Writing Rules

Manuscript Organization and Submission

The language of the journal is both Turkish and English.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscpript is to be submitted to journal’s e-mail: hturcicum@istanbul.edu.tr and it must be accompanied by a cover letter indicating that the manuscript is intended for publication, specifying the article category (i.e. research article, review etc.) and including information about the manuscript (see the Submission Checklist), title page, author form, and Copyright Agreement Form that has to be signed by all authors.

By submitting an article, the authors indicate that the work has not been previously published, nor is simultaneously being considered for publication elsewhere, and that it has been approved – tacitly or expressly – by all co-authors, as well as by the responsible authorities of unit where the work was produced. The publisher cannot be held legally responsible in the event of claims for compensation.


Authors wishing to include figures, tables or text passages previously published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder for both print and online format and include evidence of such permission when submitting an article. Any material received without such evidence will be deemed the work of the authors.

Online Submission

Please follow the link “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all relevant files following the instructions provided.

Ensure that you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files may lead to unnecessary delays in the review and production process.


All tables should be numbered using Arabic numerals.

Tables should always be referenced in the text in sequential numerical order.

Provide a title describing the components of each table.

For tables taken from other sources, provide the source as a reference at the end of the title.

Footnotes should be shown in superscript lowercase (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included at the bottom of the table.

Herbarium Turcicum encourages online-only publication of comprehensive tables that supplement the article but are more user-friendly in electronic form.

Visual Material

For the best end result, it is highly recommended that all work (including photos, drawings, etc.) is submitted in electronic format. Published work is a direct reflection of the quality of the visual material provided.

Electronic Figure Submission

Numbers and letters used in figures must be on a separate layer.

Specify the image editor used.

The preferred format for vector graphics is EPS. For black and white images, use the TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.

Name Figure files "Figure" and the number.

Figure Numbering

Figures must be numbered using Arabic numerals.

All figures should be referenced in the text in sequential order.

Figure parts should be indicated with lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).

If an appendix appears in your article and contains one or more figures, continue with the sequential numbering of the main text. Do not number appendix figures "A1, A2, A3, etc." However, figures found only in the online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should be numbered separately.

Figure Titles

Each figure should have a short title that describes exactly what it represents. Include subtitles in the text file, not the image file.

Figure titles begin with “Figure” followed by the figure number, both in bold.

Do not use punctuation after the figure number or at the end of the title.

Define all the figure elements in the title and use boxes, circles, etc. as coordinate points in images.

Identify any and all previously published material by citing the original source as a reference at the end of the figure title.

 Manuscript Types
Herbarium Turcicum publishes original articles related to herbariums and live collections that take plant systematics as the main theme. The journal encourages the inclusion of original drawings and high-quality original photographs of rare and endangered species to accompany descriptions. The full spectrum of articles accepted by the journal is presented below. The topic should be original and of interest to our readers. Submitted texts should be written in either Turkish or English with the utmost attention paid to language and spelling rules.

Original Research Articles

Articles presenting the results of empirical and theoretical research that address questions or hypotheses regarding herbariums, living collections and plant systematics.

Review Articles

Articles dealing with herbariums, living collections and the latest significant developments and advances in plant systematics. Reviews should be of interest to a wide audience and are expected to both summarize current knowledge and propose new ideas and hypotheses for future research.

Letters To The Editor

Short Communications

These are short articles written in response or in addition to previously published research articles and provide additional scientific contributions, comments and criticism, and new findings that offer an alternative interpretation. A maximum of 3 pages (4,000 words) is recommended.

Title Page

Please ensure your title page contains the following information.

The title should be concise and informative.

Author information
The name(s) of the author(s),

The affiliation(s) of the author(s), and their addresses,

A clear indication of the corresponding author and their active e-mail address.

The abstract should be 150 to 250 words and should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords to be used for indexing purposes.

Statements and Declarations
Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose any and all financial or non-financial interests directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication.

Please note that the abstract should be available as a stand-alone document presenting the main results and conclusions of the article using simple, factual statements.

Manuscript Structure

The text of a research paper should be divided into: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Final Word (optional), Acknowledgments, and References.

Figure captions should follow the text. Tables, Figures and Electronic Supplementary Material must be uploaded as separate files.


The introduction should state the reason for carrying out the study and the questions under consideration, and outline the essential background information. The introduction section typically ends with specific, testable hypotheses.

Materials and methods

The materials and methods section should describe applied methods and techniques in sufficient detail to allow replication of all parts of the study. Standard techniques and approaches need not be described in detail; use references to previously published work instead.

Note that for all plant material studied, a voucher specimen must be submitted to an herbarium registered with the Index Herbariorum (http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/).

