Year 2019, Volume 8 , Issue 21, Pages 125 - 148 2019-08-31

FARKLI REFAH REJİMLERİNDE GENÇ İŞSİZLİĞİ VE NEET’NİN GÖRÜNÜMÜ: İTALYA, İNGİLTERE VE İSVEÇ ÖRNEKLERİ
YOUNG UNEMPLOYMENT AND NEET'S APPEARANCE IN DIFFERENT WELFARE REGIMES: ITALY, UK AND SWEDEN EXAMPLES

Halim BAŞ [1]


Ekonomik ve sosyal etkilerden en çok etkilenen dezavantajlı gruplardan bir tanesi de gençlerdir. Çalışma kapsamında, genç işsizliğinin ve NEET’nin (ne istihdamda ne eğitimde ne de yetiştirmede) yıllar içerisindeki görünümü sosyal, ekonomik ve politik unsurların etkileriyle farklı refah rejimlerinde yer alan ve giderek yaşlanan bir kimliğe bürünen İtalya, İngiltere ve İsveç’in yaklaşım farklılıklarına odaklanılmıştır. Ayrıca çalışmada yöntem olarak meta-sentez analizi kullanılmıştır. Öncelikle verilere dayalı olarak durum aktarımı yapılmış ve veriler arasında bağlantı kurularak etraflı bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı, gençlik grubunun aile yapısı ve demografik dönüşüm bağlamındaki yeri, önemi ve olası etkilerini işsizlik ve NEET olma çerçevesinde farklı refah rejimlerindeki ülke örnekleriyle ortaya koymaktır. İncelenen ülkelerde, yaşlanma olgusu temelinde İtalya’da güneyli aile tipinin korumacı yapısının gençler üzerindeki değişimi ekonomik ve sosyal yönden görülmüştür. İngiltere’de son yıllarda azalma olsa ada yaş grupları arasında NEET statüsü açısından ciddi ve çözüm gerektiren farklılıklar tespit edilmiştir. İsveç’te eğitim olanaklarının genişlemesinebağlı olarak eğitimde kalınan sürenin gençler için olumsuz yanları olduğu gözlenmiştir. 

One of the disadvantaged groups most affected by economic and social impacts is young people. The focus of the study is on the differences in the approach of Italy, England and Sweden, which have become increasingly aging and take part in different welfare regimes due to the effects of social, economic and political factors on youth unemployment and NEET (neither in employment nor in education or training). In addition, meta-synthesis analysis was used as the method. Firstly, the situation was transferred based on the data and a comprehensive evaluation was made by establishing a connection between the data. The aim of the study is to reveal the place, importance and possible effects of the youth group in the context of family structure and demographic transformation with examples of countries in different welfare regimes within the framework of being unemployment and NEET. On the basis of the phenomenon of aging in the studied countries, the change in the protective structure of the southern family type in Italy on young people has been observed economically and socially. Although there has been a decline in the UK in recent years, serious and demanding differences have been identified between the island age groups in terms of NEET status. Due to the expansion of education opportunities in Sweden, it is observed that the time spent in education has disadvantages for young people.

  • Andersson, R., Nabavi P. ve Wilhemlsson M. (2014). The impact of advanced vocational education and training on earnings in Sweden. International Journal of Trainingand Development, 18(4), 256-270.
  • Ashing, I. (2009). Introduction to youth policy Swedish and Turkish perspectives, 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde http://www.youthpolicy.org/library/wp-content/uploads/library/2009_Introduction_Youth_Policy_Sweden_Turkey_Eng.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Avis, J. ve Liz A. (2017). Youth transitions, VET and the ‘making’ of class: changing theorisations for changing times?. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 22(2), 165-185.
  • Aysan, Mehmet F. ve Roderic B. (2009). Welfare regimes for aging populations: No single path for reform. Population and Development Review, 35(4), 701-720.
  • Benito, S. M. R. Fernando G.-L. ve Xose P. (2018). Sustainable development, poverty, and risk of exclusion for young people in the European Union: The Case of NEETs. Sustainability, 10, 1-15.
  • Berlingieri, F.B. H. ve Sprietsma M. (2014). Youth unemployment in Europe Appraisal and Policy Options, 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde http://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/gutachten/RBS_ZEW-Studie_Jugendarbeitslosigkeit.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Bussi, M. ve Pareliuessen J. (2017). Back to basics literacy profiency, immigration and labour market outcomes in Sweden. Social Policy & Administration, 51(4), 676-696.
