Year 2020, Volume 5 , Issue 2, Pages 79 - 98 2020-10-31

REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
ÇOCUK HASTALARDA KORONAVIRÜS HASTALIĞININ (COVID-19) ERKEN DÖNEM ETKİLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

Abdullah SARMAN [1] , Suat TUNCAY [2] , Emine SARMAN [3]


Objective: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first appeared in December 2019. This virus has affected hundreds of thousands of people so far, causing deaths in tens of thousands. It is known that most of the studies are related to adults. Data on the nature of symptoms and the general process of the disease in children were not sufficient. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using PubMed, ScienceDirect databases between 1 January-27 March 2020. The review was searched for relevant terms related to "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", "COVID-19", "child". Results: In the study, 45 scientific articles, COVID-19 prevention plan and guideline were determined. The results of the investigation showed that COVID-19 cases detected in children constitute 1-5% of all cases, child patients had a mild disease process than adults and deaths were rare. It was determined that children admitted to the hospital with high fever and respiratory diseases similar to adults. It has been observed that hemodynamic parameters can be stabilized with oxygen, inhalation and nutritional support for treatment in children, thereby protecting the fluid-electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body and thereby correcting inflammatory reactions. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to explain why children infected with COVID-19 have a milder disease process than adult patients.
Amaç: Koronavirus hastalığı 2019 (COVID-19) salgını, ilk kez 2019 yılı Aralık ayında ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu virüs şimdiye kadar yüz binlerce insanı etkilemiş, on binlercesinde ölüme neden olmuştur. Yapılan çalışmaların çoğunun yetişkinlerle ilgili olduğu bilinmektedir. Çocuklarda semptomların niteliği ve hastalığın genel sürecine ilişkin verilerin yeterli olmadığı görülmüştür. Yöntem: İnceleme için 1 Ocak-27 Mart 2020 tarihleri arasında PubMed, Science Direct üzerinden açık erişime sunulan ve çocuklarda “SARS-CoV-2”, “koronavirüs”, “COVID-19”, “çocuk” anahtar terimleri yardımıyla sistematik bir literatür taraması yapılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmada 45 bilimsel makale, COVID-19 önleme planı ve kılavuz olduğu tespit edilmiştir. İnceleme sonuçları çocuklarda tespit edilen COVID-19 vakalarının tüm vakaların %1-5'ini oluşturduğunu, hasta çocukların yetişkinlerden daha hafif bir hastalık süreci geçirdiğini ve ölümlerin nadir olduğunu göstermiştir. Çocukların yetişkinlere benzer şekilde yüksek ateş ve solunum rahatsızlıkları ile hastaneye başvurduğu belirlenmiştir. Çocuklarda tedavi için oksijen, inhalasyon ve beslenme desteği ile hemodinamik parametrelerinin stabilize edilebildiği bu sayede vücudun sıvı-elektrolit ve asit-baz dengesinin korunarak iltihabi reaksiyonların düzeltilebileceği görülmüştür. Sonuç: COVID-19 ile enfekte çocukların erişkin hastalara oranla neden daha hafif bir hastalık süreci geçirdiklerini açıklayabilmek için daha ileri çalışmalar yapılmasına ihtiyaç olduğu düşünülmektedir.