Discussion and Conclusion

The Discussion section should describe and evaluate the findings in terms of the questions and hypotheses presented in the introduction and in the context of other relevant studies. The conclusion section should logically state the results, drawing attention to important details in the tables and figures.

Final Word (Optional)

In this section, the authors can briefly describe the main contributions and results of the research and make a clear statement about its importance and relevance.

Taxonomic Treatment

Descriptions and taxonomic innovations should be presented in separate paragraphs immediately after the "Discussion and Conclusion" section.


Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

Regular 10-point Times New Roman font should be used for text. Use single-line spacing and 6 pt before and after paragraph spacing. Italics may be used for emphasis.

All page margins should be 2.5 cm.

The automatic page numbering function should be used to number the pages.

Tab stops or other commands should be used for indentations, not the spacebar.

Use the table function rather than spreadsheets to make tables.

Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.

Files should be submitted in .docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or .doc format (older Word versions).


Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


Footnotes should avoided except in special circumstances which require additional clarification for a reference not adequately described by a standard citation.


Acknowledgments of persons, donations, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Scientific Style

Use SI units and internationally accepted signs and symbols.
Species and subspecies names should be italicized in normal text. Higher taxonomic levels should not be italicized.
It is sufficient to provide plant author names at first mention of the relevant taxon, except in special circumstances. We recommend www.ipni.org for plant authors. Please provide your source in the reference list as appropriate.
Herbarium Turcicum requires that supporting data be stored in an appropriate repository to facilitate reader access prior to final acceptance of the manuscript.
Genetic information, such as DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, should be sent to an appropriate database such as GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) or EMBL (www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/).

All sequences produced from next-generation sequencing techniques may be archived in an appropriate public repository such as the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra), ENA (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/about/sra_submissions) or Dryad (http://datadryad.org/).

TreeBase (http://www.treebase.org) and Dryad http://datadryad.org/) are public access and recommended for alignments used for phylogenetic work.

Papers accepted but not yet included in the issue are published online in the Early View section and they should be cited as “advance online publication”. Citing a “personal communication” should be avoided unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication must be obtained.

Reference Style and Format

Herbarium Turcicum complies with APA (American Psychological Association) style 6th Edition for referencing and quoting. For more information:

- American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.

- http://www.apastyle.org

Accuracy of citation is the author’s responsibility. All references should be cited in text. Reference list must be in alphabetical order. Type references in the style shown below.

Citations in the Text

Citations must be indicated with the author surname and publication year within the parenthesis.

If more than one citation is made within the same paranthesis, separate them with (;).


More than one citation;

(Esin et al., 2002; Karasar, 1995)

Citation with one author;

(Yıldırım, 2015)

Citation with two authors;

(Yıldırım & Erol 2013)

Citation with three, four, five authors;

First citation in the text: (Erol, Şık, & Kaya, 2011) Subsequent citations in the text: (Erol et al., 2011)

Citations with more than six authors;

(Çavdar et al., 2003)

Citations in the Reference

All the citations done in the text should be listed in the References section in alphabetical order of author surname without numbering. Below given examples should be considered in citing the references.

Basic Reference Types


a) Turkish Book

Karasar, N. (1995). Araştırmalarda rapor hazırlama (8th ed.) [Preparing research reports]. Ankara, Turkey: 3A Eğitim Danışmanlık Ltd.

b) Book Translated into Turkish

Mucchielli, A. (1991). Zihniyetler [Mindsets] (A. Kotil, Trans.). İstanbul, Turkey: İletişim Yayınları.

c) Edited Book

Ören, T., Üney, T., & Çölkesen, R. (Eds.). (2006). Türkiye bilişim ansiklopedisi [Turkish Encyclopedia of Informatics]. İstanbul, Turkey: Papatya Yayıncılık.

d) Turkish Book with Multiple Authors

Tonta, Y., Bitirim, Y., & Sever, H. (2002). Türkçe arama motorlarında performans değerlendirme [Performance evaluation in Turkish search engines]. Ankara, Turkey: Total Bilişim.

e) Book in English

Çalışkan, M., Erol, O., & Cevahir Öz, G. (2020). The recent topics in genetic polymorphisms.