  • Caderberg, M. ve Hartsmar N. (2013). Some aspects of early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. European Journal of Educaiton, 48(3), 378-389.
  • Caliendo, M. ve Schimidi R. (2016). Youth unemployment and active labor market policies in Europe. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 5(1), 1-30.
  • Campomori, F.Della Puppa F. (2016). Bridging the gap of youth policies in Italy: an innovative agency for combating social exclusion. ESPAnet Stream 9 Social Innovation and Self- organization in Social Policy Conference, 1-3 Eylül, Rotterdam.
  • Coşan, B. Şahin, Ş. ve Yörubulut, M. Ç. (2017). Küresel ekonominin kronik sorunsalı genç işsizlik: Türkiye-Güney Avrupa (İspanya, İtalya, Portekiz, Yunanistan) ülkelerinin karşılaştırması. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Gazi Akademi Genç Sosyal Bilimciler Sempozyumu 2017 Özel Sayısı, 220-238.
  • Crisp, R. ve Ryan P. (2017). Young people and UK labour market policy: A critique of ‘employability’ as a tool for understanding youth unemployment. Urban Studies, 54(8), 1784-1807.
  • Denstad, F. Y. (2009). Ulusal gençlik stratejisi nasıl geliştirilir? Gençlik politikaları kılavuzu. Şebeke Gençlerin Katılımı Projesi Kitapları – No:1. İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Egdell V. ve Helen G. (2017). A capability approach to unemployed young people’s voice and agency in the development and implementation of employment activation policies. Social Policy & Administration, 51(7), 1191-1209.
  • Ersin, İ. ve Baş, H. (2019). Güney Avrupa refah ülkelerinde sosyal harcamalar ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Sosyal Güvenlik Dergisi, 9(1), 193-213.
  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Euroepan Commission (2017). European conference on the future EU youth strategy. 23 Ocak 2019 tarihinde https://ec.europa.eu/youth/sites/youth/files/youth-strategy-report_en.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Euroepan Commission (2018). Engaging, connecting and empowering young people: A new EU youth strategy. 23 Ocak 2019 tarihinde https://ec.europa.eu/youth/sites/youth/files/youth_com_269_1_en_act_part1_v9.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • European Regional Development Fund (2016). Implementing local approaches to youth employment and oppurtunity JobTown2.
  • EY Foundation (2016). The employment landscape for young people in the uk challenges and oppurtunities.
  • Fellini, I. Giovanna F. (2018). Employment change, ınstituitons and migrant labour: The Italian case in comparative perspective. Stato Mercato, 2, 293-330.
  • Ferrera, M. (1996). The Southern model of welfare in social Europe. Journal of European social policy, 6(1), 17-37.
  • Gallo, G. ve Staniscia B. (2016). Italian youth mobility during the last two decades: an overview in eight selected EU countries. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 4, 345-360.
  • Gaspani F. (2018). Young-adults NEET in Italy: orientations and strategies toward the future. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38 (1/2), 150-164.
  • Ghoshray, A. Ordonez, J. Sala, H. (2016). Euro, crisis and unemployment: Youth patterns, youth policies. Economic Modelling, 58, 442-453.
  • Gökbayrak, Ş. (2009). Refah devletinin dönüşümü ve bakım hizmetlerinin görünmez emekçileri göçmen kadınlar. Çalışma ve Toplum, 2, 55-82.
  • Guidi, R. (2015). Youth policies in Europe: Big changes after the big crisis? An explorative analysis. SocietaMutamenTopolitica, 5(10), 241-264.
  • Halvorsen, R. ve Hvinden, B. (2014). Nordic reforms to improve the labour market participation of vulnerable youth: An effective new approach?. International Social Security Review, 67(2), 29-47.
  • Helen, HO K. (2009). Youth policies (New), 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/tc/curriculum-development/kla/technology-edu/resources/hmsc/youth_policies_eng.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Holmlund, B. (2003). The rise and fall of Swedish unemployment No 918. CESifo Working Paper Series, CESifo Group Munich, 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/cesceswps/_5f918.htm adresinden erişildi.
  • Holte, B.Ignatius H.ve Heikki Hiilamo S. (2019),The NEET concept in comparative youth research: The Nordic countries and South Africa. Journal of Youth Studies, 22(2), 256-272.
  • Hoskins, B. Pauline L. Rachel J, Walde (2018). Negotiating uncertain economic times: Youth employment strategies in England. British Educational Research Journal, 44(1), 61-79.
