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Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu ve Zihin Yetersizliği Olan Bireylere Yönelik Cinsel İstismar Haberlerinin İncelenmesi

Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 2, 77 - 94, 28.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.12984/egeefd.937865

Abstract

Cinsel istismar, istismarı gerçekleştiren bireyin, rızası olmayan mağduru tehdit etmesi, zor kullanması ya da mağdurdan faydalanması yoluyla ortaya çıkan istenmedik cinsel eylemlerdir. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu (OSB) ve Zihin Yetersizliği (ZY) olan bireyler yaşadıkları gelişimsel yetersizlikler nedeniyle farklı güvenlik tehditleriyle karşılaşmakta ve cinsel istismara maruz kalabilmektedirler. Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de 2015-2019 yılları arasında yayımlanan yaygın, yerel ve bölgesel gazetelerdeki ZY ve OSB olan bireylere yönelik gerçekleştirilen cinsel istismar haberleri incelenmiş ve bu konuya dikkat çekilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada “cinsel taciz”, “cinsel saldırı”, “cinsel istismar”, “tecavüz” anahtar kelime grubu ve “zihinsel”, “özürlü”, “engelli”, “otizm”, “Down” anahtar kelime grubunu birlikte içeren haberlere ilişkin 11351 doküman incelenmiştir. Benzer içerikli haberler birleştirilerek toplam 168 haber, elektronik ortamda dosyalanmıştır. Araştırmada OSB ve / veya ZY olan bireylere yönelik gerçekleştirilen cinsel istismar haberleri, nitel araştırma tekniklerinden doküman analizi tekniğiyle incelenmiş, verilerin analizinde tümdengelimli içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular; haberlere ilişkin genel bilgiler, cinsel istismara uğrayan bireylere ilişkin bilgiler, cinsel istismarı geçekleştiren bireylere ilişkin bilgiler ve cinsel istismara ilişkin genel bilgiler olmak üzere dört başlık altında tartışılmıştır. Bulgular doğrultusunda yasa koyuculara, ailelere, uzmanlara, öğretmenlere, habercilere ve araştırmacılara çeşitli önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