London: BoD – Books on Demand.

f) Chapter in an Edited Book

Erol, O. (2007). Crocus biflorus subsp. artvinensis, C. gargaricus subsp. herbertii, C. mathewii. In Ekim, T. (Ed.), The rare endemics of Turkey (ss 178-13). İstanbul, Turkey: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.

g) Chapter in an Edited Book in Turkish

Erkmen, T. (2012). Örgüt kültürü: Fonksiyonları, öğeleri, işletme yönetimi ve liderlikteki önemi [Organization culture: Its functions, elements and importance in leadership and business management]. In M. Zencirkıran (Ed.), Örgüt sosyolojisi [Organization sociology] (pp. 233–263). Bursa, Turkey: Dora Basım Yayın.

h) Book with the same organization as author and publisher

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.


a) Turkish Article

Mutlu, B., & Savaşer, S. (2007). Çocuğu ameliyat sonrası yoğun bakımda olan ebeveynlerde stres nedenleri ve azaltma girişimleri [Source and intervention reduction of stress for parents whose children are in intensive care unit after surgery]. Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 15(60), 179–182.

b) English Article

Erol, O., Şık, L., Kaya, B.H., Tanyolaç, B., & Küçüker, O. (2011). Genetic diversity of Crocus antalyensis B. Mathew (Iridaceae) and a new subspecies from southern Anatolia. Plant Syst Evol 294, 281-287.

c) Journal Article with DOI and More Than Seven Authors

Lal, H., Cunningham, A. L., Godeaux, O., Chlibek, R., Diez-Domingo, J., Hwang, S.-J. ... Heineman, T. C. (2015). Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2087–2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501184

d) Journal Article from Web, without DOI

Sidani, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26–38. Retrieved from http://cjnr.mcgill.ca

e) Journal Article wih DOI

Turner, S. J. (2010). Website statistics 2.0: Using Google Analytics to measure library website effectiveness. Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 261–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317131003765910

f) Advance Online Publication

Smith, J. A. (2010). Citing advance online publication: A review. Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a45d7867

g) Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28–31.

Doctoral Dissertation, Master’s Thesis, Presentation, Proceeding

a) Dissertation/Thesis from a Commercial Database

Van Brunt, D. (1997). Networked consumer health information systems (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9943436)

b) Dissertation/Thesis from an Institutional Database

Yaylalı-Yıldız, B. (2014). University campuses as places of potential publicness: Exploring the politicals, social and cultural practices in Ege University (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://library.iyte.edu.tr/tr/hizli-erisim/iyte-tez-portali

c) Dissertation/Thesis from Web

Tonta, Y. A. (1992). An analysis of search failures in online library catalogs (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley). Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar /phd/ickapak.html

d) Dissertation/Thesis abstracted in Dissertations Abstracts International

Appelbaum, L. G. (2005). Three studies of human information processing: Texture amplifica­tion, motion representation, and figure-ground segregation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65(10), 5428.

e) Symposium Contribution

Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2012, August). Are neuropsychiatric symptoms markers of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome? In W. B. Zigman (Chair), Predictors of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality in adults with Down syndrome. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

f) Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

g) Conference Paper - In Regularly Published Proceedings and Retrieved Online

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

h) Proceeding in Book Form

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. (1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J. N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N. Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree: Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

i) Paper Presentation

Nguyen, C. A. (2012, August). Humor and deception in advertising: When laughter may not be the best medicine. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Other Sources

a) Newspaper Article

Browne, R. (2010, March 21). This brainless patient is no dummy. Sydney Morning Herald, 45.

b) Newspaper Article with no Author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

c) Web Page/Blog Post

Euro+Med (2014, March 1). Euro+Med PlantBase ‐ the information resource for Euro‐ Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/

d) Online Encyclopedia/Dictionary

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed. com

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/

e) Podcast

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/

f) Single Episode in a Television Series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate. [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House; New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

g) Music

Fuchs, G. (2004). Light the menorah. On Eight nights of Hanukkah [CD]. Brick, NJ: Kid Kosher.

Submission Checklist
Ensure that the following items are present:

Cover letter to the editor

The category of the manuscript
Confirming that “the paper is not under consideration for publication in another journal”.
Including disclosure of any commercial or financial involvement.
Confirming that last control for fluent English was done.
Confirming that journal policies detailed in Information for Authors have been reviewed.

Copyright Agreement Form

Permission of previous published material if used in the present manuscript

Author Form

Title page

The category of the manuscript
The title of the manuscript both in Turkish and in English
All authors’ names and affiliations (institution, faculty/department, city, country), e-mail addresses
Corresponding author’s email address, full postal address, telephone and fax number
ORCIDs of all authors
Grant support, Conflict of interest, and Acknowledgement (if exists)

Main Manuscript Document:

Important: Please avoid mentioning the author (s) names in the manuscript.
The title of the manuscript both in Turkish and in English
Abstracts both in Turkish (150-250 words) and in English (150-250 words)
Key words: 4-6 words in Turkish and in English
Extended Abstract (600-800 words) in English (Only for articles in Turkish - not required for studies of new taxa, new records, floristic studies, scientific plant illustrations, scientific photography techniques)
Body text
All tables, illustrations (figures) (including title, description, footnotes)