  • Hutchinson J. ve Vanessa B. ve Tristram H. (2016). Delivering NEET policy packages ? A decade of NEET policy in Egland. Journal of Education and Work, 29(6), 707-727.
  • Isaacs, Miranda R. (2018). Tackling youth unemployment: An investigation of youth employment in Italy. University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects, 17 Ocak 2019 tarihinde https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/2188 adresinden erişildi.
  • Jeffrey, K. (2008). Youth policy: What works and what doesn’t, 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde http://www.youthpolicy.org/national/Canada_2008_Youth_Policy_Report.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Jeong Y. Ayoung L. ve Joonmo C. (2018). Educational mismatches and job resolution in South Korea, the USA, and Germany. Asian Pacific Economic Literature, 32(2), 95-108.
  • Jennings, C. ve Santiago S.P. (2017). Social captial, conflict and welfare. Journal of Development Economics, 124, 157-167.
  • Jeong, B. (2015). The developmental state and social enterprise in South Korea A Historical institutionalism perspective. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(2), 116-137.
  • Ji, Eun J. (2017). The relationship between youth employment and older person’s employment in 20 OECD countries. International Labor Review, 156(3-4), 425-442.
  • Jonzon, B. ve Wise Lois R. (1989). Getting young people to work: An evulation of Swedish youth employment policy. International Labour Review, 128(3), 337-356.
  • Karyda, M. ve Andrew J. (2018). Disadvantaged neighbourhoods and yoıng people not in education, employment or training at the ages 18 to 19 in England. Journal of Education and Work, 31(3), 307-319.
  • Kesgin, B. (2011). Çalışma yaşamında değişen yoksulluk: çalışan yoksullar. İş Ahlakı Dergisi, 4(1), 65-75.
  • Kesgin, B. (2012). Sosyal politikanın en önemli kurumu: Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı, 30(12), 41-54.
  • Kindahl, S. (2014). Country sheet on youth policy in Sweden. 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/1017981/7110688/Country_sheet_Sweden_2014.pdf/d041be2a-b579-4fc7-b02c-6c1284caacd0 adresinden erişildi.
  • Lawy, R. ve Rachel W. (2013). The experiences of long-term unemployed young adults in the South West of England: some new insights. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 18(1-2), 159-174.
  • Layte, R. ve Christopher W. (2010). Moving in and out of poverty. European Studies, 5(2), 167-191.
  • Loncle, P.Muniglia V.ve Spannring R. (2008).Introduction: Youth participation in Europe – between social and political challenges and youth policies, Youth Participation , agency and social change Thematic report.
  • Maguire, S. (2013). Will raising the participation age in England solve the NEET problem?. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 18(1-2), 61-76.
  • Maguire, Sue (2015a). Young people not in education, employment or training (NEET): Recent policy initiatives in England and their effects. Comparative & International Education, 10(4), 525-536.
  • Maguire, Sue (2015b). NEET, unemployed, inactive or unknown – why does it matter?. Educational Research, 57(2), 121-132.
  • Maroukis, T. (2013). Economic crisis and migrants employment: a view from Greece in comparative perspective. Policy Studies, 34(2), 221-237.
  • Melaine, S. (2017). Understanding employer engagement in youth labour market policy in the UK. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(4), 548-564.
  • Martin, G. (2009). A Portrait of the youth labor market in 13 countries, 1980-2007. Monthly Labor Review, 132(3), 3-21.
  • Mascherini, M. (2012). Youth Guarentee: Experiences from Finland and Sweden. 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2012/labour-market/youth-guarantee-experiences-from-finland-and-sweden adresinden erişildi.
  • Mazzoni D. Albanesi C. Cicognani, E. (2019).Italian young people through the lens of youth policies. Socialni Studia/ Social Studies, 2, 75-96.
  • Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality (2009). Swedish integration policy 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://www.government.se/contentassets/b055a941e7a247348f1acf6ade2fd876/swedish-integration-policy-fact-sheet-in-english adresinden erişildi.
  • Naccarato, A. Falorsi S. Loriga, S. ve Pierini A. (2018). Combining official and Google Trends data to forecast the Italian youth unemployment rate. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 130, 114-122.
  • OECD (2017). Skills strategy diagnostic Report 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/oecd-skills-strategy-diagnostic-report-italy-2017_9789264298644-en#page1 adresinden erişildi.
