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Use of Microbial Pigments as Colorants in Foods

Year 2023, Issue: 21 - December, 1273 - 1285, 05.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1098911

Abstract

Today, the widespread negative opinions of consumers about synthetic food colorings have increased the demand for colorants derived from natural sources. Naturally derived colorants are obtained from plants, animals, and microorganisms and are referred to as biorecolorants. Among these, pigments obtained from microorganisms are preferred because of their beneficial effects on health and various advantages in production. Various microorganisms (Monascus, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Paracoccus, Streptomyces, Penicillium, Rhodotarula, Brevibacterium, etc.) are capable of producing pigments; β-carotene, arpink red, riboflavin, monascus pigment, prodigiosin, and lycopene are the main pigments produced. Microbial pigments have various advantages such as easy extraction, low production costs, no raw material problems and environmental friendliness. However, some microbial pigments also have disadvantages, such as being insoluble in water, showing color changes under different pH conditions, causing taste changes, and having a more limited color range. This review provides basic information about the color pigments of microorganisms used in foods.

References

  • 1. Malik K, Tokkas J, Goyal S. Microbial pigments: A review. International Journal of Microbial Resource Technology. 2012;1(4):361-365.
  • 2. Clydesdale FM. Color as a factor in food choice. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1993;33(1):83-101. doi: 10.1080/10408399309527614.
  • 3. Downham A, Collins P. Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2000;35(1):5-22. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2621.2000.00373.x.
  • 4. Zollinger H. Color Chemistry Syntheses, Properties, and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments. Zürih: Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta; 2003
  • 5. Aberoumand A. A review article on edible pigments properties and sources as natural biocolorants in foodstuff and food industry. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences. 2011;6(1):71-78.
  • 6. Amchova P, Kotolaova H, Ruda-Kucerova J. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2015;73(3):914-922. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.09.026.
  • 7. Joshi VK, Attri D, Bala A, Bhushan S. Microbial pigments. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2:362-369.
  • 8. Sigurdson, GT, Tang, P, Giusti MM. Natural colorants: Food colorants from natural sources. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2017;8:261-280.
  • 9. Venil CK, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA. Bacterial pigments and their applications. Process Biochemistry. 2013;48(7):1065-1079. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2013.06.006.
  • 10. Arıkan EB, Canlı O, Caro Y, Dufossé L, Dizge N. Production of bio-based pigments from food processing industry by-products (apple, pomegranate, black carrot, red beet pulps) using aspergillus carbonarius. Journal of Fungi. 2020;6(4):1-18.
  • 11. Shahid M, Shahid-ul-Islam, Mohammad F. Recent advancements in natural dye applications: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2013;53:310-331. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.03.031.
  • 12. Kumar A, Vishwakarma HS, Singh J, Dwivedi S, Kumar M. Microbial pigments: production and their applications in various industries. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences. 2015;5(1):203-212.
  • 13. Chaitanya Lakshmi G. Food coloring: The natural way. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2014:4(2):87-96.
  • 14. Venil CK, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. An insightful overview on microbial pigment, prodigiosin. Electronic Journal of Biology. 2009;5(3):49-61.
  • 15. Wissgott U, Bortlik K. Prospects for new natural food colorants. Trends In Food Science & Technology. 1996;7(9):298-302. doi:10.1016/0924-2244(96)20007-X.
  • 16. Heer K, Sharma S. Microbial pigments as a natural color: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2017;8(5):1913-1922.
  • 17. Naidu MM, Sowbhagya HB. Technological advances in food colours. Food Colours. 2012;79-88.
  • 18. Boo HO, Hwang SJ, Bae CS, Park SH, Heo BG, Gorinstein S. Extraction and characterization of some natural plant pigments. Industrial Crops and Products. 2012;40:129-135. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.02.042.
  • 19. Parmar M, Phutela UG. Biocolors: The new generation additives. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(7):688-694.
  • 20. Gupta C, Garg AP, Prakash D, Goyal S, Gupta S. Microbes as potential source biocolours. Pharmacologyonline. 2011;2:1309-1318.
  • 21. Mejia EG, Zhang Q, Penta K, Eroglu A, Lila MA. The colors of health: Chemistry, bioactivity, and market demand for colorful foods and natural food sources of colorants. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2019;11:145-182.
