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Meskûn Mahal Çatışmaları ve İstihbarat: Irak Savaşı Bağlamında Bir Değerlendirme

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 229 - 248, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.708393

Abstract

Günümüzdeki savaş anlayışı içerisindeki en önemli başlıklardan birini mekânsal dönüşüm oluşturmaktadır. İnsanlığın kadim mücadelesinin çıktısı olan savaşlar, giderek geleneksel savaş sahasından farklı alanlara yayılmaktadır ve meskûn mahal de artan şekilde savaşın popüler sahnesi haline gelmektedir. Şüphesiz meskûn mahal çatışmaları için köklü bir tarihsel arka plan çizmek mümkündür; ama devletler arası savaşın, iç savaşın ve terörizmle mücadelenin yerleşim yerlerine yüksek yoğunlukta sıçraması süreci daha çok günümüzde tecrübe edilmektedir. Özel çatışma stratejilerinin ve tekniklerinin gerekli olduğu meskûn mahalde, istihbarat faaliyetleri de geleneksel kimliğinin ötesinde bir çerçevede ele alınmaktadır. Meskûn mahalin fiziki ve beşeri özellikleri ile karşı tarafın durumu bu alandaki istihbarat faaliyetlerinin hedefini oluşturmaktadır. 2003 yılında başlayan Irak Savaşı, yeni meskûn mahal çatışmalarının en çarpıcı örneklerinden birini ifade etmektedir. Söz konusu savaşta çatışmalar uzun süre yerleşim yerlerinde devam etmiş ve koalisyon güçleri bu mücadeleye uyum sağlayabilmek için ciddi derecede sıkıntılı bir süreç geçirmişlerdir. Savaş sırasındaki istihbarat faaliyetleri de bu sahadaki belirsizliğin kaldırılması için mücadele içindeki mücadeleyi oluşturmuştur. Bu çalışmada öncelikle, savaşın meskûn mahal boyutu ve bu kapsamdaki istihbarat faaliyetlerinin rolü ele alınacaktır. Ardından bu konu, Irak Savaşı örneği üzerinden değerlendirilecektir. Çalışma ile Türkçe literatürde yeterince yer bulmamış meskûn mahal çatışmaları üzerine genel bir çerçeve çizilmesi ve bu çatışmalardaki istihbarat gereksiniminin ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır.

