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A Study on the Effects of Perceived Supervisory Support on Psychological Contract Content and Fulfillment

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 268 - 281, 21.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.701535

Abstract

The psychological contract is a concept used to explain the dynamics of the employment relationship between the employer and the employee. The psychological contract refers to the subjective perceptions of employees regarding organizational obligations. Organizational policies, procedures, practices, and managers convey information about what is expected from the employees and what the organization is obliged to provide to employees. It is assumed that managers from all levels play an active role in employees' perceptions of the organizational procedures. The supervisors are claimed to be effective in the formation and progression of the psychological contract as a representative of the organization. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of the perceived supervisory support on the content and fulfillment of the psychological contract. In the study conducted with 224 white-collar participants working in the private sector, it was observed that the supervisory support had a positive effect on the psychological contract content. In addition, it was determined that as the supervisory support increased, the level of fulfillment of the psychological contract increased as well.

References

  • ALKHATERI, A. S., ABUELHASSAN, A. E., KHALIFA, G. S., NUSARI, M. ve AMEEN, A. (2018). The impact of perceived supervisor support on employees turnover intention: The mediating role of job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. International Business Management, 12(7), 477-492.
  • ARGYRIS, C. (1960), Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • ASELAGE, J. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2003). Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(5), 491-509.
  • AYDIN GÖKTEPE, E., (2016). Yeni kariyer tutumları, algılanan yönetici desteği ve işe tutkunluk arasındaki ilişki: bir araştırma. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul Üniversitesi.
  • BHATNAGAR, J. (2014). Mediator analysis in the management of innovation in Indian knowledge workers: the role of perceived supervisor support, psychological contract, reward and recognition and turnover intention. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(10), 1395-1416.
  • BLAU, P. M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34(2), 193-206.
  • BRINER, R. ve CONWAY, N. (2006). Protecting the psychological contract. Personnel Today, 21(11), 28-30.
  • CABLE, D. A. (2010). A methodological approach to developing a measure of the psychological contract for managers. The Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology, 3, 21-31.
  • CASSAR, V. ve BUTTIGIEG, S. C. (2015). Psychological contract breach, organizational justice and emotional well-being. Personnel Review, 44(2), 217-235.
  • COYLE-SHAPIRO, J. A. M. ve KESSLER, I. (2002). Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: Employee and employer perspectives. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 11(1), 69-86.
  • DECONINCK, J. B. ve JOHNSON, J. T. (2009). The effects of perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and organizational justice on turnover among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(4), 333-350.
  • EISENBERGER, R., STINGLEHAUMBER, F., VANDENBERGHE, C., SUCHARSKI, I.L. ve RHOADES, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: contributions to perceived organisational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565–603.
  • GERÇEK, M. (2018). Yöneticilerin babacan (paternalist) liderlik davranışlarının psikolojik sözleşme bağlamındaki beklentileri üzerindeki etkilerine yönelik bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 101-118.
  • GREENHAUS, J. H., PARASURAMAN, S. ve WORMLEY, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.
  • GUEST, D. E. ve CONWAY, N. (2002). Communicating the psychological contract: an employer perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(2), 22-38.
  • HOMANS, G. C. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: John Wiley.
  • HUTCHISON, S. (1997). A path model of perceived organisational support. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 12, 159–174.
  • JENSEN, J. M., OPLAND, R. A. ve RYAN, A. M. (2010). Psychological contracts and counterproductive work behaviors: Employee responses to transactional and relational breach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 555-568.
  • KARAGONLAR, G., EISENBERGER, R. ve ASELAGE, J. (2016). Reciprocation wary employees discount psychological contract fulfillment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(1), 23-40.