References

  • Akbaş, S., Turla, A., Karabekiroğlu, K., Pazvantoğlu, O., Keskin, T., & Böke, O. (2009). Characteristics of sexual abuse in a sample of Turkish children with and without mental retardation, referred for legal appraisal of the psychological repercussions. Sexuality and Disability, 27(4), 205. doi: 10.1007/s11195-009-9139-7
  • American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publication.
  • Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. (2001). Sexual abuse in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45(3), 194-201. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2001.00293.x
  • Barth, J., Bermetz, L., Heim, E., Trelle, S., & Tonia, T. (2013). The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 58, 469-483. doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0426-1
  • Beyazıt, U., & Bütün-Ayhan, A. (2015). An overview of the scientific studies conducted in Turkey which examines the sexual abuse cases covering children as the victims. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 31, 443-453. doi: 10.9761/JASSS2631
  • Bilge, S. ve Taşkıranoğlu-Tırtıl, L. (2001). Cinsel istismara maruz kalan çocuklar: Mağdur, saldırgan özellikleri ve ruhsal/davranışsal bozukluklar. Klinik Adli Tıp Dergisi, 1(l), 1-8.
  • Bowen, G. A. (2009), Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. doi: 10.3316/QRJ0902027
  • Bulut, S. ve Karaman, H. B. (2018). Engelli bireylerin cinsel, fiziksel ve duygusal istismarı. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 19(2), 277-301. doi: 10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.382961
  • Collin-Vézina, D., Daigneault, I., & Hébert, M. (2013). Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: Prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(1), 22. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-22
  • Csorba, R., Aranyosi, J., Borsos, A., Balla, L., Major, T., & Póka, R. (2005). Characteristics of female child sexual abuse in Hungary between 1986 and 2001: A longitudinal, prospective study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 120(2), 217-221. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.08.018
  • Çelik, Ö. ve İpçi, K. (2020). Zihinsel yetersizliği olan bireylere yönelik cinsel istismar: Ulusal haber ajanslarına yansıyan olgular üzerinden bir inceleme. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 8(2), 737-753. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/enad/issue/54160/732631
  • Çocuk Koruma Kanunu. (2005, 15 Temmuz). Resmi Gazete (Sayı: 25876). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.5395.pdf adresinden elde edildi.
  • Çöpür, M., Üneri, Ö. Ş., Aydın, E., Bahalı, M. K., Tanıdır, C., Güneş, H. ve diğerleri (2012). İstanbul ili örnekleminde çocuk ve ergen cinsel istismarlarının karakteristik özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 46-50.
  • DeGue, S., Holt, M. K., Massetti, G. M., Matjasko, J. L., Tharp, A. T., & Valle, L. A. (2012). Looking ahead toward community-level strategies to prevent sexual violence. Journal of Women’s Health, 21(1), 1-3. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3263
  • Engelliler Hakkında Kanun. (2005). Resmî Gazete, 25868, 1 Temmuz 2005. https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.5378.pdf adresinden elde edildi.
  • Erdoğan, A., Tufan, E., Karaman M. G. ve Ankaralı H. (2011). Türkiye’nin dört farklı bölgesinde çocuk ve ergenlere cinsel tacizde bulunan kişilerin karakteristik özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 12, 55-61.
  • Felitti, V., & Anda, R. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. Lanius, E. Vermetten, & C. Pain (Eds.), The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: The hidden epidemic in (pp. 77-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511777042.010
  • Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. L. (2014). The lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and sexual assault assessed in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(3), 329-333. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.026
  • Harvey, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Butchart, A. (2007, 2-3 May). Primary prevention of intimate-partner violence and sexual violence: Background paper for WHO expert meeting May 2-3, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.ndhealth.gov/injury/nd_prevention_tool_kit/docs/who-primary-prevention-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-sexual-violence.pdf
  • Henault, I. (2006). Asperger’s syndrome and sexuality: From adolescence through early adulthood. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Horner‐Johnson, W., & Drum, C. E. (2006). Prevalence of maltreatment of people with intellectual disabilities: A review of recently published research. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 12(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20097