  • 22. Saleem H, Mazhar S, Syed Q, Javed MQ, Adnan A. Bio-characterization of food grade pyocyanin bio-pigment extracted from chromogenic Pseudomonas species found in Pakistani native flora. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021;14:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103005.
  • 23. Panesar R, Kaur S, Panesar PS. Production of microbial pigments utilizing agro-industrial waste: a review. Current Opinion Food Science. 2015;1:70-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2014.12.002.
  • 24. Tuli HS, Chaudhary P, Beniwal V, Sharma AK. Microbial pigments as natural color sources: Current trends and future perspectives. Journal Food Science Technology. 2014;52(4):669-780. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1601-6.
  • 25. Dufossé L, Galaup P, Yaron A, Arad SM, Blanc P, Murthy KN, Ravishankar GA. Microorganisms and microalgae as sources of pigments for food use: A scientific oddity or an industrial reality? Food Science and Technology. 2005;16:389-406. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.02.006.
  • 26. Manimala MR, Murugesan R. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of carotenoid pigment extracted from sporobolomyces sp. isolated from natural sources. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2014;6(2):649-653. doi: 10.31018/jans.v6i2.511.
  • 27. Nigam PS, Luke JS. Food additives: Production of microbial pigments and their antioxidant properties. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2016;7:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2016.02.004.
  • 28. Rao MP, Xiao M, Li WJ. Fungal and bacterial pigments: Secondary metabolites with wide applications. Frontiers In Microbiology. 2017;8:1-13. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01113.
  • 29. Zhang C, Chen X, Too HP. Microbial astaxanthin biosynthesis: recent achievements, challenges, and commercialization outlook. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2020;104:5725–5737.
  • 30. Sen T, Barrow CJ, Deshmukh SK. Microbial pigments in the food industry— challenges and the way forward. Frontiers In Nutrition. 2019;6(7):1-14.
  • 31. Dufosse L. Microbial production of food grade pigments. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2006;44(3):313-321.
  • 32. Charkoudian LK, Fitzgerald JT, Khosla C, Champlin A. In living color: Bacterial pigments as an untapped resource in the classroom and beyond. Plos Biology. 2010;8(10):1-6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000510.
  • 33. Barnetta J, Miller S, Pearce E. Colour and art: A brief history of pigments. Optics & Laser Technology. 2006;38(4-6):445-453. doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.06.005.
  • 34. Stahmann KP, Revuelta JL, Seulberger H. Three biotechnical processes using ashbya gossypii, candida famata, or bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production. Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology. 2000;53(5):509-516.
  • 35. Agarwal H, Bajpai S, Mishra A, et al. Bacterial pigments and their multifaceted roles in contemporary biotechnology and pharmacological applications. Microorganisms. 2023;11(3):6-14.
  • 36. Venil CK, Velmurugan P, Dufosse L, Devi PR, Ravi AV. Fungal pigments: Potential coloring compounds for wide ranging applications in textile dyeing. Journal of Fungi. 2020;6(2):1-23. doi: 10.3390/jof602006.
  • 37. Afroz Toma M, Rahman MH, Rahman MS, et al. Fungal pigments: Carotenoids, riboflavin, and polyketides with diverse applications. Journal of Fungi. 2023;9(4):454.
  • 38. Erdal P, Ökmen G. Gıdalarda kullanılan mikrobiyal kaynaklı pigmentler. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi. 2013;6(2):56-68.
  • 39. Rymbai H, Sharma RR, Srivastav M. Bio-colorants and its implications in health and food industry a review. International Journal of Pharmacological Research 2011;3(4):2228-2244.
  • 40. Kirti K, Amita S, Priti S, Kumar AM, Jyoti S. Colorful world of microbes: Carotenoids and their applications. Advances in Biology. 2014;1-13. doi: 10.1155/2014/837891.
  • 41. Boger DL, Patel M. Total synthesis of prodigiosin. Tetrahedron Letters. 1987;28(22):2499-2502.
  • 42. Darshan N, Manonmani HK. Prodigiosin and its potential applications. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52:5393-5407.
  • 43. Namazkar S, Ahmad WA. Spray-dried prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens as a colorant. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia. 2013;10:69–76. doi:10.13005/bbra/1094.
  • 44. Gessler NN, Egorova AS, Belozerskaya TA. Fungal anthraquinones. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 2013;49:85-99.
  • 45. Kallscheuer N. Engineered microorganisms for the production of food additives approved by the European Union—A systematic analysis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018;9:1746.
  • 46. Bhosale MN, Waghmode MS, Patil NN. A survey on microbial pigments: Production and applications. Gorteria. 2022;35:10.

Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması

Year 2023, Issue: 21 - December, 1273 - 1285, 05.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1098911

Abstract

Günümüzde tüketicilerin sentetik gıda boyaları ile ilgili olumsuz düşüncelerinin yaygınlaşması doğal kaynaklardan elde edilen renklendiricilere olan talebi artırmıştır. Doğal kaynaklı renklendiriciler bitki, hayvan ve mikroorganizmalardan elde edilmektedir ve biyorenklendirici olarak ifade edilmektedir. Bunlardan mikroorganizmalardan elde edilen pigmentler, sağlık üzerine yararlı etkileri ve üretimdeki çeşitli avantajları sebebiyle tercih edilmektedir. Çeşitli mikroorganizmalar (Monascus, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Paracoccus, Streptomyces, Penicillium, Rhodotarula, Brevibacterium vb. mikroorganizmaların çeşitli türleri) pigment üretme yeteneğine sahiptir; β-karoten, arpink red, riboflavin, monascus pigmenti, prodigiosin ve likopen başlıca üretilen pigmentlerdir. Mikrobiyal pigmentlerin, kolay ekstrakte edilebilmeleri, üretim maliyetlerinin düşük olması, hammadde sorunu olmaması, çevre dostu olmaları gibi çeşitli avantajları mevcuttur. Bununla birlikte bazı mikrobiyal pigmentlerin suda çözünmemesi, farklı pH koşulları altında renk değişiklikleri göstermeleri, tat değişikliğine yol açmaları, daha sınırlı renk yelpazelerinin olması gibi dezavantajları da vardır. Bu derleme mikroorganizmaların gıdalarda kullanılan renk pigmentleri ile ilgili temel bilgileri sunmaktadır.