  • KOTTER, J. P. (1973). The psychological contract: Managing the joining-up process. California Management Review, 15(3), 91-99.
  • LEVINSON, H., PRICE, C. R., MUNDEN, K. J., MANDL, H. J. ve SOLLEY, C. M. (1962). Men, management, and mental health, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  • MAERTZ JR, C. P., GRIFFETH, R. W., CAMPBELL, N. S.ve ALLEN, D. G. (2007). The effects of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 28(8), 1059-1075.
  • MCDERMOTT, A. M., CONWAY, E., ROUSSEAU, D. M. ve FLOOD, P. C. (2013). Promoting effective psychological contracts through leadership: The missing link between HR strategy and performance. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 289-310.
  • ÖZDAMAR, K. (2016). Eğitim, Sağlık ve Davranış Bilimlerinde Ölçek ve Test Geliştirme Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi. Nisan Kitabevi. Eskişehir.
  • PETERSITZKE, M. (2009). Supervisor psychological contract management. In Supervisor psychological contract management. Gabler. 131-142.
  • PORTWOOD, J. D. ve MILLER, E. L. (1976, August). Evaluating the Psychological Contract: Its Implications for Employee Job Satisfaction and Work Behavior. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1976, No. 1). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management. 109-113.
  • RAMUS, C. A. ve STEGER, U. (2000). The roles of supervisory support behaviors and environmental policy in employee “ecoinitiatives” at leading-edge European companies. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 605-626.
  • RESTUBOG, S. L. D., BORDIA, P. ve BORDIA, S. (2009). The interactive effects of procedural justice and equity sensitivity in predicting responses to psychological contract breach: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(2), 165-178.
  • RHOADES, L. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836.
  • RHOADES, L. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
  • ROBINSON, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1996, 574-599.
  • ROBINSON, S. L. ve ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1994). Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(3), 245-259.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Sage publications.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121-139.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11(5), 389-400.
  • SALIN, D. ve NOTELAERS, G. (2017). The effect of exposure to bullying on turnover intentions: the role of perceived psychological contract violation and benevolent behaviour. Work & Stress, 31(4), 355-374.
  • SCHEIN, E.H., (1970). Organizational psychology, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • SHANOCK, L. R. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: Relationships with subordinates' perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 689-695.
  • SHOSS, M.K., EISENBERGER, R., RESTUBOG, S.L.D. ve ZAGENCZYK, T.J. (2013), Blaming the organization for abusive supervision: the roles of perceived organizational support and supervisor’s organizational embodiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 158-168.
  • STURGES, J., CONWAY, N., GUEST, D. ve LIEFOOGHE, A. (2005). Managing the career deal: The psychological contract as a framework for understanding career management, organizational commitment and work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(7), 821-838.
  • SUAZO, M. M., TURNLEY, W. H. ve MAI-DALTON, R. R. (2008). Characteristics of the supervisor-subordinate relationship as predictors of psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(3), 295-312.
  • ŞENCAN, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik. Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • TURNLEY, W. H. ve FELDMAN, D. C. (1999). The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Human Relations, 52(7), 895-922.
  • VANDENBERGHE, C., PANACCIO, A., BENTEIN, K., MIGNONAC, K., ROUSSEL, P. ve AYED, A. K. B. (2019). Time‐based differences in the effects of positive and negative affectivity on perceived supervisor support and organizational commitment among newcomers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(3), 264-281.
  • VISWESVARAN, C., SANCHEZ, J. I. & FISHER, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 314 –334.
  • ZAGENCZYK, T. J., GIBNEY, R., FEW, W. T. ve SCOTT, K. L. (2011). Psychological contracts and organizational identification: The mediating effect of perceived organizational support. Journal of Labor Research, 32(3), 254-281.
  • ZAGENCZYK, T. J., GIBNEY, R., KIEWITZ, C. ve RESTUBOG, S. L. D. (2009). Mentors, supervisors and role models: do they reduce the effects of psychological contract breach?. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(3), 237-259.

Algılanan Yönetici Desteğinin Psikolojik Sözleşmenin İçeriği ve Yerine Getirilmesi Üzerindeki Etkileri

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 268 - 281, 21.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.701535

