Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population

Year 2019, Volume 16, Issue 2, 221 - 226, 29.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.596599

Abstract

 

Background: To evaluate the sacrococcygeal anatomy and morphometry with lower abdomen magnetic resonance (MR) images in asymptomatic adult subjects

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the images of 216 adult patients who underwent MR imaging of the lower abdomen for reasons other than coccydynia in the radiology clinic. In this evaluation, coccyx (Co) thickness (from Co1 middle section), sacrococcygeal angle, fusion between vertebrates, number of coccygeal vertebrae, sacrococcygeal joint angle, intercocsigeal joint angle, coccyx type, presence of subluxation, coccyx flat length, coccyx curvature length, sacrum flat length, sacrum curvature length, sacrococcygeal flat length,

sacrococcygeal curvature length, sacral angle, coccyx curvature index, sacrum curvature index, sacrococcygeal curvature index were measured.

Results: The mean number of coccyx vertebrae was 3.5 ± 0.75 in females and 3.8 ± 0.78 in males. The mean coccyx thickness was 7.3 ±1.4 mm in females and 8.4±1.8 in males. Subluxation was determined in 59 (27.3%) cases, and not in 157(72.7%) cases. The mean length of the coccyx was 35.4±6.6 mm in females and 38.9±8.7 mm in males. The mean length of the coccyx curvature was 37.5±7.2 mm in females and 41.7±9.1 mm in males.

The most common coccyx type in both males and females was type II coccyx in 98 (45.4%) patients. The sacrococcygeal angle was 109±15 degrees in females and 113±13 in males.

Conclusion: Knowledge of the vertebrae anatomy of asymptomatic patients may prevent unnecessary surgery in coccydynia. Wide ranges of similar studies are needed to be done with patients with coccydynia.

 

Keywords: coccyx anatomy, magnetic resonance imaging, sacrococcygeal angle, coccygeal angle

References

  • 1. Duncan G. 1937. Painful coccyx. Arch Surg 34:1088–1104.
  • 2. Karadimas EJ, Trypsiannis G, Giannoudis PV (2010) Surgical treatment of coccygodynia: an analytic review of the literature. Eur Spine J 20:698–705
  • 3. Kerimoglu U, Dagoglu MG, Ergen FB. Intercoccygeal angle and type of coccyx in asymptomatic patients. Surg Radiol Anat 2007;29:683-7.
  • 4. Le Double A. 1912. Traite´ des variations de la colonne verte´brale de l’homme. Paris: Vigot fre`res. p 501.
  • 5. Lowrance EW, Latimer HB. 1967. Weights and variability of components of the human vertebral column. Anat Rec 159:83–88.
  • 6. Pelin C, Duyar I, Kayahan EM, Zagyapan R, Agildere AM, Erar A. 2005. Body height estimation based on dimensions of sacral and coccygeal vertebrae. J Forensic Sci 50:294–297.
  • 7. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. 1983. Idiopathic coccygodynia. Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. J Bone Joint Surg Am 65:1116–1124.
  • 8. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983;65:1116-24.
  • 9. Przybylski P, Pankowicz M, Bockowska A, et al. Eval¬uation of coccygeal bone variability, intercoccygeal and lumbo-sacral angles in asymptomatic patients in multislice computed tomography. Anat Sci Int 2013;88:204-11.
  • 10. Shalaby SA, Eid EM, Allam OA, Ali AM, Gebba MA. Morphometric study of the normal Egyptian coccyx from (age 1-40 year). Int J Clin Dev Anat 2015;1:32-41.
  • 11. Standring S. Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice, 41th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2015. p. 729:
  • 12. Sugar O. Coccyx: The bone named for a bird. Spine 1995;20:379-83.
  • 13. Tetiker H, Koşar MI, Çullu N, Canbek U, Otağ I, Taştemur Y. MRI-based detailed evaluation of the anatomy of the human coccyx among Turkish adults. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017 Feb;20(2):136-142.
  • 14. Woon JT, Perumal V, Maigne JY, Stringer MD. CT morphology and morphometry of the normal adult coccyx. Eur Spine J 2013;22:863-70.
  • 15. Woon JT, Stringer MD. Clinical anatomy of the coc¬cyx: a systematic review. Clin Anat 2012;25:158-67.
  • 16. Woon JTK, Stringer MD (2012) Clinical anatomy of the coccyx:a systematic review. Clin Anat 25:158–167

