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Yardımcı gıda teknolojileri ile elmadan probiyotik atıştırmalık üretiminin ön çalışması

Year 2019, Volume 23, Issue 3, 324 - 334, 19.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.499249

Abstract


Probiyotik atıştırmalık model yiyeceği elma ve Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ile oluşturulmuştur. Üretimde kullanılan deney tasarımı (DoE) ve kurutucu tipleri ile dehidrasyon işlemi koşullarının etkileri optimizasyon ve son ürünün probiyotik yeterliliği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Elma küplerinin ultrason destekli ozmotik dehidrasyonu (US-OD) ile maksimum düzeyde su içeriğini azaltmak için Box-Behnken tarafından tasarlanan deneysel tasarım çerçevesinde deneyler yürütülmüştür. Deneysel tasarımın sükroz çözelti konsantrasyonu (% 40, 45, 50), elma ve çözelti oranı (1: 4, 1: 6, 1: 8 w w-1) ve ultrason uygulama süresi (10, 20, 30 dak) değişkenlerinin optimum değerleri belirlenmiştir. DoE metodolojisi, % 50 sükroz konsantrasyonu, 1:4 elma ve çözelti oranı ile 10,05 dakika koşullarında maksimum su kaybına ulaşıldığını ortaya koymuştur; sükroz konsantrasyonunu en etkili değişken olarak belirlemiştir; ve kuadratik modelin deneysel sonuçlar ile iyi bir uyum sağladığını (R2=0.929) ortaya çıkarmıştır. Optimize edilen koşullar altında üretilen elma örnekleri, 5 saat boyunca 37 °C sıcaklıkta konveksiyonel ve konvensiyonel kurutucularla kurutulmuştur. Sonuçlar, canlı kalan LGG hücre sayısının (106-107kob g-1) kurutulmuş ürünleri probiyotik olarak nitelendirmek için yeterli olduğunu göstermiştir.