Abstract

Psikolojik sözleşme, işveren ve çalışan arasındaki istihdam ilişkisindeki dinamikleri açıklamak için kullanılan bir kavramdır. Psikolojik sözleşme, çalışanların örgütsel yükümlülüklere ilişkin öznel algılarını ifade etmektedir. Örgütsel politikalar, prosedürler, uygulamalar ve yöneticiler, çalışanlardan beklenenler ile örgütün çalışana sağlamakla yükümlü bulunduğu unsurlar hakkında bilgi aktarımı sağlamaktadır. Özellikle her kademeden yöneticinin, çalışanların örgüte yönelik algıları üzerinde etkin rol oynadığı varsayılmaktadır. Yöneticilerin, örgüt temsilcisi olarak psikolojik sözleşmenin oluşumu ve sürdürülmesi üzerinde etkili olduğu öne sürülmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, algılanan yönetici desteğinin psikolojik sözleşmenin içeriği ve yerine getirilme düzeyi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesidir. Özel sektörde çalışan 224 beyaz yakalı katılımcı ile yapılan çalışmada, yönetici desteğinin psikolojik sözleşme unsurlarının örgüt tarafından vaat edilme düzeyini olumlu yönde etkilediği görülmüştür. Ayrıca, yönetici desteği arttıkça, psikolojik sözleşmenin yerine getirilme düzeyinin de arttığı belirlenmiştir. 

