Research Article
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Küçük Devletlerin Statü Arayışlarının Bir Göstergesi Olarak Uluslararası Askeri Operasyonlarda Yer Almaları: İsveç, Norveç ve Danimarka Örneği

Year 2021, Volume 23, Issue 1, 128 - 145, 28.06.2021

Abstract

Bu çalışma İsveç, Norveç ve Danimarka’nın BM, NATO ve ABD öncülüğündeki uluslararası askeri operasyonlarda yer almalarını gerek uluslararası politikada gerekse büyük güçler nezdinde görünür olmak, fark edilmek, itibar kazanmak ve prestij elde etmek gibi statü arayışlarının bir göstergesi olduğunu iddia etmektedir. Bu devletlerin karar vericilerinin ve üst düzey yetkililerinin resmî açıklamalarını, ifadelerini ve bildirilerini dikkate alan çalışma, söz konusu devletlerin militarist aktivizminin statülerini artırmak gibi araçsal ve stratejik motivasyondan kaynaklandığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bu noktada uluslararası ilişkilerde küçük devlet dış politika ve güvenlik davranışlarına dair yaklaşımları statü çalışmalarına dahil ederek katkıda bulunmayı hedeflemektedir.

References

  • Andersson, A. (2007). The Nordic Peace Support Operations Record, 1991–99. International Peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 476-492.
  • Brende, B. (March 5, 2015). FM Brende’s Foreign Policy Address. Government of Norway. 5 Mart 2015. 15 Ocak 2021. www.norway.org/News_and_events/Embassy/FM-BrendesForeign-Policy-Address-March-52015/#.VexlFfntmko adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Brzezinski, M. (2003). Who’s Afraid of Norway?. The New York Times, 24 Ağustos 2003. 8 Ocak 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/24/magazine/who-s-afraid-of-norway.html adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Countries in the world by population (2021). https://www.worldometers.info/worldpopulation/population-by-country/ (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Crowards, T. (2002). Defining the category of ‘small’states. Journal of International Development, 14(2), s. 143-179.
  • Dafoe, A., Renshon, J., ve Huth, P. (2014). Reputation and status as motives for war. Annual Review of Political Science, 17, s. 371-393.
  • De Carvalho, B. ve Lie, J. H. S. (2015). A great power performance. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small state status seeking: Norway's quest for international standing içinde (s. 56-72). New York: Routledge.
  • East, M. A. (1973). Size and foreign policy behavior: a test of two models. World Politics: A Quarterly Journal of International Relations, s. 556-576.
  • Ellemann-Jensen, U. (1996). Din egen dag er kort: Oplevelser og indtryk. Copenhagen: Aschehoug.
  • Ellemann-Jensen, U. Soldaterne skulle vise et godt eksempel – og det har de gjort!. Berlingske, 23 Temmuz 2013. 16 Ocak 2021. https://www.berlingske.dk/kommentarer/soldaterne-skulle-vise-et-godt-eksempel-og-det-har-de-gjort adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Gade, S. (2008, 11 Ağustos). Små lande gør en forskel. Dagbladet Ringkøbing-Skjern. Global Firepower. 2020 Military Strength Ranking. https://www.globalfirepower.com/countries-listing.asp (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Global Firepower. Total Square Land Area by Nation (2021). https://www.globalfirepower.com/square-land-area.asp (10 Ocak 2021).
  • Global Policy Forum. Countries' Troop and Other Personnel Contributions to Peacekeeping Operations - Listing Countries Alphabetically. https://www.globalpolicy.org/securitycouncil/peacekeeping/peacekeeping-data.html (E.T. 8 Ocak 2021).
  • Goetschel, L. (1998). The foreign and security policy interests of small states in today’s Europe. L. Goetschel (Ed.), Small States inside and outside the European Union içinde (s. 13-31). Springer, Boston, MA.