References

  • ASHWORTH, G. J. (1991). War and the city. Londra ve New York, Routledge.
  • BARAKAT, S. (1998). City war zones. Urbanage. 5(4), 10-16.
  • BECKER, J. C. vd. (2007). Final report: privatized military operations. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF). Washington: National Defense University.
  • BM (2019), “World Urbanization Prospects 2018: Highlights”, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Pupulation Division, New York.
  • BOJANG, M. B. S. (2016), “The Hidden Agenda Behind Invasion of Iraq, The Unjust War Over Iraq in 2003”, Central European Journal of Politics, 2(2), 1-14.
  • BOLLENS, S. (2001), “City and Soul, s. Sarajevo, Johannesburg, Jerusalem, Nicosia”, City, 5(2), 169-187.
  • BRECHER, B. (2010), “Introduction, The New Order of War”, B. Brecher (Ed), The New Order of War, Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi, vii-1
  • CHEN, H. and Yang, C. C. (Eds.) (2008), Intelligence and Security Informatics, Techniques and Applications, Berlin, Springer.
  • CLİFT, A. D. (2010), “The Evolution of International Collaboration in the Global Intelligence Era”, L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence, Oxford, s. Oxford University Press, 212-225.
  • CRONIN, B. (2006), “Intelligence, Terrorism, and National Security”, Annual Review of Information Science and Security, 39 (1), 395-432.
  • ÇITAK, E. (2019), “Silahsız Savaş Sahası, s. Yeni Savaş Anlayışında İstihbaratın Yeri”, Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(2), 191-213.
  • ÇITAK, E. (2017), Güvenlik ve İstihbarat, s. Yeni Güvenlik Politikaları ve Türkiye’de İstihbaratın Dönüşümü, İstanbul, Yeniyüzyıl Yayınları
  • DAVIES, P.H.J., GUSTAFSON, K.; RIGDEN, I. (2013). The Intelligence Cycle is Dead, Long Live the Intelligence Cycle: Rethinking Intelligence Fundamentals for a New Intelligence Doctrine. M. Phythian (Ed.), Understanding the intelligence cycle (ss. 56-75). New York ve Londra: Routledge.
  • DiMARCO, L. (2003). Attacking the Heart and Guts: Urban Operations Through the Ages. W. G. Robertson; L. A. Yates (Eds.), Block by block: the challanges of urban operations (ss. 1-28). Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff Collage Press.
  • DiMARCO, L. A. (2012). Concrete hell: urban warfare from Stalingrad to Iraq. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • EIDE, M.; GIBLER, M. (2018). After combat: true war stories from Iraq and Afghanistan. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • GLAESER, E. L. (2002). Cities and warfare: the impact of terrorism on urban form. Journal of Urban Economics, 51, 205-224.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2004). Introduction: Cities, Warfare, and States of Emergency. S. Graham (Ed), Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics (ss. 31-53). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2006). Homeland/Target: Cities and the ‘War on Terror’. H. Berking vd. (Eds.), Negotiating urban conflicts: interaction, space and control (ss.277-288). Transcript Verlag.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2011). Cities under siege: the new military urbanism. Londra ve New York: Verso.
  • GREENBERG, H. M. ( 2007). Intelligence of the Past; Intelligence for the Future. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), Strategic intelligence: volume I understanding the hidden side of the government (ss. 169-180). Connecticut ve Londra: Praeger Security International.
  • GRILL, P. (2010). Theories of Intelligence. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of national security intelligence (ss. 43-59). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • HERMAN, M. (1996). Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • HERMAN, M. (2001). Intelligence services in the information age: theory and practice. Londra: Frank Cass.
  • HOLSTI, K. (1996). The state, war and the state of war: Cambridge studies in international relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • INGE, P. (1994). The capability-based army. RUSI Journal, 139(3), 1-3.
  • JOES, A. J. (2007). Urban gerilla warfare. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
  • JOHNSON, L. K. (Ed.) (2007). Handbook of intelligence studies. Oxon: Routledge.
  • JOHNSON, L. K. (2010). National Security Intelligence. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of national security intelligence (ss. 3-32). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • KAHN, D. (2001). An historical theory of intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 16(3), 79-92.
  • KALDOR, M. (2012). New&old wars: organised violance in a global era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • KEKES, J. (2010). War. Philosophy, 85 (332), 201-218.