Erişkin popülasyonda koksiksin anatomik ve morfometrik değerlendirilmesi

Year 2019, Volume 16, Issue 2, 221 - 226, 29.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.596599

Abstract

Amaç: Sakrokoksigeal anatomi ve morfometrinin asemptomatik erişkin bireylerde alt abdomen manyetik rezonans (MR) görüntüleriyle değerlendirilmesi

Materyal ve Metot: Radyoloji kliniğinde koksidini dışındaki nedenlerle alt abdomen MR incelemesi yapılmış erişkin 216 hastanın görüntüleri retrospektif olarak değerlendirildi. Bu değerlendirmede koksiks (Co) kalınlığı (Co1 orta kesimden), sakrokoksigeal açı, vertebralar arasında füzyon varlığı, koksiksteki vertebra sayısı, sakrokoksigeal eklem açısı, interkoksigeal eklem açısı, koksiks tipi, subluksasyon varlığı, koksiks düz uzunluğu, koksiks eğrisel uzunluğu, sakrum düz uzunluğu, sakrum eğrisel uzunluğu, sakrokoksigeal düz uzunluk, sakrokoksigeal eğrisel uzunluk, sakral açı, koksiks kurvatur indeks, sakrum kurvatur indeks, sakrokoksigeal kurvatur indeks ölçüldü.

Bulgular: Koksiksteki ortalama vertebra sayısı kadınlarda 3,5±0,75, erkeklerde 3,8±0,78 idi. Ortalama koksiks kalınlığı kadınlarda 7,3±1,4 mm erkeklerde 8,4±1,8 mm idi. Vakaların 59 unda (%27,3) subluksasyon izlenirken, 157 (%72,7) sinde subluksasyon saptanmadı. Koksiksin ortalama düz uzunluğu kadınlarda 35,4±6,6 mm, erkeklerde 38,9±8,7 mm olarak ölçüldü. Koksiks eğrisel uzunluğu ise kadınlarda37,5±7,2 mm, erkeklerde 41,7±91 mm idi. Kadın ve erkeklerde en yaygın koksiks tipi 98 (%45,4) kişi ile tip 2 koksiksti. Sakrokoksigeal açı kadınlarda 109±15 derece iken erkeklerde 113±13 derece olarak ölçüldü.

Sonuç: Asemptomatik bireylerdeki koksiks vertebra anatomisinin bilinmesi koksidinideki gereksiz cerrahi girişimleri önleyebilir. Ayrıca koksidinili hastaları da içeren daha geniş kapsamlı çalışmalara ihtiyaç olduğunu düşünüyoruz.

 

Anahtar Kelimeler: Koksiks anatomisi, manyetik rezonans görüntüleme, sakrokoksigeal açı, koksigeal açı    