References

  • ALKHATERI, A. S., ABUELHASSAN, A. E., KHALIFA, G. S., NUSARI, M. ve AMEEN, A. (2018). The impact of perceived supervisor support on employees turnover intention: The mediating role of job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. International Business Management, 12(7), 477-492.
  • ARGYRIS, C. (1960), Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • ASELAGE, J. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2003). Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(5), 491-509.
  • AYDIN GÖKTEPE, E., (2016). Yeni kariyer tutumları, algılanan yönetici desteği ve işe tutkunluk arasındaki ilişki: bir araştırma. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul Üniversitesi.
  • BHATNAGAR, J. (2014). Mediator analysis in the management of innovation in Indian knowledge workers: the role of perceived supervisor support, psychological contract, reward and recognition and turnover intention. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(10), 1395-1416.
  • BLAU, P. M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34(2), 193-206.
  • BRINER, R. ve CONWAY, N. (2006). Protecting the psychological contract. Personnel Today, 21(11), 28-30.
  • CABLE, D. A. (2010). A methodological approach to developing a measure of the psychological contract for managers. The Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology, 3, 21-31.
  • CASSAR, V. ve BUTTIGIEG, S. C. (2015). Psychological contract breach, organizational justice and emotional well-being. Personnel Review, 44(2), 217-235.
  • COYLE-SHAPIRO, J. A. M. ve KESSLER, I. (2002). Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: Employee and employer perspectives. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 11(1), 69-86.
  • DECONINCK, J. B. ve JOHNSON, J. T. (2009). The effects of perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and organizational justice on turnover among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(4), 333-350.
  • EISENBERGER, R., STINGLEHAUMBER, F., VANDENBERGHE, C., SUCHARSKI, I.L. ve RHOADES, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: contributions to perceived organisational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565–603.
  • GERÇEK, M. (2018). Yöneticilerin babacan (paternalist) liderlik davranışlarının psikolojik sözleşme bağlamındaki beklentileri üzerindeki etkilerine yönelik bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 101-118.
  • GREENHAUS, J. H., PARASURAMAN, S. ve WORMLEY, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.
  • GUEST, D. E. ve CONWAY, N. (2002). Communicating the psychological contract: an employer perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(2), 22-38.
  • HOMANS, G. C. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: John Wiley.
  • HUTCHISON, S. (1997). A path model of perceived organisational support. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 12, 159–174.
  • JENSEN, J. M., OPLAND, R. A. ve RYAN, A. M. (2010). Psychological contracts and counterproductive work behaviors: Employee responses to transactional and relational breach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 555-568.
  • KARAGONLAR, G., EISENBERGER, R. ve ASELAGE, J. (2016). Reciprocation wary employees discount psychological contract fulfillment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(1), 23-40.
  • KOTTER, J. P. (1973). The psychological contract: Managing the joining-up process. California Management Review, 15(3), 91-99.
  • LEVINSON, H., PRICE, C. R., MUNDEN, K. J., MANDL, H. J. ve SOLLEY, C. M. (1962). Men, management, and mental health, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  • MAERTZ JR, C. P., GRIFFETH, R. W., CAMPBELL, N. S.ve ALLEN, D. G. (2007). The effects of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 28(8), 1059-1075.
  • MCDERMOTT, A. M., CONWAY, E., ROUSSEAU, D. M. ve FLOOD, P. C. (2013). Promoting effective psychological contracts through leadership: The missing link between HR strategy and performance. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 289-310.
  • ÖZDAMAR, K. (2016). Eğitim, Sağlık ve Davranış Bilimlerinde Ölçek ve Test Geliştirme Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi. Nisan Kitabevi. Eskişehir.
  • PETERSITZKE, M. (2009). Supervisor psychological contract management. In Supervisor psychological contract management. Gabler. 131-142.
  • PORTWOOD, J. D. ve MILLER, E. L. (1976, August). Evaluating the Psychological Contract: Its Implications for Employee Job Satisfaction and Work Behavior. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1976, No. 1). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management. 109-113.
  • RAMUS, C. A. ve STEGER, U. (2000). The roles of supervisory support behaviors and environmental policy in employee “ecoinitiatives” at leading-edge European companies. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 605-626.
  • RESTUBOG, S. L. D., BORDIA, P. ve BORDIA, S. (2009). The interactive effects of procedural justice and equity sensitivity in predicting responses to psychological contract breach: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(2), 165-178.
  • RHOADES, L. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836.
  • RHOADES, L. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
  • ROBINSON, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1996, 574-599.
  • ROBINSON, S. L. ve ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1994). Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(3), 245-259.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Sage publications.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121-139.
  • ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11(5), 389-400.
  • SALIN, D. ve NOTELAERS, G. (2017). The effect of exposure to bullying on turnover intentions: the role of perceived psychological contract violation and benevolent behaviour. Work & Stress, 31(4), 355-374.
  • SCHEIN, E.H., (1970). Organizational psychology, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • SHANOCK, L. R. ve EISENBERGER, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: Relationships with subordinates' perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 689-695.
  • SHOSS, M.K., EISENBERGER, R., RESTUBOG, S.L.D. ve ZAGENCZYK, T.J. (2013), Blaming the organization for abusive supervision: the roles of perceived organizational support and supervisor’s organizational embodiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 158-168.
  • STURGES, J., CONWAY, N., GUEST, D. ve LIEFOOGHE, A. (2005). Managing the career deal: The psychological contract as a framework for understanding career management, organizational commitment and work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(7), 821-838.
  • SUAZO, M. M., TURNLEY, W. H. ve MAI-DALTON, R. R. (2008). Characteristics of the supervisor-subordinate relationship as predictors of psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(3), 295-312.
  • ŞENCAN, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik. Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • TURNLEY, W. H. ve FELDMAN, D. C. (1999). The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Human Relations, 52(7), 895-922.
  • VANDENBERGHE, C., PANACCIO, A., BENTEIN, K., MIGNONAC, K., ROUSSEL, P. ve AYED, A. K. B. (2019). Time‐based differences in the effects of positive and negative affectivity on perceived supervisor support and organizational commitment among newcomers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(3), 264-281.
  • VISWESVARAN, C., SANCHEZ, J. I. & FISHER, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 314 –334.
  • ZAGENCZYK, T. J., GIBNEY, R., FEW, W. T. ve SCOTT, K. L. (2011). Psychological contracts and organizational identification: The mediating effect of perceived organizational support. Journal of Labor Research, 32(3), 254-281.
  • ZAGENCZYK, T. J., GIBNEY, R., KIEWITZ, C. ve RESTUBOG, S. L. D. (2009). Mentors, supervisors and role models: do they reduce the effects of psychological contract breach?. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(3), 237-259.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Merve GERÇEK (Primary Author)
KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HEREKE MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0002-7076-8192
Türkiye


Sevgi ELMAS-ATAY
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İŞLETME FAKÜLTESİ, İŞLETME BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-2238-4979
Türkiye

Publication Date September 21, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

APA Gerçek, M. & Elmas-atay, S. (2021). Algılanan Yönetici Desteğinin Psikolojik Sözleşmenin İçeriği ve Yerine Getirilmesi Üzerindeki Etkileri . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 8 (2) , 268-281 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.701535

 Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)