References

  • Amami, E., Khezami, W., Mezrigui, S., Badwaik, L.S., Bejar, A.K., Perez, C.T., Kechaou, N., 2017. Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Pretreatment on the Convective Drying of Strawberry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 36: 286–300.
  • Ambros, S., Foerst, P., Kulozik, U., 2018. Temperature-Controlled Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Impact of Drying Conditions on Process and Product Characteristics. Journal of Food Engineering, 224: 80−87.
  • Anonymous, 2005. Merck Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları. (Ed) Halkman, A. K., Başak Matbaacılık Ltd. Şti., Ankara, 358p.
  • AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Analytical Communities, Arlington, VA.
  • Azarpazhooh, E., Ramaswamy, H.S., 2010. Microwave-Osmotic Dehydration of Apples under Continuous Flow Medium Spray Conditions: Comparison with Other Methods. Drying Technology, 28: 49–56.
  • Barman, N., Badwaik, L.S., 2017. Effect of Ultrasound and Centrifugal Force on Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) Slices during Osmotic Dehydration. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34: 37–44.
  • Bellary, A.N., Rastogi, N.K., 2016. Ways And Means For The Infusion Of Bioactive Constituents In Solid Foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56 (7): 1126−1145.
  • Betoret, N., Puente, L., Díaz, M.J., Pagán, M.J., García, M.J., Gras, M.L., Martínez-Monzó, J., Fito, P., 2003. Development of Probiotic-Enriched Dried Fruits by Vacuum Impregnation. Journal of Food Engineering, 56 (2–3): 273–277.
  • Broeckx, G., Vandenheuvel, D., Claes, I.J.J., Lebeer, S., Kiekens, F., 2016. Drying Techniques of Probiotic Bacteria as an Important Step Towards the Development of Novel Pharmabiotics. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 505: 303–318.
  • Charalampopoulos, D., Wang, R., Pandiella, S.S., Webb, C., 2002. Application of Cereals and Cereal Components in Functional Foods: A Review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 79: 131–141.
  • Chen, Z. Guo, X., Wu, T., 2016. A Novel Dehydration Technique for Carrot Slices Implementing Ultrasound and Vacuum Drying Methods. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 30: 28–34.
  • Chottanom, P., Pranin, T., Shopka, K., Nasinsorn, N., Itsaranuwat, P., 2016. Pulsed Vacuum Osmotic Dehydration of Cherry Tomatoes: Impact on Physicochemical Properties and Probiotics Entrapment. Agricultural Technology and Biological Sciences, 13 (3): 193–204.
  • Demirci, M., Sağdıç, O., Çavuş, M., Pehlivanoğlu, H., Çağlar, M.Y., Yılmaz, M.T., 2017. Prebiyotik Oligosakkaritlerin Kaynakları, Üretimleri ve Gıda Uygulamaları. European Journal of Science and Technology, 6 (10): 20–31.
  • Erdoğan, S.S., Demirci, M., 2014. Elmanin Fenolik Bileşen ve Lif Içeriği. Bahçe, 43 (1–2): 41–52.
  • Farnworth, E.R., 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics in Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. (Ed) Wildman, R.E.C., 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, USA. 335–347 pp.
  • Flores-Andrade, E., Pascual-Pineda, L.A., Alarcón-Elvira, F.G., Rascón-Díaz, M.P., Pimentel-González, D.J., Beristain, C.I., 2017. Effect of Vacuum on the Impregnation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Microcapsules in Apple Slices using Double Emulsion. Journal of Food Engineering, 202: 18−24.
  • Garcia-Noguera, J., Oliveira, F.I.P., Gallão, M.I., Weller, C.L., Rodrigues, S., Fernandes, F.A.N., 2010. Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration of Strawberries: Effect of Pretreatment Time and Ultrasonic Frequency. Drying Technology, 28: 294–303.
  • Grajek, W., Olejnik, A., Sip, A., 2005. Probiotics, Prebiotics and Antioxidants as Functional Foods. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 52 (3): 665–671.
  • Goula, A.M., Kokolaki, M., Daftsiou, E., 2017. Use of Ultrasound for Osmotic Dehydration. The Case of Potatoes. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 105: 157–170.
  • Hasler, C.M., 2002. Functional Foods: Benefits, Concerns and Challenges—A Position Paper from the American Council on Science and Health. Journal of Nutrition, 132: 3772–3781.
  • Klewicki, R., Uczciwek, M., 2008. Effect of Osmotic Dehydration in Fructose, Sucrose and Fructooligosaccharide Solutions on the Content of Saccharides in Plums and Apples and Their Energy Value. Agricultural and Food Science, 17 (4): 367–375.
  • Krasaekoopt, W., Suthanwong, B., 2008. Vacuum Impregnation of Probiotics in Fruit Piece and Their Survival during Refrigerated Storage. Natural Sciences, 42: 723–731.
  • Li, C., Li-ying, N., Da-jing, L., Chun-quan, L.,Ying-ping, L., Chun-ju, L., Jiang-feng, S., 2018. Effects of Different Drying Methods on Quality, Bacterial Viability and Storage Stability of Probiotic Enriched Apple Snacks. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17 (1): 247–255.
  • Mierzwa, D., Kowalski, S.J., Kroehnke, J., 2017. Hybrid Drying of Carrot Preliminary Processed with Ultrasonically Assisted Osmotic Dehydration. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 55 (2): 197–205.
  • Montgomery, C.D., 2001. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 752p.
  • Nowacka, M., Tylewicz, U., Romani, S., Rosa, M.D., Witrowa-Rajchert, D., 2017. Influence of Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration on the Main Quality Parameters of Kiwifruit. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 41: 71–78.
  • Pimentel, T.C., Madrona, G.S., Prudencio, S.H., 2015. Probiotic Clarified Apple Juice with Oligofructose or Sucralose as Sugar Substitutes: Sensory Profile and Acceptability. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 62: 838−846.
  • Plaza, M., Cifuentes, A., Ibáñez, E., 2008. In The Search of New Functional Food Ingredients from Algae. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 19: 31−39.
  • Puente, L., Betoret, N., Cortés, M., 2009. Evolution of Probiotic Content and Color of Apples Impregnated with Lactic Acid Bacteria. Vitae, Revista De La Facultad De Química Farmacéutica, 16 (3): 297−303.
  • Sharma, S.K., Mulvaney, S.J., Rizvi, S.S.H., 2009. Food Process Engineering. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 348p.
  • Ramya, V., Jain, N.K., 2017. A Review on Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: An Integrated Approach. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40: 1−22.
  • Rodrigues, S., Silva, L.C.A., Mulet, A., Cárcel, J.A., Fernandes, F.A.N., 2018. Development of Dried Probiotic Apple Cubes Incorporated with Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-442. Journal of Functional Foods, 41: 48–54.
  • Soares de Mendonça, K., Corrêa, J.L.G., Junqueira, J.R.J., Cirillo, M.A., Figueira, F.V., Carvalho, E.E.N.C., 2017. Influences of Convective and Vacuum Drying on the Quality Attributes of Osmo-Dried Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) Slices. Food Chemistry, 224: 212–218.
  • Tripathi, M.K., Giri, S.K. 2014. Probiotic Functional Foods: Survival of Probiotics during Processing and Storage. Journal of Functional Foods, 9: 225–241.
  • Valík, L., Medveďová, A., Liptáková, D., 2008. Characterization of the Growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Milk at Suboptimal Temperatures. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 47 (2): 60–67.
  • Zhou, M., Chen, Q., Bi, J., Wang, Y., Wu, X., 2017. Degradation Kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside And Cyanidin 3-Orutinoside during Hot Air and Vacuum Drying in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit: A Comparative Study Based on Solid Food System. Food Chemistry, 229: 574–579.
  • Zielinska, M., Markowski, M. Effect of Microwave-Vacuum, Ultrasonication, and Freezing on Mass Transfer Kinetics and Diffusivity during Osmotic Dehydration of Cranberries. Drying Technology, DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2017.1390476.