  • KENT, S. (1965). Strategic intelligence for American world policy. Connecticut: Archon Books.
  • LERNER, K. L.; LERNER, B. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of espionage, intelligence, and Security: vol. 2. Farmington Hills: Thomson&Gale
  • LEVY, J.; THOMPSON, W. R. (2010). Causes of war. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell
  • LIPSCHUTZ, R. D. (2000). After authority: war, peace, and global politics in the 21st century. New York: University of New York Press.
  • LOVEWINE, G. C. (2014). Outsourching the global war on terrorism: private military companies and American intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
  • LUKE, T. W. (2004). Everyday Techics as Extraordinary Threats, Urban Technostructures and Non-Places in Terrorist Actions. S. Graham (Ed.), Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics (ss.120-136). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • MARIGHELLA, C. (1970). Mini-Manual of the urban guerilla. Spade.
  • MELLO, P. A. (2010). In search for new wars: the debate about a transformation of war. European Journal of International Relations.16(2), 297-309.
  • MILLER, D. A. (2003). The war against Iraq. Lucent.
  • ODDO, J. (2011). “War legimate discourse: representing ‘us’ and ‘them’ in four US presidental addresses. Discourse & Society. 22(3), 287-314.
  • ÖZDAĞ, Ü. (2011). İstihbarat teorisi. Ankara: Kripto.
  • PETER, R. (1996). Our soldiers, their cities. Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly. 26(1), 43-50.
  • PILLAR, P. R. (2006). Intelligence, policy, and the war in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. 85(2), 15-27.
  • REYNOLDS, N. E. (2007). U. S. Marines in Iraq, 2003: Basrah, Baghdad and beyond. Wahington: United States Marine Corps History Division.
  • RITCHIE, N.; Rogers, P. (2007). The political road to war with Iraq: Bush, 9/11 and the drive to overthrow Saddam. Londra ve New York: Routledge.
  • ROBERTS, L. vd. (2004). Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey. Lancet, 264, 1857-1864.
  • ROGERS, P. (2006). A war too far: Iraq, Iran and the new American century. Londra: Pluto Press.
  • ROSENAU, W. G. (1997). Every room is a new battle: the lessons of modern urban warfare. Studies in Conflict&Terrorism. 20(4), 371-394.
  • SASSEN, S. (2002). Governance Hotspots: Challenges We Must Confront in the Post September 11th World. K. Booth and T. Dunne (Eds.), Worlds in collision: terror and the future of global order (ss. 313–324). Londra: Macmillan Palgrave.
  • SEREN, M. (2017). Stratejik istihbarat ve ulusal güvenlik. Ankara: Orion.
  • SEVENDSON, A. D. M. (2010). Intelligence cooperation and the war on terror: Anglo-American security relations after 9/11. Londra ve New York: Routledge.
  • SHORROCK, T. (2008). Spies for hire: the secret world of intelligence outsourcing. New York: Simon&Schuster.
  • SPILLER, R. J. (2003). Urban Warfare: Its History and Its Future. W. G. Robertson; L. A. Yates (Eds.), Block by block: the challanges of urban operations (ss. 439-450). Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff Collage Press.
  • STRAMER, J. (2010). The Language of War: George W. Bush’s Discursive Practices in Securitizing the Western Value System in The ‘War On Terror’. B. Brecher (Ed.), The new order of war (ss. 35- 48). Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi.
  • TREVERTON, G. F. (2004). Reshaping national intelligence for an age of information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • TUCKER-JONES, A. (2014). The Iraq war: operation Iraqi freedom, 2003-2011. South Yorkshire: Pen&Sword Military.
  • VAZQUEZ, J. A. (2009). The war puzzle revisited. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • von CLAUSEWITZ, C. (2011). Savaş üzerine. (çev. S. Koçak). İstanbul: Doruk.
  • WRIGHT, Q. (1942). A study of war: volume I. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • YALÇINKAYA, H. (2008). Savaş: uluslararası ilişkilerde güç kullanımı. Ankara: İmge Yayınevi.
  • YAPHE, J. vd. (2003). Aftershocks of the Iraq war: what purposes have been fulfilled. Middle East Policy, 10(3), 1-21.
  • Beyaz Saray (The White House) (27 Mart 2003). Operation Iraqi freedom. Erişim tarihi: 16.01.2020, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030327-10.html
  • CNN, (12.08.2002). “Saddam Launches UK Charm Offensive”. Erişim tarihi: 20.02.2020 https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/08/12/uk.saddam/
  • HOWCROFT, J. (2014). Intelligence challanges in urban operations. Small Wars Journal. Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2020, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/intelligence-challenges-in-urban-operations