  • Græger, N. (2015). From ‘forces for good’to ‘forces for status’? Small state military status seeking. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small States and Status Seeking: Norway’s quest for international standing içinde (s. 86-108). New York: Routledge.
  • Haekkerup, P. (1963). Scandinavia's Peace-keeping Forces for UN. Foreign Affairs, 42, s. 675-681.
  • Henrikson, A. K. (2001). A coming ‘Magnesian’age? Small states, the global system, and the international community. Geopolitics, 6(3), s. 49-86.
  • Hey, J. A. (2003). Introducing Small State Foreign Policy. J. A. Hey (Ed.), Small states in world politics: Explaining foreign policy behavior içinde (s. 1-11). Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Holst, J. J. (1991). Support and limitations: peacekeeping from the point of view of troop-contributors. I. J. Rikhye ve K. Skjelsbaek (Ed.), The United Nations and Peacekeeping içinde (s. 111-124). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (1998). The Danish approach to UN peace operations after the cold war: A new model in the making?. International Peacekeeping, 5(3), s. 106-123.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2006a). The Nordic peacekeeping model: Rise, fall, resurgence?. International Peacekeeping, 13(3), s. 381-395.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2006b). Nordic approaches to peace operations: a new model in the making. Routledge.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2007). Still punching above their weight? Nordic cooperation in peace operations after the Cold War. International Peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 458-475.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. ve Møller, K. J. (2012). Good news: Libya and the Danish way of war. Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook, 2012, s. 106-30.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (21 April 2017). Denmark's Limited Support for UN Peacekeeping is Here to Stay. 21 Nisan 2017. 7 Ocak 2021. https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/blog/denmarks-limited-support-for-unpeacekeeping-isheretostay#:~:text=Denmark%20had%20an%20average%20of,UN%20troop%20contributors%20per%20c ap ita adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Jakobsen, P. V., Ringsmose, J., ve Saxi, H. L. (2018). Prestige-seeking small states: Danish and Norwegian military contributions to US-led operations. European journal of international security, 3(2), s. 1-22.
  • Karlsrud, J. ve Osland, K. M. (2016). Between self-interest and solidarity: Norway’s return to UN peacekeeping?. International Peacekeeping, 23(5), s. 784-803.
  • Karstensen, K. (2002, 30 Ocak). Ingen Diskuterte Med Høyre-Ministeren. Nordlys Morgen.
  • Kassimeris, C. (2009). The foreign policy of small powers. International Politics, 46(1), s. 84-101.
  • Keohane, R. O. (1969). Lilliputians' dilemmas: small states in international politics. International Organization. 23(2), s. 291-310.
  • Knudsen, O. F. (2002). Small states, latent and extant: Towards a general perspective. Journal of international relations and development, 5(2), s. 182-198.
  • Kosmo, J. (1997). Nasjonale og internasjonale utfordringer for forsvaret. Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, 166(2).
  • Larson, D. W. ve Shevchenko, A. (2019). Quest for status: Chinese and Russian foreign policy. Yale University Press.
  • Laugen Haaland, T. (2007). Participation in peace support operations for small countries: The case of Norway. International peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 493-509.
  • Møller, P. S. Dansk udenrigspolitik mellem EU og USA. Berlingske Tidende. 14 Ağustos 2007. 16 Ocak 2021. https://www.berlingske.dk/dansk-udenrigspolitik-mellem-eu-og-usa adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Murray, M. (2018). The struggle for recognition in international relations: status, revisionism, and rising powers. Oxford University Press.
  • Neack, L. (1995). UN peace-keeping: In the interest of community or self?. Journal of Peace Research, 32(2), s. 181-196.
  • Neumann, I. B. ve De Carvalho, B. (2015). Introduction: Small states and status. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small state status seeking: Norway’s quest for international standing içinde (s. 1-21). New York: Routledge.
  • Nilsson, C. ve Zetterlund, K. (2016). Sweden and the UN: a rekindled partnership for peacekeeping?. International Peacekeeping, 23(5), s. 762-783.
  • Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2008-9). Interesser, Ansvar Og Muligheter: Hovedlinjer i Norsk Utenrikspolitikk, Report to the Storting. No. 15. Oslo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Pedersen, R. B. (2018). Bandwagon for status: Changing patterns in the Nordic states status-seeking strategies?. International peacekeeping, 25(2), s. 217-241.
  • Radoman, J. (2018). Small states in world politics: State of the art. Journal of Regional Security, 13(2), s. 179-200.
  • Rasmussen, A. F. (2003, 26 Mart). Hvad kan det nytte?. Berlingske Tidende.
  • Renshon, J. (2017). Fighting for status: hierarchy and conflict in world politics. Princeton University Press.
  • Ritzau. Anders Fogh før Nato-topmøde: Danmark er eliteallieret. Fyens Stiftstidende. 3 Eylül 2014. 17 Ocak 2021. https://fyens.dk/artikel/anders-fogh-f%C3%B8r-nato-topm%C3%B8de-danmark-er-eliteallieret adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Rothstein, R. L. (1968). Alliances and small powers. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Røren, P. (2019). Status seeking in the friendly Nordic neighborhood. Cooperation and Conflict, 54(4), s. 562-579.
  • Solberg, E. UN peacekeeping operations. Office of the Prime Minister. 28 Kasım 2015. 12 Ocak 2021. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/un-peacekeeping-operations/id2454487/ adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Stokke, K. (2012). Peace-building as small state foreign policy: Norway’s peace engagement in a changing international context. International studies, 49(3-4), 207-231.
  • Sweden Ministry for Foreign Affairs. (28 March 2018). Swedish statement at the UN Security Council Open Debate on UN Peacekeeping Operations. 28 Mart 2018. 14 Ocak 2021. https://www.government.se/statements/2018/03/national-statement-delivered-on-behalf-ofsweden/ adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • The World Bank. GDP (current US$). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ny.gdp.mktp.cd (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Thorhallsson, B. (2006). The size of states in the European Union: Theoretical and conceptual perspectives. European Integration, 28(1), s. 7-31.
  • Thorhallsson, B. ve Wivel, A. (2006). Small states in the European Union: what do we know and what would we like to know?. Cambridge review of international affairs, 19(4), s. 651-668.
  • Vaicekauskaitė, Ž. M. (2017). Security strategies of small states in a changing world. Journal on Baltic Security, 3(2), s. 7-15.
  • Värynen, R. (1971). On the definition and measurement of small power status. Cooperation and Conflict, 6(1), s. 91-102.
  • Vital, D. (1967). The inequality of states: a study of the small power in international relations. Clarendon Press.
  • Volgy, T. J., Corbetta, R., Grant, K. A., ve Baird, R. G. (2011). Major power status in international politics. T.J. Volgy, R. Corbetta, K.A. Grant ve R. G. Baird (Ed.), Major powers and the quest for status in international politics (s. 1-26). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
  • Wohlforth, W. C., De Carvalho, B., Leira, H., ve Neumann, I. B. (2018). Moral authority and status in International Relations: Good states and the social dimension of status seeking. Review of International Studies, 44(3), s. 526-546.