References

  • 1. Malik K, Tokkas J, Goyal S. Microbial pigments: A review. International Journal of Microbial Resource Technology. 2012;1(4):361-365.
  • 2. Clydesdale FM. Color as a factor in food choice. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1993;33(1):83-101. doi: 10.1080/10408399309527614.
  • 3. Downham A, Collins P. Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2000;35(1):5-22. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2621.2000.00373.x.
  • 4. Zollinger H. Color Chemistry Syntheses, Properties, and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments. Zürih: Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta; 2003
  • 5. Aberoumand A. A review article on edible pigments properties and sources as natural biocolorants in foodstuff and food industry. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences. 2011;6(1):71-78.
  • 6. Amchova P, Kotolaova H, Ruda-Kucerova J. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2015;73(3):914-922. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.09.026.
  • 7. Joshi VK, Attri D, Bala A, Bhushan S. Microbial pigments. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2:362-369.
  • 8. Sigurdson, GT, Tang, P, Giusti MM. Natural colorants: Food colorants from natural sources. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2017;8:261-280.
  • 9. Venil CK, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA. Bacterial pigments and their applications. Process Biochemistry. 2013;48(7):1065-1079. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2013.06.006.
  • 10. Arıkan EB, Canlı O, Caro Y, Dufossé L, Dizge N. Production of bio-based pigments from food processing industry by-products (apple, pomegranate, black carrot, red beet pulps) using aspergillus carbonarius. Journal of Fungi. 2020;6(4):1-18.
  • 11. Shahid M, Shahid-ul-Islam, Mohammad F. Recent advancements in natural dye applications: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2013;53:310-331. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.03.031.
  • 12. Kumar A, Vishwakarma HS, Singh J, Dwivedi S, Kumar M. Microbial pigments: production and their applications in various industries. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences. 2015;5(1):203-212.
  • 13. Chaitanya Lakshmi G. Food coloring: The natural way. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2014:4(2):87-96.
  • 14. Venil CK, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. An insightful overview on microbial pigment, prodigiosin. Electronic Journal of Biology. 2009;5(3):49-61.
  • 15. Wissgott U, Bortlik K. Prospects for new natural food colorants. Trends In Food Science & Technology. 1996;7(9):298-302. doi:10.1016/0924-2244(96)20007-X.
  • 16. Heer K, Sharma S. Microbial pigments as a natural color: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2017;8(5):1913-1922.
  • 17. Naidu MM, Sowbhagya HB. Technological advances in food colours. Food Colours. 2012;79-88.
  • 18. Boo HO, Hwang SJ, Bae CS, Park SH, Heo BG, Gorinstein S. Extraction and characterization of some natural plant pigments. Industrial Crops and Products. 2012;40:129-135. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.02.042.
  • 19. Parmar M, Phutela UG. Biocolors: The new generation additives. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(7):688-694.
  • 20. Gupta C, Garg AP, Prakash D, Goyal S, Gupta S. Microbes as potential source biocolours. Pharmacologyonline. 2011;2:1309-1318.
  • 21. Mejia EG, Zhang Q, Penta K, Eroglu A, Lila MA. The colors of health: Chemistry, bioactivity, and market demand for colorful foods and natural food sources of colorants. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2019;11:145-182.
  • 22. Saleem H, Mazhar S, Syed Q, Javed MQ, Adnan A. Bio-characterization of food grade pyocyanin bio-pigment extracted from chromogenic Pseudomonas species found in Pakistani native flora. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021;14:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103005.
  • 23. Panesar R, Kaur S, Panesar PS. Production of microbial pigments utilizing agro-industrial waste: a review. Current Opinion Food Science. 2015;1:70-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2014.12.002.
  • 24. Tuli HS, Chaudhary P, Beniwal V, Sharma AK. Microbial pigments as natural color sources: Current trends and future perspectives. Journal Food Science Technology. 2014;52(4):669-780. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1601-6.
  • 25. Dufossé L, Galaup P, Yaron A, Arad SM, Blanc P, Murthy KN, Ravishankar GA. Microorganisms and microalgae as sources of pigments for food use: A scientific oddity or an industrial reality? Food Science and Technology. 2005;16:389-406. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.02.006.
  • 26. Manimala MR, Murugesan R. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of carotenoid pigment extracted from sporobolomyces sp. isolated from natural sources. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2014;6(2):649-653. doi: 10.31018/jans.v6i2.511.
  • 27. Nigam PS, Luke JS. Food additives: Production of microbial pigments and their antioxidant properties. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2016;7:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2016.02.004.
  • 28. Rao MP, Xiao M, Li WJ. Fungal and bacterial pigments: Secondary metabolites with wide applications. Frontiers In Microbiology. 2017;8:1-13. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01113.
  • 29. Zhang C, Chen X, Too HP. Microbial astaxanthin biosynthesis: recent achievements, challenges, and commercialization outlook. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2020;104:5725–5737.
  • 30. Sen T, Barrow CJ, Deshmukh SK. Microbial pigments in the food industry— challenges and the way forward. Frontiers In Nutrition. 2019;6(7):1-14.
  • 31. Dufosse L. Microbial production of food grade pigments. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2006;44(3):313-321.
  • 32. Charkoudian LK, Fitzgerald JT, Khosla C, Champlin A. In living color: Bacterial pigments as an untapped resource in the classroom and beyond. Plos Biology. 2010;8(10):1-6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000510.
  • 33. Barnetta J, Miller S, Pearce E. Colour and art: A brief history of pigments. Optics & Laser Technology. 2006;38(4-6):445-453. doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.06.005.
  • 34. Stahmann KP, Revuelta JL, Seulberger H. Three biotechnical processes using ashbya gossypii, candida famata, or bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production. Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology. 2000;53(5):509-516.
  • 35. Agarwal H, Bajpai S, Mishra A, et al. Bacterial pigments and their multifaceted roles in contemporary biotechnology and pharmacological applications. Microorganisms. 2023;11(3):6-14.
  • 36. Venil CK, Velmurugan P, Dufosse L, Devi PR, Ravi AV. Fungal pigments: Potential coloring compounds for wide ranging applications in textile dyeing. Journal of Fungi. 2020;6(2):1-23. doi: 10.3390/jof602006.
  • 37. Afroz Toma M, Rahman MH, Rahman MS, et al. Fungal pigments: Carotenoids, riboflavin, and polyketides with diverse applications. Journal of Fungi. 2023;9(4):454.
  • 38. Erdal P, Ökmen G. Gıdalarda kullanılan mikrobiyal kaynaklı pigmentler. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi. 2013;6(2):56-68.
  • 39. Rymbai H, Sharma RR, Srivastav M. Bio-colorants and its implications in health and food industry a review. International Journal of Pharmacological Research 2011;3(4):2228-2244.
  • 40. Kirti K, Amita S, Priti S, Kumar AM, Jyoti S. Colorful world of microbes: Carotenoids and their applications. Advances in Biology. 2014;1-13. doi: 10.1155/2014/837891.
  • 41. Boger DL, Patel M. Total synthesis of prodigiosin. Tetrahedron Letters. 1987;28(22):2499-2502.
  • 42. Darshan N, Manonmani HK. Prodigiosin and its potential applications. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52:5393-5407.
  • 43. Namazkar S, Ahmad WA. Spray-dried prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens as a colorant. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia. 2013;10:69–76. doi:10.13005/bbra/1094.
  • 44. Gessler NN, Egorova AS, Belozerskaya TA. Fungal anthraquinones. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 2013;49:85-99.
  • 45. Kallscheuer N. Engineered microorganisms for the production of food additives approved by the European Union—A systematic analysis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018;9:1746.
  • 46. Bhosale MN, Waghmode MS, Patil NN. A survey on microbial pigments: Production and applications. Gorteria. 2022;35:10.
There are 46 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Clinical Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Burcu Çakmak Sancar 0000-0002-0737-7009

