mainstream movie dialogues. Multilingua, 31(2-3), 155–176.
  • Chiaro, D. (2016). Mimesis, reality and fictitious intermediation. In Rachele Antonini and Chiara Bucaria (Eds.), Non-Professional Interpreting and Translation in the Media (pp. 23-42). Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Cronin, M. (2009a). Minority. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.), The Routledge encyclopaedia of translation studies 2nd edition (pp. 169-172), London: Routledge.
  • Cronin, M. (2009b). Translation goes to the movies. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Crowe, R. (Director). (2014). The Water Diviner (Son Umut) [Film]. Fear of God Films, Hopscotch Features, RatPac Entertainment, Seven Group Holdings, and Seven West Media.
  • Dağcı, C. (1956). Korkunç yıllar (Horrible Years). Istanbul: Varlık Yayınları.
  • Danan, M. (1991). Dubbing as an expression of nationalism. Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 36(4), 606–614.
  • De Bonis, G. (2016). Mediating intercultural encounters on screen. The representation of non-professional interpreting in film. In Rachele Antonini and Chiara Bucaria (Eds.), Non-Professional Interpreting and Translation in the Media (pp. 43-64), Bern: Peter Lang.
  • De Higes-Andino, I. (2014). The translation of multilingual films: modes, strategies, constraints and manipulation in the Spanish translations of It’s a Free World. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series- Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 211–231.
  • Delabastita, D., Grutman, R. (2005). Fictional representations of multilingualism and translation. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series–Themes in Translation Studies, 4, 11-34.
  • Delabastita, D. (2009). Fictional representations. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.), The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies (pp. 109-112), London: Routledge.
  • Doğan, M. Ş. (Director). (2007) The Last Ottoman: Knockout Ali (Son Osmanlı Yandım Ali) [Film]. Özen Film.
  • Dönmez-Colin, G. (2008). Turkish cinema: Identity, distance and belonging. London: Reaktion Books.
  • Dwyer, T. (2005). Universally speaking: Lost in translation and polyglot cinema. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies, 4, 295-310.
  • Erdoğan, N. (1998). Narratives of resistance: national identity and ambivalence in the Turkish melodrama between 1965 and 1975. Screen, 39(3), 259-271.
  • Göktürk, D. (2002). Anyone at home? Itinerant identities in European cinema of the 1990s. Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media, 43(2), 201–212.
  • Grutman, R. (2009). Multilingualism. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.) The Routledge encyclopaedia of translation studies (pp. 182-185), London and New York: Routledge.
  • Kaindl, K. (2014). Going fictional! Translators and interpreters in literature and film. In Klaus Kaindl and Karlheinz Spitzl (Eds.), Transfiction: Research into the realities of translation fiction (pp. 1-26), Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Kaindl, K. (2016). Fictional representations of translators and interpreters. In Claudia V. Angelelli and Brian James Baer (Eds.), Researching translation and interpreting (pp. 71-82), New York: Routledge.
  • Kıran, A. (2016). Rendering visible or blurring the boundaries: presence or absence of subtitles in the multilingual post-1990s films of Turkey. In Grzegorz Moroz and Jacek
  • Partyka (Eds.), Representing and (de)constructing borderlands (pp. 137-147), Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • King, G. (2014). The power of the treacherous interpreter: multilingualism in Jacques Audiard’s Un prophète. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series- Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 78-92.
  • King, G. (2015). Code-switching as power strategy: multilingualism and the role of Arabic in Maïwenn’s Polisse (2011). Australian Journal of French Studies, 52(2), 162–173.
  • King, G. (2017). Decentring France: Multilingualism and power in contemporary French cinema. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Lee, T. (2012). Translation and language power relations in heterolingual anthologies of literature. Babel, 58(4), 443-456.
  • Martinez-Sierra, J., Martí-Ferriol, J. L., De Higes-Andino, I., Prats-Rodríguez, A. M. & Chaume, F. (2010). Linguistic diversity in Spanish immigration films: a translational approach. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 15-29), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Meylaerts, R. (2010). Multilingualism and translation. In Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies (pp. 227-230), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Meylaerts, R., Şerban, A. (2014). Introduction: Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: a translation perspective. Linguistica Antverpiensia – New Series, 13, 1–13.
  • Midyat, S. (Director). (2010). I Love You (Ay Lav Yu) [Film]. Plato Film Production.
  • Midyat, S. (Director). (2017). I Love You Too (Ay Lav Yu Tuu) [Film]. Bird House Productions, IFP Istanbul Film Productions, TAFF Pictures, and TIMS International.
  • Onaran, G., Yücel, F. (2011). Introduction. In Gözde Onaran and Fırat Yücel (Eds.), Cinema Turkey: new times, new tendencies (pp. 4-5), Altyazı Project Office: Istanbul.
  • O’Sullivan, C. (2008). Multilingualism at the multiplex: a new audience for screen translation?. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series–Themes in Translation Studies, 6, 81-95.
  • Sanderson, John D. (2010). The other you. Translating the Hispanic for the Spanish screen. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 49-71), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Shohat, E., Stam, R. (2006). Cinema after Babel: language, difference, power. In Ella Shohat (Ed.), Taboo memories, diasporic voices (pp. 106-137), Durham and London: Duke University Press.
  • Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2006). Language policy and linguistic human rights. In Thomas Ricento (Ed.), An introduction to language policy: Theory and method (pp. 273-291), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Smith, A. (2010). All quiet on the filmic front? Codeswitching and the representation of multilingual Europe in La Grande Illusion (Jean Renoir, 1937) and Joyeux Noel (Christian Carion, 2005). Journal of Romance Studies, 10(2), 37-52.
  • Suner, A. (2010). New Turkish Cinema. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  • Takeda, K. (2014). The interpreter as traitor: multilingualism in Guizi lai le (Devils on the doorstep). Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series-Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 93– 111.
  • Tanaka, M. (Director). (2015). 125 Years Memory (Ertuğrul 1890) [Film]. Toei, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey, Kinoshita Group, Toei Video, Dentsu, YTV, Creators’ Union, Pia, Innovation Design, Noritsu Koki, The Yomiuri Shimbun, ABC, Mainichi Newspapers, BS Fuji, MX Entertainment, and the Kita Nippon Shinbun.
  • Ulkay, C. (Director). (2017). Ayla: The Daughter of War (Ayla) [Film]. Dijital Sanatlar Production.
  • Ulkay, C. (Director). (2019). Turkish Ice Cream (Türk İşi Dondurma) [Film]. Dijital Sanatlar Production.
  • Ustaoğlu, Y. (Director). (1999). Journey to the Sun (Güneşe Yolculuk) [Film]. IFR, Celluloid Dreams, Medias Res Filmproduction, The Film Company, and ZDF/ARTE.
  • Wahl, C. (2005). Discovering a genre: the polyglot film. Cinemascope 1 – Independent Film Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2013 from http://www.madadayo.it/Cinemascope_archive/cinema-scope.net/articolo07_n1.html.

Speaking the Enemy’s Language: Representations of Multilingualism and Translation in Crimean

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 28, 110 - 125, 24.07.2020
https://doi.org/10.37599/ceviri.674790

Abstract

This article examines the depictions of multilingualism and translation in Crimean (Kırımlı, 2014), which recounts the story of a Crimean Turk called Sadık Turan, who was taken hostage as a prisoner of war during the Second World War. Adapted from Cengiz Dağcı’s 1956 memoir-novel entitled Horrible Years (Korkunç Yıllar), the film presents a multilingual narrative through its incorporation of Turkish, German, Russian and Polish. The study aims to identify the role of multilingual interaction and linguistic mediation in narrating this story of war and conflict on screen. Chris Wahl’s (2005) characterisation and categorisation of polyglot films based on the role of multilingualism in character and plot development will serve as a reference point for discussing the functions of multilingualism in the movie. In doing so, the analysis will explore how each language is represented in the story, and, if applicable, how language representation is complementary to the portrayal of a character speaking a particular language. The second part of the article focuses on the identification of the purposes of translation, and more specifically diegetic interpreting, that is, “any act of (oral) interpreting which takes place within the story world through the agency of a character in the narrative” (O’Sullivan 2011, p. 80). This will facilitate the identification of any tacit connection between being multilingual and/or acting as an interpreter and having the upper hand in a particular situation. The article thus demonstrates how the conflict finds expression on the linguistic level in the film in conveying a character’s engagement with the language that s/he uses as well as with the enemy on the battle zone.