A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies

Year 2019, Volume 23, Issue 3, 324 - 334, 19.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.499249

Abstract


A probiotic snack model food was formed with apple and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). The effects of dehydration process conditions with design of experiment (DoE) and dryer types used in the production were evaluated through optimization and probiotic qualification of the final product. Experiments on ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration (US-OD) of apple cubes designed by Box-Behnken were conducted to obtain the maximum water reduction. Optimum values of sucrose solution concentration (40, 45, 50%), apple and solution ratio (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 w w-1) and ultrasound application time (10, 20, 30 min) variables of the design were determined. The DoE methodology introduced the results that maximum water loss was reached at the conditions of 50% sucrose concentration, 1:4 apple and solution ratio and 10.05 min; sucrose concentration was the most effective variable; quadratic model submitted a good fitting (R2=0.929) with the experimental results. Apple samples produced under the optimized conditions were dried with convectional and conventional dryers at specific temperature, 37 °C during 5 hours. The results showed that the remaining number of viable LGG cells (106-107cfu g-1) was sufficient to qualify dried products as probiotic.


References

  • Amami, E., Khezami, W., Mezrigui, S., Badwaik, L.S., Bejar, A.K., Perez, C.T., Kechaou, N., 2017. Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Pretreatment on the Convective Drying of Strawberry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 36: 286–300.
  • Ambros, S., Foerst, P., Kulozik, U., 2018. Temperature-Controlled Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Impact of Drying Conditions on Process and Product Characteristics. Journal of Food Engineering, 224: 80−87.
  • Anonymous, 2005. Merck Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları. (Ed) Halkman, A. K., Başak Matbaacılık Ltd. Şti., Ankara, 358p.
  • AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Analytical Communities, Arlington, VA.
  • Azarpazhooh, E., Ramaswamy, H.S., 2010. Microwave-Osmotic Dehydration of Apples under Continuous Flow Medium Spray Conditions: Comparison with Other Methods. Drying Technology, 28: 49–56.
  • Barman, N., Badwaik, L.S., 2017. Effect of Ultrasound and Centrifugal Force on Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) Slices during Osmotic Dehydration. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34: 37–44.
  • Bellary, A.N., Rastogi, N.K., 2016. Ways And Means For The Infusion Of Bioactive Constituents In Solid Foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56 (7): 1126−1145.
  • Betoret, N., Puente, L., Díaz, M.J., Pagán, M.J., García, M.J., Gras, M.L., Martínez-Monzó, J., Fito, P., 2003. Development of Probiotic-Enriched Dried Fruits by Vacuum Impregnation. Journal of Food Engineering, 56 (2–3): 273–277.
  • Broeckx, G., Vandenheuvel, D., Claes, I.J.J., Lebeer, S., Kiekens, F., 2016. Drying Techniques of Probiotic Bacteria as an Important Step Towards the Development of Novel Pharmabiotics. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 505: 303–318.
  • Charalampopoulos, D., Wang, R., Pandiella, S.S., Webb, C., 2002. Application of Cereals and Cereal Components in Functional Foods: A Review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 79: 131–141.
  • Chen, Z. Guo, X., Wu, T., 2016. A Novel Dehydration Technique for Carrot Slices Implementing Ultrasound and Vacuum Drying Methods. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 30: 28–34.
  • Chottanom, P., Pranin, T., Shopka, K., Nasinsorn, N., Itsaranuwat, P., 2016. Pulsed Vacuum Osmotic Dehydration of Cherry Tomatoes: Impact on Physicochemical Properties and Probiotics Entrapment. Agricultural Technology and Biological Sciences, 13 (3): 193–204.
  • Demirci, M., Sağdıç, O., Çavuş, M., Pehlivanoğlu, H., Çağlar, M.Y., Yılmaz, M.T., 2017. Prebiyotik Oligosakkaritlerin Kaynakları, Üretimleri ve Gıda Uygulamaları. European Journal of Science and Technology, 6 (10): 20–31.
  • Erdoğan, S.S., Demirci, M., 2014. Elmanin Fenolik Bileşen ve Lif Içeriği. Bahçe, 43 (1–2): 41–52.
  • Farnworth, E.R., 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics in Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. (Ed) Wildman, R.E.C., 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, USA. 335–347 pp.
  • Flores-Andrade, E., Pascual-Pineda, L.A., Alarcón-Elvira, F.G., Rascón-Díaz, M.P., Pimentel-González, D.J., Beristain, C.I., 2017. Effect of Vacuum on the Impregnation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Microcapsules in Apple Slices using Double Emulsion. Journal of Food Engineering, 202: 18−24.