Year 2021, Volume 23, Issue 1, 128 - 145, 28.06.2021

Abstract

References

  • Andersson, A. (2007). The Nordic Peace Support Operations Record, 1991–99. International Peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 476-492.
  • Brende, B. (March 5, 2015). FM Brende’s Foreign Policy Address. Government of Norway. 5 Mart 2015. 15 Ocak 2021. www.norway.org/News_and_events/Embassy/FM-BrendesForeign-Policy-Address-March-52015/#.VexlFfntmko adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Brzezinski, M. (2003). Who’s Afraid of Norway?. The New York Times, 24 Ağustos 2003. 8 Ocak 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/24/magazine/who-s-afraid-of-norway.html adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Countries in the world by population (2021). https://www.worldometers.info/worldpopulation/population-by-country/ (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Crowards, T. (2002). Defining the category of ‘small’states. Journal of International Development, 14(2), s. 143-179.
  • Dafoe, A., Renshon, J., ve Huth, P. (2014). Reputation and status as motives for war. Annual Review of Political Science, 17, s. 371-393.
  • De Carvalho, B. ve Lie, J. H. S. (2015). A great power performance. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small state status seeking: Norway's quest for international standing içinde (s. 56-72). New York: Routledge.
  • East, M. A. (1973). Size and foreign policy behavior: a test of two models. World Politics: A Quarterly Journal of International Relations, s. 556-576.
  • Ellemann-Jensen, U. (1996). Din egen dag er kort: Oplevelser og indtryk. Copenhagen: Aschehoug.
  • Ellemann-Jensen, U. Soldaterne skulle vise et godt eksempel – og det har de gjort!. Berlingske, 23 Temmuz 2013. 16 Ocak 2021. https://www.berlingske.dk/kommentarer/soldaterne-skulle-vise-et-godt-eksempel-og-det-har-de-gjort adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Gade, S. (2008, 11 Ağustos). Små lande gør en forskel. Dagbladet Ringkøbing-Skjern. Global Firepower. 2020 Military Strength Ranking. https://www.globalfirepower.com/countries-listing.asp (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Global Firepower. Total Square Land Area by Nation (2021). https://www.globalfirepower.com/square-land-area.asp (10 Ocak 2021).
  • Global Policy Forum. Countries' Troop and Other Personnel Contributions to Peacekeeping Operations - Listing Countries Alphabetically. https://www.globalpolicy.org/securitycouncil/peacekeeping/peacekeeping-data.html (E.T. 8 Ocak 2021).
  • Goetschel, L. (1998). The foreign and security policy interests of small states in today’s Europe. L. Goetschel (Ed.), Small States inside and outside the European Union içinde (s. 13-31). Springer, Boston, MA.
  • Græger, N. (2015). From ‘forces for good’to ‘forces for status’? Small state military status seeking. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small States and Status Seeking: Norway’s quest for international standing içinde (s. 86-108). New York: Routledge.
  • Haekkerup, P. (1963). Scandinavia's Peace-keeping Forces for UN. Foreign Affairs, 42, s. 675-681.
  • Henrikson, A. K. (2001). A coming ‘Magnesian’age? Small states, the global system, and the international community. Geopolitics, 6(3), s. 49-86.
  • Hey, J. A. (2003). Introducing Small State Foreign Policy. J. A. Hey (Ed.), Small states in world politics: Explaining foreign policy behavior içinde (s. 1-11). Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Holst, J. J. (1991). Support and limitations: peacekeeping from the point of view of troop-contributors. I. J. Rikhye ve K. Skjelsbaek (Ed.), The United Nations and Peacekeeping içinde (s. 111-124). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (1998). The Danish approach to UN peace operations after the cold war: A new model in the making?. International Peacekeeping, 5(3), s. 106-123.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2006a). The Nordic peacekeeping model: Rise, fall, resurgence?. International Peacekeeping, 13(3), s. 381-395.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2006b). Nordic approaches to peace operations: a new model in the making. Routledge.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (2007). Still punching above their weight? Nordic cooperation in peace operations after the Cold War. International Peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 458-475.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. ve Møller, K. J. (2012). Good news: Libya and the Danish way of war. Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook, 2012, s. 106-30.
  • Jakobsen, P. V. (21 April 2017). Denmark's Limited Support for UN Peacekeeping is Here to Stay. 21 Nisan 2017. 7 Ocak 2021. https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/blog/denmarks-limited-support-for-unpeacekeeping-isheretostay#:~:text=Denmark%20had%20an%20average%20of,UN%20troop%20contributors%20per%20c ap ita adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Jakobsen, P. V., Ringsmose, J., ve Saxi, H. L. (2018). Prestige-seeking small states: Danish and Norwegian military contributions to US-led operations. European journal of international security, 3(2), s. 1-22.
  • Karlsrud, J. ve Osland, K. M. (2016). Between self-interest and solidarity: Norway’s return to UN peacekeeping?. International Peacekeeping, 23(5), s. 784-803.
  • Karstensen, K. (2002, 30 Ocak). Ingen Diskuterte Med Høyre-Ministeren. Nordlys Morgen.
  • Kassimeris, C. (2009). The foreign policy of small powers. International Politics, 46(1), s. 84-101.