References

  • Arlıel, B. C. (Director). (2014). Crimean (Kırımlı) [Film]. TFT Production.
  • Arslan, S. (2011). Cinema in Turkey: A new critical history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ataman, K. (Director). (1999). Lola + Bilidikid (Lola and Billy the Kid) [Film]. Boje Buck Produktion, Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), Witch, and Zero Film GmbH.
  • Barnes, L. (2012). The role of code-switching in the creation of an outsider identity in the bilingual film. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 38(3), 247-260.
  • Berger, V., Komori, M. (2010). Introduction. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 7-12), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Bleichenbacher, L. (2012). Linguicism in Hollywood movies? Representations of, and audience reactions to multilingualism in mainstream movie dialogues. Multilingua, 31(2-3), 155–176.
  • Chiaro, D. (2016). Mimesis, reality and fictitious intermediation. In Rachele Antonini and Chiara Bucaria (Eds.), Non-Professional Interpreting and Translation in the Media (pp. 23-42). Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Cronin, M. (2009a). Minority. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.), The Routledge encyclopaedia of translation studies 2nd edition (pp. 169-172), London: Routledge.
  • Cronin, M. (2009b). Translation goes to the movies. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Crowe, R. (Director). (2014). The Water Diviner (Son Umut) [Film]. Fear of God Films, Hopscotch Features, RatPac Entertainment, Seven Group Holdings, and Seven West Media.
  • Dağcı, C. (1956). Korkunç yıllar (Horrible Years). Istanbul: Varlık Yayınları.
  • Danan, M. (1991). Dubbing as an expression of nationalism. Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 36(4), 606–614.
  • De Bonis, G. (2016). Mediating intercultural encounters on screen. The representation of non-professional interpreting in film. In Rachele Antonini and Chiara Bucaria (Eds.), Non-Professional Interpreting and Translation in the Media (pp. 43-64), Bern: Peter Lang.
  • De Higes-Andino, I. (2014). The translation of multilingual films: modes, strategies, constraints and manipulation in the Spanish translations of It’s a Free World. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series- Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 211–231.
  • Delabastita, D., Grutman, R. (2005). Fictional representations of multilingualism and translation. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series–Themes in Translation Studies, 4, 11-34.
  • Delabastita, D. (2009). Fictional representations. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.), The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies (pp. 109-112), London: Routledge.
  • Doğan, M. Ş. (Director). (2007) The Last Ottoman: Knockout Ali (Son Osmanlı Yandım Ali) [Film]. Özen Film.
  • Dönmez-Colin, G. (2008). Turkish cinema: Identity, distance and belonging. London: Reaktion Books.
  • Dwyer, T. (2005). Universally speaking: Lost in translation and polyglot cinema. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies, 4, 295-310.
  • Erdoğan, N. (1998). Narratives of resistance: national identity and ambivalence in the Turkish melodrama between 1965 and 1975. Screen, 39(3), 259-271.
  • Göktürk, D. (2002). Anyone at home? Itinerant identities in European cinema of the 1990s. Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media, 43(2), 201–212.
  • Grutman, R. (2009). Multilingualism. In Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha (Eds.) The Routledge encyclopaedia of translation studies (pp. 182-185), London and New York: Routledge.
  • Kaindl, K. (2014). Going fictional! Translators and interpreters in literature and film. In Klaus Kaindl and Karlheinz Spitzl (Eds.), Transfiction: Research into the realities of translation fiction (pp. 1-26), Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Kaindl, K. (2016). Fictional representations of translators and interpreters. In Claudia V. Angelelli and Brian James Baer (Eds.), Researching translation and interpreting (pp. 71-82), New York: Routledge.
  • Kıran, A. (2016). Rendering visible or blurring the boundaries: presence or absence of subtitles in the multilingual post-1990s films of Turkey. In Grzegorz Moroz and Jacek
  • Partyka (Eds.), Representing and (de)constructing borderlands (pp. 137-147), Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • King, G. (2014). The power of the treacherous interpreter: multilingualism in Jacques Audiard’s Un prophète. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series- Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 78-92.