  • O’Reilly, J. vd., (2015). Five characteristics of youth unemployment in Europe: Flexibility, education, migration, family legacies and EU policy. SAGE Open, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015574962
  • Olofsson, J.Wadensjö,E. (2012). Youth, education and labour market in the Nordic countries similar but not the same. 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde http://adapt.it/adapt-indice-a-z/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Youth-Education-and-Labour-Market-in-the-nordic-Country.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Özdemir, S. (2005). Sosyal gelişim düzeyleri farklı refah devletlerinin sınıflandırılması üzerine bir inceleme. Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi, 49, 231-266.
  • Parcel, T. L. ve Lori A. C. (2016). Can the welfare state replace parents? Children’s cognition in the United States and Great Britain. Social Science Research, 64, 79-95.
  • Peroz, E. ve Rosca O. (2007). Youth unemployment in Gothenburg (sweden) among negative Swedes and Immigrants: A Qualitative Study of Labour Market Exclusion. International Master of Science in Social Work.
  • Powell, A. (2018). NEET: Young people not in education, employment or training, house of common library briefing paper. www.parliament.uk/commons-library | intranet.parliament.uk/commons-library | papers (17.6.2019).
  • Quintano, C.Mazzocchi P., Antonella R. (2018). The determinants of Italian NEETs and the effects of the economic crisis. Genus, 74(5), 1-24.
  • Refrigeri, L. ve Aleandri G. (2013). Educational policies and youth unemployment. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1263-1268.
  • Riva, E. (2013). Workplace work-family interventions Italy in times of welfare state retrenchment and recession. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 33(10), 565-578.
  • Rota S. ve Fabrizi S. (2013). Country sheet on youth policy in Italy, 9 Şubat 2019 tarihinde https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/1017981/-1668141/Italy_2013.pdf/561d4a7e-235d-408a-b5b9-37b9b34b-6085 adresinden erişildi.
  • Sergi, V. Cefalo R. Kazepov,Y. (2018). Young people’s disadvantages on the labour market in Italy: reframing the NEET catogory. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 23(1), 41-60.
  • Smith, Rob ve Victoria Wright (2015). The possibilities of re-engagement: cultures of literacy education and so-called NEETs. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 20(4), 400-418.
  • Simmons, Robin (2017). Employability, knowledge and the creative arts: reflections from an ethnographic study of NEET young people on an entry to employment programme. Research in Post-CompulsoryEducation, 22(1), 22-37.
  • Sironi, M. (2017). Economic conditions of young adults before and after the great recession. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 39(1), 103-116.
  • Şenkal, A. ve Doğa B. S. (2007). Avrupa Birliği’nin karşılaştırmalı refah modelleri ve sosyal politikada devletin değişen rolü. Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14, 146-175.
  • Taşcı, F. (2010). Yaşlılara yönelik sosyal politikalar: İsveç, Almanya, İngiltere ve İtalya örnekleri. Çalışma ve Toplum, 1, 175-202
  • Taşcı, F. (2013). Refah devleti modelleri içinde Türkiye’nin pozisyonu: “yaşlı algısı” üzerinden değerlendirmeler. İnsan ve Toplum, 3(5), 5-35.
  • Vesan, P. ve Lizzi R. (2017). The youth guarantee in ıtaly and the new policy design approach: Expectations, hopes and delusions. World Polit Sci, 13(2), 247-271.
  • Wallace, C.veBendit R. (2011). Trends toward europeanisation of youth policy. Chisholm L.Kovacheva, S.Merico, M. (Der.) European Youth Studies Integrating research, policy and practice. Innsburck: TRIANGLES Series Reader.
  • Walther, A. (2006). Regimes of youth transitions”, Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 14(2), 119-139.
  • Wood, Geof ve Ian Gough (2006). A Comparative welfare regime approach to global social policy. World Development, 34(10), 1696-1712.
  • Yüksel, S. ve Adalı, Z. (2017). Determining influencing factors of unemployment in Turkey with Mars method. International Journal of Commerce and Finance, 3(2), 25-36.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-4109-1696
Author: Halim BAŞ (Primary Author)
Institution: İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : August 31, 2019

APA Baş, H . (2019). FARKLI REFAH REJİMLERİNDE GENÇ İŞSİZLİĞİ VE NEET’NİN GÖRÜNÜMÜ: İTALYA, İNGİLTERE VE İSVEÇ ÖRNEKLERİ . Hak İş Uluslararası Emek ve Toplum Dergisi , 8 (21) , 125-148 . DOI: 10.31199/hakisderg.579591