  • Khemka, I., Hickson, L., & Reynolds, G. (2005). Evaluation of a decision-making curriculum designed to empower women with mental retardation to resist abuse. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(3), 193-204. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110<193:EOADCD>2.0.CO;2
  • Koçtürk, N. (2020). A retrospective study: according to online news, the victims, perpetrators and characteristics of sexual abuse at schools. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 20(86), 115-134. doi:10.14689/ejer.2020.86.6
  • Lin, L. P., Yen, C. F., Kuo, Y. F., Wu, J. L., & Lin, J. D. (2009). Sexual assault of people with disabilities: Results of a 2002–2007 national report in Taiwan. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(5), 969–975. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.02.001
  • Maenner, M. J., Shaw, K. A., Baio, J., Washington, A., Patrick, M., DiRienzo, M., ..., & Dietz, P. M. (2020). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 69(4), 1-12. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1
  • McEachern, A. G. (2012). Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities: Prevention strategies for clinical practice. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21(4), 386-398. doi: 10.1080/10538712.2012.675425
  • Miles, M, B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Papalia, N., Mann, E., & Ogloff, J. R. (2021). Child sexual abuse and risk of revictimization: Impact of child demographics, sexual abuse characteristics, and psychiatric disorders. Child Maltreatment, 26(1), 74-86. doi:10.1177/1077559520932665
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
  • Putnam, F. W. (2003). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 269-278. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200303000-00006
  • Rapley, T. (2007). Doing conversation, discourse and document analysis. Great Britain: The Cromwell Press.
  • Reiter, S., Bryen, D. N., & Shachar, I. (2007). Adolescents with intellectual disabilities as victims of abuse. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11(4), 371-387. doi: 10.1177/1744629507084602
  • Renteria, S. C. (2005). Sexual abuse of female children and adolescents-detection, examination and primary care. Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Therapeutique, 62(4), 230-237. doi: 10.1024/0040-5930.62.4.230
  • Schalock, R. L., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., …, & Yeager, M. H. (2010). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and system of supports (11th ed.). Washington, DC: Aaidd.
  • Sobsey, D., & Doe, T. (1991). Patterns of sexual abuse and assault. Sexuality and Disability, 9(3), 243-259.
  • Sosyal Hizmetler Kanunu. (1983, 24 Mayıs). Resmî Gazete (Sayı: 18059). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=2828&MevzuatTur=1&MevzuatTertip=5 adresinden elde edildi.
  • Soylu, N., Şentürk-Pilan, B., Ayaz, M. ve Sönmez, S. (2012). Cinsel istismar mağduru çocuk ve ergenlerde ruh sağlığını etkileyen etkenlerin araştırılması. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(4), 292-298.
  • Stalker, K., & McArthur, K. (2012). Child abuse, child protection and disabled children: A review of recent research. Child Abuse Review, 21(1), 24-40. doi: 10.1002/car.1154
  • Sullivan, P. M., & Knutson, J. F. (2000). Maltreatment and disabilities: A population-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(10), 1257-1273. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3
  • T.C. Aile ve Sosyal Hizmetler Bakanlığı. (2021). Tarihçe. https://www.aile.gov.tr/bakanlik/hakkinda/tarihce/ adresinden elde edildi.
  • The World Health Organization [WHO]. (2008). Preventing violence and reducing its impact: How development agencies can help. France: WHO Press.
  • The World Health Organization [WHO]. (2019). International classification of diseases and related health problems (11th revision). The global standard for diagnostic health information. Retrieved from https://icd.who.int/en
  • Topal, Y., Balcı, Y. ve Erbaş, M. (2018). Muğla'da 18 yaş ve altı cinsel istismar olgularının retrospektif değerlendirilmesi. Ortadoğu Tıp Dergisi, 10(2), 135-141. doi: 10.21601/ortadogutipdergisi.367348
  • Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Zablotsky, B., Black, L. I., Maenner, M. J., Schieve, L. A., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Blumberg, S. J., Kogan, M. D., & Boyle, C. A. (2019). Prevalence and trends of developmental disabilities among children in the US: 2009–2017. Pediatrics, 144(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0811