  • Adhikari, SP., Meng, S, Wu, Y-J., Mao, Y-P., Ye, R-X., Wang, Q-Z., … Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty, 9, 29. doi: 10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x
  • Aricò, DC., & Maurizio. (2020). 2019-nCoV: Polite with children! Pediatric Reports. 2020;12(1). doi: 10.4081/pr.2020.8495
  • Baskar, PV, Collins, GD., Dorsey-Cooper, BA., Pyle, RS., Nagel, JE., Dwyer, D., … Adler, WH. (1998). Serum antibodies to HIV-1 are produced post-measles virus infection: evidence for cross-reactivity with HLA. Clin Exp Immunol, 111(2), 251–256. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00488.x
  • Britton, PN., & Marais, BJ. (2020). Questions raised by COVID-19 case descriptions. J Paediatr Child Health, 1. doi: 10.1111/jpc.14872
  • Brodin, P. (2020). Why is COVID-19 so mild in children? Acta Paediatr. doi: 10.1111/apa.15271
  • Cai, H. (2020). Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30117-X
  • Cai, JH., Wang, XS., Ge, YL., Xia, AM., Chang, HL., Tian, H., … Zeng, JS. (2020). First case of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children in Shanghai. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 58(0), E002. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0002
  • Cai, J., Xu, J., Lin, D., Yang, Z., Xu, L., Qu, Z., … Zeng, M. (2020). A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features. Clin Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa198
  • Cai, SJ., Wu, LL., Chen, DF., Li, YX., Liu, YJ., Fan, YQ., … Li, SY. (2020). Analysis of bronchoscope-guided tracheal intubation in 12 cases with COVID-19 under the personal protective equipment with positive pressure protective hood. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 43(0), E033. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112147-20200222-00153
  • Cao, Q., Chen, Y-C., Chen, C-L., & Chiu, C-H. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: transmission dynamics and clinical characteristics. J Formos Med Assoc, 119(3), 670–673. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.02.009
  • Caselli, D., & Aricò, M. (2020). 2019-nCoV: polite with children! Pediatr Rep, 12(1), 8495. doi: 10.4081/pr.2020.8495
  • Chan, JF-W., Yuan, S., Kok, K-H., To, KK-W., Chu, H., Yang, J., … Yuen, K-Y. (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet, 395(10223), 514–523. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9
  • Chen, F., Liu, ZS., Zhang, FR., Xiong, RH., Chen, Y., Cheng, XF., … Ren, J. (2020). First case of severe childhood novel coronavirus pneumonia in China. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 58(0), E005. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0005.
  • Chen, H., Guo, J., Wang, C., Luo, F., Yu, X., Zhang, W., … Zhang, Y. (2020). Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet, 395(10226), 809–815. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3
  • Dashraath, P., Jeslyn, WJL., Karen, LMX., Min, LL., Sarah, L., Biswas, A., … Lin, SL. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.03.021
  • Davis, ME., & Gack, MU. (2015). Ubiquitination in the antiviral immune response. Virology, 479–480, 52–65. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.033
  • Feng, K., Yun, YX., Wang, XF., Yang, GD., Zheng, YJ., Lin, CM., & Wang, LF. (2020). Analysis of CT features of 15 children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 58(0), E007. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0007
  • Guan, W., Ni, Z., Hu, Y., Liang, W., Ou, C., He, J., … Zhong, N. (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med, 1–13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
  • Hong, H., Wang, Y., Chung, H-T., & Chen, C-J. (2020). Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in newborns, infants and children. Pediatr Neonatol, 1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.03.001
  • Kam, K-Q., Yung, CF., Cui, L., Lin Tzer Pin, R., Mak, TM., Maiwald, M., … Thoon, KC. (2020). A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load. Clin Infect Dis, 1–3. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa201.
  • Kelvin, AA., & Halperin, S. (2020). COVID-19 in children: the link in the transmission chain. Lancet Infect Dis, 1–2. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30236-X
  • Lambert, L., & Culley, FJ. (2017). Innate immunity to respiratory infection in early life. Front Immunol, 8(1570), 1–9. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01570
  • Le, HT., Nguyen, LV, Tran, DM., Do, HT., Tran, HT., Le, YT., & Phan, PH. (2020). The first infant case of COVID-19 acquired from a secondary transmission in Vietnam. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 1–2. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30091-2
  • Lee, P-I., Hu, Y-L., Chen, P-Y., Huang, Y-C., & Hsueh, P-R. (2020). Are children less susceptible to COVID-19? J Microbiol Immunol Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.011
  • Li, F., Feng, ZC., & Shi, Y. (2020). Proposal for prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 0, F1. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-318996
  • Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., … Feng, Z. (2020). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med, 382(13), 1119–1207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.