  • Garcia-Noguera, J., Oliveira, F.I.P., Gallão, M.I., Weller, C.L., Rodrigues, S., Fernandes, F.A.N., 2010. Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration of Strawberries: Effect of Pretreatment Time and Ultrasonic Frequency. Drying Technology, 28: 294–303.
  • Grajek, W., Olejnik, A., Sip, A., 2005. Probiotics, Prebiotics and Antioxidants as Functional Foods. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 52 (3): 665–671.
  • Goula, A.M., Kokolaki, M., Daftsiou, E., 2017. Use of Ultrasound for Osmotic Dehydration. The Case of Potatoes. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 105: 157–170.
  • Hasler, C.M., 2002. Functional Foods: Benefits, Concerns and Challenges—A Position Paper from the American Council on Science and Health. Journal of Nutrition, 132: 3772–3781.
  • Klewicki, R., Uczciwek, M., 2008. Effect of Osmotic Dehydration in Fructose, Sucrose and Fructooligosaccharide Solutions on the Content of Saccharides in Plums and Apples and Their Energy Value. Agricultural and Food Science, 17 (4): 367–375.
  • Krasaekoopt, W., Suthanwong, B., 2008. Vacuum Impregnation of Probiotics in Fruit Piece and Their Survival during Refrigerated Storage. Natural Sciences, 42: 723–731.
  • Li, C., Li-ying, N., Da-jing, L., Chun-quan, L.,Ying-ping, L., Chun-ju, L., Jiang-feng, S., 2018. Effects of Different Drying Methods on Quality, Bacterial Viability and Storage Stability of Probiotic Enriched Apple Snacks. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17 (1): 247–255.
  • Mierzwa, D., Kowalski, S.J., Kroehnke, J., 2017. Hybrid Drying of Carrot Preliminary Processed with Ultrasonically Assisted Osmotic Dehydration. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 55 (2): 197–205.
  • Montgomery, C.D., 2001. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 752p.
  • Nowacka, M., Tylewicz, U., Romani, S., Rosa, M.D., Witrowa-Rajchert, D., 2017. Influence of Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration on the Main Quality Parameters of Kiwifruit. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 41: 71–78.
  • Pimentel, T.C., Madrona, G.S., Prudencio, S.H., 2015. Probiotic Clarified Apple Juice with Oligofructose or Sucralose as Sugar Substitutes: Sensory Profile and Acceptability. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 62: 838−846.
  • Plaza, M., Cifuentes, A., Ibáñez, E., 2008. In The Search of New Functional Food Ingredients from Algae. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 19: 31−39.
  • Puente, L., Betoret, N., Cortés, M., 2009. Evolution of Probiotic Content and Color of Apples Impregnated with Lactic Acid Bacteria. Vitae, Revista De La Facultad De Química Farmacéutica, 16 (3): 297−303.
  • Sharma, S.K., Mulvaney, S.J., Rizvi, S.S.H., 2009. Food Process Engineering. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 348p.
  • Ramya, V., Jain, N.K., 2017. A Review on Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: An Integrated Approach. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40: 1−22.
  • Rodrigues, S., Silva, L.C.A., Mulet, A., Cárcel, J.A., Fernandes, F.A.N., 2018. Development of Dried Probiotic Apple Cubes Incorporated with Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-442. Journal of Functional Foods, 41: 48–54.
  • Soares de Mendonça, K., Corrêa, J.L.G., Junqueira, J.R.J., Cirillo, M.A., Figueira, F.V., Carvalho, E.E.N.C., 2017. Influences of Convective and Vacuum Drying on the Quality Attributes of Osmo-Dried Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) Slices. Food Chemistry, 224: 212–218.
  • Tripathi, M.K., Giri, S.K. 2014. Probiotic Functional Foods: Survival of Probiotics during Processing and Storage. Journal of Functional Foods, 9: 225–241.
  • Valík, L., Medveďová, A., Liptáková, D., 2008. Characterization of the Growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Milk at Suboptimal Temperatures. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 47 (2): 60–67.
  • Zhou, M., Chen, Q., Bi, J., Wang, Y., Wu, X., 2017. Degradation Kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside And Cyanidin 3-Orutinoside during Hot Air and Vacuum Drying in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit: A Comparative Study Based on Solid Food System. Food Chemistry, 229: 574–579.
  • Zielinska, M., Markowski, M. Effect of Microwave-Vacuum, Ultrasonication, and Freezing on Mass Transfer Kinetics and Diffusivity during Osmotic Dehydration of Cranberries. Drying Technology, DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2017.1390476.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology, Agricultural, Engineering
Published Date Eylül 2019
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri
Authors