Investigation of Sexual Abuse News about Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 2, 77 - 94, 28.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.12984/egeefd.937865

Abstract

Sexual abuse is an unwanted sexual activity which the perpetrator uses force upon, makes threats against, or takes advantage of the victim without his / her consent. This study aims to draw attention to the sexual abuse which individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder are exposed to. With this aim, news published online in national, local and regional Turkish newspapers between the years of 2015-2019 related to this issue were analyzed. To reach the related media content, one of the news agencies’ archive was utilized to search for published news via keywords (“sexual abuse”, “sexual assault”, “sexual harassment”, “rape” and “intellectual”, “handicapped”, “disabled”, “autism” and “Down”). As a result, 11351 news related to those keywords were reached and the total number of retained news was 1124. In this study, document analysis was carried out using deductive content analysis to analyze the content of news related to sexual abuse of individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Findings are discussed; suggestions for researchers, legislators, families, teachers, and practitioners are posed.

References

  • Akbaş, S., Turla, A., Karabekiroğlu, K., Pazvantoğlu, O., Keskin, T., & Böke, O. (2009). Characteristics of sexual abuse in a sample of Turkish children with and without mental retardation, referred for legal appraisal of the psychological repercussions. Sexuality and Disability, 27(4), 205. doi: 10.1007/s11195-009-9139-7
  • American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publication.
  • Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. (2001). Sexual abuse in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45(3), 194-201. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2001.00293.x
  • Barth, J., Bermetz, L., Heim, E., Trelle, S., & Tonia, T. (2013). The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 58, 469-483. doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0426-1
  • Beyazıt, U., & Bütün-Ayhan, A. (2015). An overview of the scientific studies conducted in Turkey which examines the sexual abuse cases covering children as the victims. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 31, 443-453. doi: 10.9761/JASSS2631
  • Bilge, S. ve Taşkıranoğlu-Tırtıl, L. (2001). Cinsel istismara maruz kalan çocuklar: Mağdur, saldırgan özellikleri ve ruhsal/davranışsal bozukluklar. Klinik Adli Tıp Dergisi, 1(l), 1-8.
  • Bowen, G. A. (2009), Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. doi: 10.3316/QRJ0902027
  • Bulut, S. ve Karaman, H. B. (2018). Engelli bireylerin cinsel, fiziksel ve duygusal istismarı. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 19(2), 277-301. doi: 10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.382961
  • Collin-Vézina, D., Daigneault, I., & Hébert, M. (2013). Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: Prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(1), 22. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-22
  • Csorba, R., Aranyosi, J., Borsos, A., Balla, L., Major, T., & Póka, R. (2005). Characteristics of female child sexual abuse in Hungary between 1986 and 2001: A longitudinal, prospective study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 120(2), 217-221. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.08.018
  • Çelik, Ö. ve İpçi, K. (2020). Zihinsel yetersizliği olan bireylere yönelik cinsel istismar: Ulusal haber ajanslarına yansıyan olgular üzerinden bir inceleme. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 8(2), 737-753. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/enad/issue/54160/732631
  • Çocuk Koruma Kanunu. (2005, 15 Temmuz). Resmi Gazete (Sayı: 25876). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.5395.pdf adresinden elde edildi.
  • Çöpür, M., Üneri, Ö. Ş., Aydın, E., Bahalı, M. K., Tanıdır, C., Güneş, H. ve diğerleri (2012). İstanbul ili örnekleminde çocuk ve ergen cinsel istismarlarının karakteristik özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 46-50.
  • DeGue, S., Holt, M. K., Massetti, G. M., Matjasko, J. L., Tharp, A. T., & Valle, L. A. (2012). Looking ahead toward community-level strategies to prevent sexual violence. Journal of Women’s Health, 21(1), 1-3. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3263
  • Engelliler Hakkında Kanun. (2005). Resmî Gazete, 25868, 1 Temmuz 2005. https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.5378.pdf adresinden elde edildi.
  • Erdoğan, A., Tufan, E., Karaman M. G. ve Ankaralı H. (2011). Türkiye’nin dört farklı bölgesinde çocuk ve ergenlere cinsel tacizde bulunan kişilerin karakteristik özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 12, 55-61.
  • Felitti, V., & Anda, R. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. Lanius, E. Vermetten, & C. Pain (Eds.), The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: The hidden epidemic in (pp. 77-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511777042.010
  • Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. L. (2014). The lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and sexual assault assessed in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(3), 329-333. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.026
  • Harvey, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Butchart, A. (2007, 2-3 May). Primary prevention of intimate-partner violence and sexual violence: Background paper for WHO expert meeting May 2-3, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.ndhealth.gov/injury/nd_prevention_tool_kit/docs/who-primary-prevention-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-sexual-violence.pdf