Muhsin Öztürk 0000-0002-3076-8251

Meryem Akhan 0000-0001-8065-8635

Özer Ergün 0000-0003-1675-7238

Early Pub Date January 8, 2024
Publication Date January 5, 2024
Acceptance Date November 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 21 - December

Cite

APA Çakmak Sancar, B., Öztürk, M., Akhan, M., Ergün, Ö. (2024). Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi(21), 1273-1285. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1098911
AMA Çakmak Sancar B, Öztürk M, Akhan M, Ergün Ö. Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması. IGUSABDER. January 2024;(21):1273-1285. doi:10.38079/igusabder.1098911
Chicago Çakmak Sancar, Burcu, Muhsin Öztürk, Meryem Akhan, and Özer Ergün. “Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, no. 21 (January 2024): 1273-85. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1098911.
EndNote Çakmak Sancar B, Öztürk M, Akhan M, Ergün Ö (January 1, 2024) Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 21 1273–1285.
IEEE B. Çakmak Sancar, M. Öztürk, M. Akhan, and Ö. Ergün, “Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması”, IGUSABDER, no. 21, pp. 1273–1285, January 2024, doi: 10.38079/igusabder.1098911.
ISNAD Çakmak Sancar, Burcu et al. “Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 21 (January 2024), 1273-1285. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1098911.
JAMA Çakmak Sancar B, Öztürk M, Akhan M, Ergün Ö. Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması. IGUSABDER. 2024;:1273–1285.
MLA Çakmak Sancar, Burcu et al. “Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, no. 21, 2024, pp. 1273-85, doi:10.38079/igusabder.1098911.
Vancouver Çakmak Sancar B, Öztürk M, Akhan M, Ergün Ö. Mikrobiyal Pigmentlerin Gıdalarda Renklendirici Olarak Kullanılması. IGUSABDER. 2024(21):1273-85.

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