Derya DURSUN SAYDAM (Primary Author)
GAZİANTEP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9858-6382
Türkiye


Rojda DAKAK This is me
GAZİANTEP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2313-045X


Ali Çoşkun DALGIÇ
GAZİANTEP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6806-5917

Publication Date September 19, 2019
Application Date December 19, 2018
Acceptance Date June 21, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 23, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { harranziraat499249, journal = {Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2148-5003}, eissn = {2587-1358}, address = {}, publisher = {Harran University}, year = {2019}, volume = {23}, pages = {324 - 334}, doi = {10.29050/harranziraat.499249}, title = {A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies}, key = {cite}, author = {Dursun Saydam, Derya and Dakak, Rojda and Dalgıç, Ali Çoşkun} }
APA Dursun Saydam, D. , Dakak, R. & Dalgıç, A. Ç. (2019). A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi , 23 (3) , 324-334 . DOI: 10.29050/harranziraat.499249
MLA Dursun Saydam, D. , Dakak, R. , Dalgıç, A. Ç. "A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies" . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 23 (2019 ): 324-334 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/harranziraat/issue/48655/499249>
Chicago Dursun Saydam, D. , Dakak, R. , Dalgıç, A. Ç. "A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies". Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 23 (2019 ): 324-334
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies AU - Derya Dursun Saydam , Rojda Dakak , Ali Çoşkun Dalgıç Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.499249 DO - 10.29050/harranziraat.499249 T2 - Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 324 EP - 334 VL - 23 IS - 3 SN - 2148-5003-2587-1358 M3 - doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.499249 UR - https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.499249 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Harran Journal of Agricultural and Food Science A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies %A Derya Dursun Saydam , Rojda Dakak , Ali Çoşkun Dalgıç %T A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies %D 2019 %J Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2148-5003-2587-1358 %V 23 %N 3 %R doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.499249 %U 10.29050/harranziraat.499249
ISNAD Dursun Saydam, Derya , Dakak, Rojda , Dalgıç, Ali Çoşkun . "A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies". Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 23 / 3 (September 2019): 324-334 . https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.499249
AMA Dursun Saydam D. , Dakak R. , Dalgıç A. Ç. A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019; 23(3): 324-334.
Vancouver Dursun Saydam D. , Dakak R. , Dalgıç A. Ç. A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019; 23(3): 324-334.
IEEE D. Dursun Saydam , R. Dakak and A. Ç. Dalgıç , "A preliminary study of probiotic apple snack production with assisting food technologies", Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 324-334, Sep. 2019, doi:10.29050/harranziraat.499249

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