  • Keohane, R. O. (1969). Lilliputians' dilemmas: small states in international politics. International Organization. 23(2), s. 291-310.
  • Knudsen, O. F. (2002). Small states, latent and extant: Towards a general perspective. Journal of international relations and development, 5(2), s. 182-198.
  • Kosmo, J. (1997). Nasjonale og internasjonale utfordringer for forsvaret. Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, 166(2).
  • Larson, D. W. ve Shevchenko, A. (2019). Quest for status: Chinese and Russian foreign policy. Yale University Press.
  • Laugen Haaland, T. (2007). Participation in peace support operations for small countries: The case of Norway. International peacekeeping, 14(4), s. 493-509.
  • Møller, P. S. Dansk udenrigspolitik mellem EU og USA. Berlingske Tidende. 14 Ağustos 2007. 16 Ocak 2021. https://www.berlingske.dk/dansk-udenrigspolitik-mellem-eu-og-usa adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Murray, M. (2018). The struggle for recognition in international relations: status, revisionism, and rising powers. Oxford University Press.
  • Neack, L. (1995). UN peace-keeping: In the interest of community or self?. Journal of Peace Research, 32(2), s. 181-196.
  • Neumann, I. B. ve De Carvalho, B. (2015). Introduction: Small states and status. B. De Carvalho ve I. B. Neumann (Ed.), Small state status seeking: Norway’s quest for international standing içinde (s. 1-21). New York: Routledge.
  • Nilsson, C. ve Zetterlund, K. (2016). Sweden and the UN: a rekindled partnership for peacekeeping?. International Peacekeeping, 23(5), s. 762-783.
  • Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2008-9). Interesser, Ansvar Og Muligheter: Hovedlinjer i Norsk Utenrikspolitikk, Report to the Storting. No. 15. Oslo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Pedersen, R. B. (2018). Bandwagon for status: Changing patterns in the Nordic states status-seeking strategies?. International peacekeeping, 25(2), s. 217-241.
  • Radoman, J. (2018). Small states in world politics: State of the art. Journal of Regional Security, 13(2), s. 179-200.
  • Rasmussen, A. F. (2003, 26 Mart). Hvad kan det nytte?. Berlingske Tidende.
  • Renshon, J. (2017). Fighting for status: hierarchy and conflict in world politics. Princeton University Press.
  • Ritzau. Anders Fogh før Nato-topmøde: Danmark er eliteallieret. Fyens Stiftstidende. 3 Eylül 2014. 17 Ocak 2021. https://fyens.dk/artikel/anders-fogh-f%C3%B8r-nato-topm%C3%B8de-danmark-er-eliteallieret adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Rothstein, R. L. (1968). Alliances and small powers. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Røren, P. (2019). Status seeking in the friendly Nordic neighborhood. Cooperation and Conflict, 54(4), s. 562-579.
  • Solberg, E. UN peacekeeping operations. Office of the Prime Minister. 28 Kasım 2015. 12 Ocak 2021. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/un-peacekeeping-operations/id2454487/ adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • Stokke, K. (2012). Peace-building as small state foreign policy: Norway’s peace engagement in a changing international context. International studies, 49(3-4), 207-231.
  • Sweden Ministry for Foreign Affairs. (28 March 2018). Swedish statement at the UN Security Council Open Debate on UN Peacekeeping Operations. 28 Mart 2018. 14 Ocak 2021. https://www.government.se/statements/2018/03/national-statement-delivered-on-behalf-ofsweden/ adresinden erişilmiştir.
  • The World Bank. GDP (current US$). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ny.gdp.mktp.cd (E.T. 10 Ocak 2021).
  • Thorhallsson, B. (2006). The size of states in the European Union: Theoretical and conceptual perspectives. European Integration, 28(1), s. 7-31.
  • Thorhallsson, B. ve Wivel, A. (2006). Small states in the European Union: what do we know and what would we like to know?. Cambridge review of international affairs, 19(4), s. 651-668.
  • Vaicekauskaitė, Ž. M. (2017). Security strategies of small states in a changing world. Journal on Baltic Security, 3(2), s. 7-15.
  • Värynen, R. (1971). On the definition and measurement of small power status. Cooperation and Conflict, 6(1), s. 91-102.
  • Vital, D. (1967). The inequality of states: a study of the small power in international relations. Clarendon Press.
  • Volgy, T. J., Corbetta, R., Grant, K. A., ve Baird, R. G. (2011). Major power status in international politics. T.J. Volgy, R. Corbetta, K.A. Grant ve R. G. Baird (Ed.), Major powers and the quest for status in international politics (s. 1-26). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
  • Wohlforth, W. C., De Carvalho, B., Leira, H., ve Neumann, I. B. (2018). Moral authority and status in International Relations: Good states and the social dimension of status seeking. Review of International Studies, 44(3), s. 526-546.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects International Relations
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

İbrahim KUMEK (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2096-159X
Türkiye

Publication Date June 28, 2021
Application Date February 20, 2021
Acceptance Date May 18, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 23, Issue 1

Cite

APA Kumek, İ. (2021). Küçük Devletlerin Statü Arayışlarının Bir Göstergesi Olarak Uluslararası Askeri Operasyonlarda Yer Almaları: İsveç, Norveç ve Danimarka Örneği . Güvenlik Çalışmaları Dergisi , 23 (1) , 128-145 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gcd/issue/63148/883871