  • King, G. (2015). Code-switching as power strategy: multilingualism and the role of Arabic in Maïwenn’s Polisse (2011). Australian Journal of French Studies, 52(2), 162–173.
  • King, G. (2017). Decentring France: Multilingualism and power in contemporary French cinema. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Lee, T. (2012). Translation and language power relations in heterolingual anthologies of literature. Babel, 58(4), 443-456.
  • Martinez-Sierra, J., Martí-Ferriol, J. L., De Higes-Andino, I., Prats-Rodríguez, A. M. & Chaume, F. (2010). Linguistic diversity in Spanish immigration films: a translational approach. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 15-29), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Meylaerts, R. (2010). Multilingualism and translation. In Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies (pp. 227-230), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Meylaerts, R., Şerban, A. (2014). Introduction: Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: a translation perspective. Linguistica Antverpiensia – New Series, 13, 1–13.
  • Midyat, S. (Director). (2010). I Love You (Ay Lav Yu) [Film]. Plato Film Production.
  • Midyat, S. (Director). (2017). I Love You Too (Ay Lav Yu Tuu) [Film]. Bird House Productions, IFP Istanbul Film Productions, TAFF Pictures, and TIMS International.
  • Onaran, G., Yücel, F. (2011). Introduction. In Gözde Onaran and Fırat Yücel (Eds.), Cinema Turkey: new times, new tendencies (pp. 4-5), Altyazı Project Office: Istanbul.
  • O’Sullivan, C. (2008). Multilingualism at the multiplex: a new audience for screen translation?. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series–Themes in Translation Studies, 6, 81-95.
  • Sanderson, John D. (2010). The other you. Translating the Hispanic for the Spanish screen. In Verena Berger and Miya Komori (Eds.), Polyglot cinema: Migration and transcultural narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain (pp. 49-71), Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.
  • Shohat, E., Stam, R. (2006). Cinema after Babel: language, difference, power. In Ella Shohat (Ed.), Taboo memories, diasporic voices (pp. 106-137), Durham and London: Duke University Press.
  • Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2006). Language policy and linguistic human rights. In Thomas Ricento (Ed.), An introduction to language policy: Theory and method (pp. 273-291), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Smith, A. (2010). All quiet on the filmic front? Codeswitching and the representation of multilingual Europe in La Grande Illusion (Jean Renoir, 1937) and Joyeux Noel (Christian Carion, 2005). Journal of Romance Studies, 10(2), 37-52.
  • Suner, A. (2010). New Turkish Cinema. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  • Takeda, K. (2014). The interpreter as traitor: multilingualism in Guizi lai le (Devils on the doorstep). Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series-Themes in Translation Studies, 13, 93– 111.
  • Tanaka, M. (Director). (2015). 125 Years Memory (Ertuğrul 1890) [Film]. Toei, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey, Kinoshita Group, Toei Video, Dentsu, YTV, Creators’ Union, Pia, Innovation Design, Noritsu Koki, The Yomiuri Shimbun, ABC, Mainichi Newspapers, BS Fuji, MX Entertainment, and the Kita Nippon Shinbun.
  • Ulkay, C. (Director). (2017). Ayla: The Daughter of War (Ayla) [Film]. Dijital Sanatlar Production.
  • Ulkay, C. (Director). (2019). Turkish Ice Cream (Türk İşi Dondurma) [Film]. Dijital Sanatlar Production.
  • Ustaoğlu, Y. (Director). (1999). Journey to the Sun (Güneşe Yolculuk) [Film]. IFR, Celluloid Dreams, Medias Res Filmproduction, The Film Company, and ZDF/ARTE.
  • Wahl, C. (2005). Discovering a genre: the polyglot film. Cinemascope 1 – Independent Film Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2013 from http://www.madadayo.it/Cinemascope_archive/cinema-scope.net/articolo07_n1.html.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aysun KIRAN (Primary Author)
Marmara University
0000-0003-1551-3776
Türkiye

Thanks I thank my colleague Aytül DURMAZ HUT for bringing this particular film to my attention.
Publication Date July 24, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume , Issue 28

Cite

APA Kıran, A. (2020). Speaking the Enemy’s Language: Representations of Multilingualism and Translation in Crimean . Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi , (28) , 110-125 . DOI: 10.37599/ceviri.674790