  • Li, Z., Ge, J., Yang, M., Feng, J., Qiao, M., Jiang, R., … Yang, C. (2020). Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun, 1–4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.007
  • Liu, H., Liu, F., Li, J., Zhang, T., Wang, D., & Lan, W. (2020). Clinical and CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia: focus on pregnant women and children. J Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.007
  • Liu, L., Oza, S., Hogan, D., Perin, J., Rudan, I., Lawn, JE., … Black, RE. (2015). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. Lancet, 385(9966), 430–440. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61698-6
  • Liu, W., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., Xiang, R., Song, H., Shu, S., … Liu, Y. (2020). Detection of covid-19 in children in early January 2020 in Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med, 1–3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2003717
  • Lou, XX., Shi, CX., Zhou, CC., & Tian, YS. (2020). Three children who recovered from novel coronavirus 2019 pneumonia. J Paediatr Child Health, 1–2. doi: 10.1111/jpc.14871
  • Lu, X., Zhang, L., Du, H., Zhang, J., Li, YY., Qu, J., … Wong, GWK. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. N Engl J Med, 1–3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2005073
  • Luca, DDe. (2020). Managing neonates with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 4(4), e8. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30073-0
  • Ludvigsson, JF. (2020). Systematic review of COVID-19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr, 00, 1–8. doi: 10.1111/apa.15270
  • Ma, X., Su, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Gai, Z., & Zhang, Z. (2020). Do children need a longer time to shed SARS-CoV-2 in stool than adults? J Microbiol Immunol Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.01
  • Pediatric Branch of Hubei Medical Association Pediatric Branch of Wuhan Medical Association Pediatric Medical Quality Control Center of Hubei. (2020). Recommendation for the diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus infection in children in Hubei (Trial version 1). Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 22(2), 96–99. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2020.02.003
  • Peiris, JSM., Lai, ST., Poon, LLM., Guan, Y., Yam, LYC., Lim, W., … Yuen, KY. (2003). Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet, 361(9366), 1319–1325. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13077-2
  • Qiu, H., Wu, J., Hong, L., Luo, Y., Song, Q., & Chen, D. (2020). Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: An observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis, 1–8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30198-5
  • Salman, S., Ahmed, MS., Ibrahim, AM., Mattar, OM., El-Shirbiny, H., Sarsik, S., … Abushouk, AI. (2019). Intralesional immunotherapy for the treatment of warts: A network meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol., 80(4), 922-930.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.07.003
  • Shen, K., Yang, Y., Wang, T., Zhao, D., Jiang, Y., Jin, R., … Gao, L. (2020). Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: Experts’ consensus statement. World J Pediatr. doi: 10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7
  • Stockman, LJ., Massoudi, MS., Helfand, R., Erdman, D., Siwek, AM., Anderson, LJ., & Parashar, UD. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 26(1). doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000247136.28950.41
  • Tang, JW., Tambyah, PA., & Hui, DSC. (2020). Emergence of a novel coronavirus causing respiratory illness from Wuhan, China. J Infect, 80(3), 350–371. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.01.014
  • Walker, CLF., Rudan, I., Liu, L., Nair, H., Theodoratou, E., Bhutta, ZA., … Black, RE. (2013). Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. Lancet, 381(9875), 1405–1416. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60222-6
  • Wang, D., Ju, XL., Xie, F., Lu, Y., Li, FY., Huang, HH., … Chen, YN. (2020). Clinical analysis of 31 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children from six provinces (autonomous region) of northern China. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 58(4), E011. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112140-20200225-00138
  • Wang, J., & Shi, Y. (2020). Managing neonates with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 – Authors’ reply. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 4(4), e9. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30072-9
  • Wang, Y., & Zhu, L-Q. (2020). Pharmaceutical care recommendations for antiviral treatments in children with coronavirus disease 2019. World J Pediatr. doi: 10.1007/s12519-020-00353-5
  • Wei, M., Yuan, J., Liu, Y., Fu, T., Yu, X., & Zhang, Z-J. (2020). Novel coronavirus infection in hospitalized infants under 1 year of age in China. JAMA. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2131
  • World Health Organization. (2020a). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-63. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200323-sitrep-63-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=2176eb7a_2. [Published online first: 2020/03/23].
  • World Health Organization. (2020b). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-89. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200418-sitrep-89-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=3643dd38_2. [Published online first: 2020/04/18]
  • World Health Organization. (2020c). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-90. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200419-sitrep-90-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=551d47fd_4. [Published online first: 2020/03/19].
  • World Health Organization. (2020d). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-91. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200420-sitrep-91-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=fcf0670b_4. [Published online first: 2020/04/20].
  • World Health Organization. (2020e). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-92. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200421-sitrep-92-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=38e6b06d_6. [Published online first: 2020/04/21].
  • Xie, Z. (2020). Pay attention to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Pediatr Invest, 4(1), 1–4. doi: 10.1002/ped4.12178
  • Yang, P., Liu, P., Li, D., & Zhao, D. (2020). Corona virus disease 2019, a growing threat to children? J Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.024.
  • Zhang, YH., Lin, DJ., Xiao, MF., Wang, JC., Wei, Y., Lei, ZX., … Xiang, W. (2020). 2019-novel coronavirus infection in a three-month-old baby. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 58(0), E006. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0006
  • Zhang, Y., Liu, Z., & Li, H. (2020). Genomic prediction of columnaris disease resistance in catfish. Mar Biotechnol (NY), 22(1), 145–151. doi: 10.1007/s10126-019-09941-7
  • Zheng, F., Liao, C., Fan, Q-H., Chen, H-B., Zhao, X-G., Xie, Z-G., … Jin, R-M. (2020). Clinical characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 in Hubei, China. Curr Med Sci, 40(2), 1–6. doi: 10.1007/s11596-020-2172-6
Primary Language en
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Derleme
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5081-4593
Author: Abdullah SARMAN (Primary Author)
Institution: BINGOL UNIVERSITY, HEALTH SERVICES VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SERVICES AND TECHNIQUES, FIRST AND EMERGENCY AID
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-5493-6507
Author: Suat TUNCAY
Institution: BINGOL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRIC NURSING
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-4671-9315
Author: Emine SARMAN
Institution: SULEYMAN DEMIREL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE, DEPARTMENT OF BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : October 31, 2020

Bibtex @review { hod732208, journal = {Hastane Öncesi Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2548-1215}, address = {}, publisher = {Paramedik Eğitiminde Standardizasyon ve Akreditasyon Derneği}, year = {2020}, volume = {5}, pages = {79 - 98}, doi = {}, title = {REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS}, key = {cite}, author = {Sarman, Abdullah and Tuncay, Suat and Sarman, Emine} }
APA Sarman, A , Tuncay, S , Sarman, E . (2020). REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS . Hastane Öncesi Dergisi , 5 (2) , 79-98 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hod/issue/54345/732208
MLA Sarman, A , Tuncay, S , Sarman, E . "REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS" . Hastane Öncesi Dergisi 5 (2020 ): 79-98 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hod/issue/54345/732208>
Chicago Sarman, A , Tuncay, S , Sarman, E . "REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS". Hastane Öncesi Dergisi 5 (2020 ): 79-98
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AU - Abdullah Sarman , Suat Tuncay , Emine Sarman Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Hastane Öncesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 79 EP - 98 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - -2548-1215 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Hastane Öncesi Dergisi REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS %A Abdullah Sarman , Suat Tuncay , Emine Sarman %T REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS %D 2020 %J Hastane Öncesi Dergisi %P -2548-1215 %V 5 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Sarman, Abdullah , Tuncay, Suat , Sarman, Emine . "REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS". Hastane Öncesi Dergisi 5 / 2 (October 2020): 79-98 .
AMA Sarman A , Tuncay S , Sarman E . REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS. HOD. 2020; 5(2): 79-98.
Vancouver Sarman A , Tuncay S , Sarman E . REVIEW OF EARLY STAGE EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS. Hastane Öncesi Dergisi. 2020; 5(2): 79-98.