References

  • 1. Duncan G. 1937. Painful coccyx. Arch Surg 34:1088–1104.
  • 2. Karadimas EJ, Trypsiannis G, Giannoudis PV (2010) Surgical treatment of coccygodynia: an analytic review of the literature. Eur Spine J 20:698–705
  • 3. Kerimoglu U, Dagoglu MG, Ergen FB. Intercoccygeal angle and type of coccyx in asymptomatic patients. Surg Radiol Anat 2007;29:683-7.
  • 4. Le Double A. 1912. Traite´ des variations de la colonne verte´brale de l’homme. Paris: Vigot fre`res. p 501.
  • 5. Lowrance EW, Latimer HB. 1967. Weights and variability of components of the human vertebral column. Anat Rec 159:83–88.
  • 6. Pelin C, Duyar I, Kayahan EM, Zagyapan R, Agildere AM, Erar A. 2005. Body height estimation based on dimensions of sacral and coccygeal vertebrae. J Forensic Sci 50:294–297.
  • 7. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. 1983. Idiopathic coccygodynia. Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. J Bone Joint Surg Am 65:1116–1124.
  • 8. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983;65:1116-24.
  • 9. Przybylski P, Pankowicz M, Bockowska A, et al. Eval¬uation of coccygeal bone variability, intercoccygeal and lumbo-sacral angles in asymptomatic patients in multislice computed tomography. Anat Sci Int 2013;88:204-11.
  • 10. Shalaby SA, Eid EM, Allam OA, Ali AM, Gebba MA. Morphometric study of the normal Egyptian coccyx from (age 1-40 year). Int J Clin Dev Anat 2015;1:32-41.
  • 11. Standring S. Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice, 41th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2015. p. 729:
  • 12. Sugar O. Coccyx: The bone named for a bird. Spine 1995;20:379-83.
  • 13. Tetiker H, Koşar MI, Çullu N, Canbek U, Otağ I, Taştemur Y. MRI-based detailed evaluation of the anatomy of the human coccyx among Turkish adults. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017 Feb;20(2):136-142.
  • 14. Woon JT, Perumal V, Maigne JY, Stringer MD. CT morphology and morphometry of the normal adult coccyx. Eur Spine J 2013;22:863-70.
  • 15. Woon JT, Stringer MD. Clinical anatomy of the coc¬cyx: a systematic review. Clin Anat 2012;25:158-67.
  • 16. Woon JTK, Stringer MD (2012) Clinical anatomy of the coccyx:a systematic review. Clin Anat 25:158–167

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Sunay Sibel KARAYOL (Primary Author)
HARRAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-2696-3580
Türkiye


Kudret Cem KARAYOL
HARRAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1249-6464
Türkiye


Dilek ŞEN DOKUMACI
HARRAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-3012-427X
Türkiye

Supporting Institution YOK
Publication Date August 29, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 16, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { hutfd596599, journal = {Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1304-9623}, eissn = {1309-4025}, address = {tipdergisi@harran.edu.tr}, publisher = {Harran University}, year = {2019}, volume = {16}, pages = {221 - 226}, doi = {10.35440/hutfd.596599}, title = {Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population}, key = {cite}, author = {Karayol, Sunay Sibel and Karayol, Kudret Cem and Şen Dokumacı, Dilek} }
APA Karayol, S. S. , Karayol, K. C. & Şen Dokumacı, D. (2019). Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population . Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi , 16 (2) , 221-226 . DOI: 10.35440/hutfd.596599
MLA Karayol, S. S. , Karayol, K. C. , Şen Dokumacı, D. "Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population" . Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 16 (2019 ): 221-226 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hutfd/issue/47757/596599>
Chicago Karayol, S. S. , Karayol, K. C. , Şen Dokumacı, D. "Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population". Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 16 (2019 ): 221-226
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population AU - Sunay Sibel Karayol , Kudret Cem Karayol , Dilek Şen Dokumacı Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.35440/hutfd.596599 DO - 10.35440/hutfd.596599 T2 - Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 221 EP - 226 VL - 16 IS - 2 SN - 1304-9623-1309-4025 M3 - doi: 10.35440/hutfd.596599 UR - https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.596599 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population %A Sunay Sibel Karayol , Kudret Cem Karayol , Dilek Şen Dokumacı %T Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population %D 2019 %J Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1304-9623-1309-4025 %V 16 %N 2 %R doi: 10.35440/hutfd.596599 %U 10.35440/hutfd.596599
ISNAD Karayol, Sunay Sibel , Karayol, Kudret Cem , Şen Dokumacı, Dilek . "Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population". Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 16 / 2 (August 2019): 221-226 . https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.596599
AMA Karayol S. S. , Karayol K. C. , Şen Dokumacı D. Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population. Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 16(2): 221-226.
Vancouver Karayol S. S. , Karayol K. C. , Şen Dokumacı D. Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population. Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 16(2): 221-226.
IEEE S. S. Karayol , K. C. Karayol and D. Şen Dokumacı , "Anatomic and morphometric evaluation of the coccyx in the adult population", Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 221-226, Aug. 2019, doi:10.35440/hutfd.596599

Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi  / Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty