Music, which has the power to miraculously affect the emotions, thoughts and behaviors of human beings, has been used for treatment in different geographies and cultures from ancient times until today. Music therapy and spiritual care have simila r characteristics in terms of applied individuals and purposes. Therefore, the use of these applications with similar aims in the physical and spiritual treatment of individuals with serious health problems is important in terms of enabling a holistic treatment. While music therapy is a very important supportive application in relieving, comforting and treating the elderly and patients in spiritual care services, it is not possible to say that music therapy is applied at an adequate level in our country. In this study, the historical background of the phenomenon of music, the approaches of the divine and worldly religions to music, the use of secular or religious music in health care and spiritual care activities in the world and the effects on psychological/physical health were discussed. The aim of this study was to raise awareness of the importance of the use of music in the new emerging spiritual care services in Turkey.
Music has been used for healing in many cultures from the ancient times to the present. Music has the ability to create unusual states of consciousness or cause changes on the listening people. Making music or just listening can take the individual from his / her environment and move them into other areas of existence. In Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam, music is used in religious rituals and rituals in different ways such as divine singing, reading of the scriptures and playing instrumental music. Music therapy, which emerged in USA as a science and professional practice in the university in the 1940s, rapidly spread and developed to other parts of the world, especially in Europe in the following years. Today, music therapy in the West has a 2-4 year undergraduate / graduate level education program and has become a profession branch in hospitals, hospice, clinics and schools. In Turkey has been made legal arrangements on music therapy for the first time in 2014 and already some universities have a certified music therapy training program. Music therapy is a health-oriented, knowledge-based, organized and planned practice that has special needs, centering the relationship between patient and therapist. Music therapy can be applied to individuals of all ages in many different institutions such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes. There are physiological psychosocial, cognitive and spiritual goals that are aimed at reaching music therapy. These aims are to realize personal change in general, to facilitate interpersonal relations, to support development, to contribute to self-realization and to help the individual to socialize. There are different approaches to music therapy. These approaches; Guided Image and Music, Analytic Music Therapy, Creative Music Therapy, Benenzon Music Therapy and Behavioral Music Therapy. There are different applications in the form of improvisational music, singing / singing, playing instrument, writing and listening in music therapy. The psychological and physical health status, interests, needs and abilities of the patient are considered in the application of these. Music therapy is used in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, autism, psychological diseases, multiple scleros, speech disorders and many other diseases.
Spiritual care is spiritual-oriented support services for sick and elderly individuals who are near death due to serious health problems. In spiritual care services, trust, hope, commitment to life and feelings of forgiveness are supported. Spiritual care services include spiritual support not only for the elderly and the patients but also for the survivors after traumatic events such as accidents, disasters or terrorist incidents. Music therapy is an approach that cannot be limited to a single model, order and purpose, practitioner, or training program. At the same time, music therapy is aimed at reaching a number of spiritual goals such as individual transformation, vital meaning and purpose, identity, faith, commitment to others and God. Therefore, music therapy is related to spiritual care as well as to other disciplines such as education, health and psychology. In spiritual counseling, it is aimed to provide the individuals with psychological and physical health problems to be comforted, to be relieved, to find their meaning in their suffering and to gain positive feelings and behaviors such as trust, hope and patience by freeing them from the effects of negative emotions. In music therapy, it is aimed to relieve the suffering of the same target group, to socialize by isolating from isolation, to increase communication, to relieve, to forgive, to increase the productivity and hope. Therefore, it can be said that the aims of spiritual care services and music therapy overlap each other. Both spiritual care and music therapy are an important goal in helping to find meaning in the troubles. In spiritual care, diseases and other distressing events are helped to find meaningful meanings beyond the life of the world. In music therapy, it is possible to gain a sense of meaning through various musical experiences. In many studies we have included in the article, it has been determined that music makes many positive contributions to treatment of individuals suffering from various physical and psychological diseases in terms of treatment, comfort, rehabilitation, stress and pain management, relaxation, socialization, loyalty and communication. Music also plays a supporting role in the spiritual care activities by removing the negative mood experienced during the treatment process, giving positive emotions, giving spiritual experiences, helping to find meaning for suffering. Therefore, in the treatment of physiological and psychological diseases of individuals, the use of spiritual care and music therapy applications is important in order to provide a holistic treatment. Unfortunately, it is not possible to say that music therapy is applied at an adequate level in our country. In this context, courses on the use of music can be taught in medical schools and spiritual counseling training programs. Thus, awareness of the importance of music in the process of physical and spiritual treatment of sick individuals may occur.
Publication Date : June 30, 2019
|ISNAD||Karslı, Necmi . "Manevi Bakımı Destekleyici Bir Uygulama: Müzik Terapi". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 259-286 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.506665|