  • Henault, I. (2006). Asperger’s syndrome and sexuality: From adolescence through early adulthood. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Horner‐Johnson, W., & Drum, C. E. (2006). Prevalence of maltreatment of people with intellectual disabilities: A review of recently published research. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 12(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20097
  • Khemka, I., Hickson, L., & Reynolds, G. (2005). Evaluation of a decision-making curriculum designed to empower women with mental retardation to resist abuse. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(3), 193-204. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110<193:EOADCD>2.0.CO;2
  • Koçtürk, N. (2020). A retrospective study: according to online news, the victims, perpetrators and characteristics of sexual abuse at schools. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 20(86), 115-134. doi:10.14689/ejer.2020.86.6
  • Lin, L. P., Yen, C. F., Kuo, Y. F., Wu, J. L., & Lin, J. D. (2009). Sexual assault of people with disabilities: Results of a 2002–2007 national report in Taiwan. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(5), 969–975. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.02.001
  • Maenner, M. J., Shaw, K. A., Baio, J., Washington, A., Patrick, M., DiRienzo, M., ..., & Dietz, P. M. (2020). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 69(4), 1-12. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1
  • McEachern, A. G. (2012). Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities: Prevention strategies for clinical practice. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21(4), 386-398. doi: 10.1080/10538712.2012.675425
  • Miles, M, B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Papalia, N., Mann, E., & Ogloff, J. R. (2021). Child sexual abuse and risk of revictimization: Impact of child demographics, sexual abuse characteristics, and psychiatric disorders. Child Maltreatment, 26(1), 74-86. doi:10.1177/1077559520932665
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
  • Putnam, F. W. (2003). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 269-278. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200303000-00006
  • Rapley, T. (2007). Doing conversation, discourse and document analysis. Great Britain: The Cromwell Press.
  • Reiter, S., Bryen, D. N., & Shachar, I. (2007). Adolescents with intellectual disabilities as victims of abuse. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11(4), 371-387. doi: 10.1177/1744629507084602
  • Renteria, S. C. (2005). Sexual abuse of female children and adolescents-detection, examination and primary care. Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Therapeutique, 62(4), 230-237. doi: 10.1024/0040-5930.62.4.230
  • Schalock, R. L., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., …, & Yeager, M. H. (2010). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and system of supports (11th ed.). Washington, DC: Aaidd.
  • Sobsey, D., & Doe, T. (1991). Patterns of sexual abuse and assault. Sexuality and Disability, 9(3), 243-259.
  • Sosyal Hizmetler Kanunu. (1983, 24 Mayıs). Resmî Gazete (Sayı: 18059). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=2828&MevzuatTur=1&MevzuatTertip=5 adresinden elde edildi.
  • Soylu, N., Şentürk-Pilan, B., Ayaz, M. ve Sönmez, S. (2012). Cinsel istismar mağduru çocuk ve ergenlerde ruh sağlığını etkileyen etkenlerin araştırılması. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(4), 292-298.
  • Stalker, K., & McArthur, K. (2012). Child abuse, child protection and disabled children: A review of recent research. Child Abuse Review, 21(1), 24-40. doi: 10.1002/car.1154
  • Sullivan, P. M., & Knutson, J. F. (2000). Maltreatment and disabilities: A population-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(10), 1257-1273. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3
  • T.C. Aile ve Sosyal Hizmetler Bakanlığı. (2021). Tarihçe. https://www.aile.gov.tr/bakanlik/hakkinda/tarihce/ adresinden elde edildi.
  • The World Health Organization [WHO]. (2008). Preventing violence and reducing its impact: How development agencies can help. France: WHO Press.
  • The World Health Organization [WHO]. (2019). International classification of diseases and related health problems (11th revision). The global standard for diagnostic health information. Retrieved from https://icd.who.int/en
  • Topal, Y., Balcı, Y. ve Erbaş, M. (2018). Muğla'da 18 yaş ve altı cinsel istismar olgularının retrospektif değerlendirilmesi. Ortadoğu Tıp Dergisi, 10(2), 135-141. doi: 10.21601/ortadogutipdergisi.367348
  • Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Zablotsky, B., Black, L. I., Maenner, M. J., Schieve, L. A., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Blumberg, S. J., Kogan, M. D., & Boyle, C. A. (2019). Prevalence and trends of developmental disabilities among children in the US: 2009–2017. Pediatrics, 144(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0811

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Nurgül AKMANOĞLU (Primary Author)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ENGELLİLER ARAŞTIRMA ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0002-2007-9508
Türkiye


Şükran ALAN This is me
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8321-4543
Türkiye


Esin PEKTAŞ KARABEKİR
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9570-5422
Türkiye


Şerife ŞAHİN
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5404-762X
Türkiye


Ezgi ALAGÖZOĞLU This is me
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4013-0702
Türkiye


Çetin TOPUZ
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8139-2477
Türkiye

Publication Date December 28, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 2

Cite

APA Akmanoğlu, N. , Alan, Ş. , Pektaş Karabekir, E. , Şahin, Ş. , Alagözoğlu, E. & Topuz, Ç. (2021). Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu ve Zihin Yetersizliği Olan Bireylere Yönelik Cinsel İstismar Haberlerinin İncelenmesi . Ege Eğitim Dergisi , 22 (2) , 77-94 . DOI: 10.12984/egeefd.937865