Urban Warfare and Intelligence: An Assessment in the Context of the Iraq War

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 229 - 248, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.708393

Abstract

Spatial transformation is one of the most important topics in today's understanding of war. The wars, which are the ancient struggle of humanity, are spreading to different areas from the traditional battlefield, and the urban area has become increasingly popular stage of war. Undoubtedly, it is possible to draw a deep-rooted historical background for urban conflicts; but the process of increasing interstate wars, civil wars and counter-terrorism inside the residential area is more experienced today. In the urban area where special conflict strategies and techniques are required, intelligence activities are handled in a framework beyond their traditional identity. The physical and human characteristics of the residential area and the situation of the other party constitute the target of the intelligence in this field. The Iraq War, which started in 2003, represents one of the most striking examples of new urban conflicts. During the war, the conflicts continued for a long time in residential areas, and the coalition forces had serious problems. Intelligence activities have also created the struggle within the struggle to remove the uncertainty in this field. In this study, primarily urban conflict and the role of intelligence activities in this field will be discussed. Then, the issue will be evaluated through Iraq War example. The study aims to draw a general framework on urban conflicts that have not been adequately studied in the Turkish literature and to reveal the need for intelligence in these conflicts.

References

  • ASHWORTH, G. J. (1991). War and the city. Londra ve New York, Routledge.
  • BARAKAT, S. (1998). City war zones. Urbanage. 5(4), 10-16.
  • BECKER, J. C. vd. (2007). Final report: privatized military operations. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF). Washington: National Defense University.
  • BM (2019), “World Urbanization Prospects 2018: Highlights”, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Pupulation Division, New York.
  • BOJANG, M. B. S. (2016), “The Hidden Agenda Behind Invasion of Iraq, The Unjust War Over Iraq in 2003”, Central European Journal of Politics, 2(2), 1-14.
  • BOLLENS, S. (2001), “City and Soul, s. Sarajevo, Johannesburg, Jerusalem, Nicosia”, City, 5(2), 169-187.
  • BRECHER, B. (2010), “Introduction, The New Order of War”, B. Brecher (Ed), The New Order of War, Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi, vii-1
  • CHEN, H. and Yang, C. C. (Eds.) (2008), Intelligence and Security Informatics, Techniques and Applications, Berlin, Springer.
  • CLİFT, A. D. (2010), “The Evolution of International Collaboration in the Global Intelligence Era”, L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence, Oxford, s. Oxford University Press, 212-225.
  • CRONIN, B. (2006), “Intelligence, Terrorism, and National Security”, Annual Review of Information Science and Security, 39 (1), 395-432.
  • ÇITAK, E. (2019), “Silahsız Savaş Sahası, s. Yeni Savaş Anlayışında İstihbaratın Yeri”, Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(2), 191-213.
  • ÇITAK, E. (2017), Güvenlik ve İstihbarat, s. Yeni Güvenlik Politikaları ve Türkiye’de İstihbaratın Dönüşümü, İstanbul, Yeniyüzyıl Yayınları
  • DAVIES, P.H.J., GUSTAFSON, K.; RIGDEN, I. (2013). The Intelligence Cycle is Dead, Long Live the Intelligence Cycle: Rethinking Intelligence Fundamentals for a New Intelligence Doctrine. M. Phythian (Ed.), Understanding the intelligence cycle (ss. 56-75). New York ve Londra: Routledge.
  • DiMARCO, L. (2003). Attacking the Heart and Guts: Urban Operations Through the Ages. W. G. Robertson; L. A. Yates (Eds.), Block by block: the challanges of urban operations (ss. 1-28). Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff Collage Press.
  • DiMARCO, L. A. (2012). Concrete hell: urban warfare from Stalingrad to Iraq. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • EIDE, M.; GIBLER, M. (2018). After combat: true war stories from Iraq and Afghanistan. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • GLAESER, E. L. (2002). Cities and warfare: the impact of terrorism on urban form. Journal of Urban Economics, 51, 205-224.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2004). Introduction: Cities, Warfare, and States of Emergency. S. Graham (Ed), Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics (ss. 31-53). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2006). Homeland/Target: Cities and the ‘War on Terror’. H. Berking vd. (Eds.), Negotiating urban conflicts: interaction, space and control (ss.277-288). Transcript Verlag.
  • GRAHAM, S. (2011). Cities under siege: the new military urbanism. Londra ve New York: Verso.
  • GREENBERG, H. M. ( 2007). Intelligence of the Past; Intelligence for the Future. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), Strategic intelligence: volume I understanding the hidden side of the government (ss. 169-180). Connecticut ve Londra: Praeger Security International.
  • GRILL, P. (2010). Theories of Intelligence. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of national security intelligence (ss. 43-59). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • HERMAN, M. (1996). Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • HERMAN, M. (2001). Intelligence services in the information age: theory and practice. Londra: Frank Cass.
  • HOLSTI, K. (1996). The state, war and the state of war: Cambridge studies in international relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • INGE, P. (1994). The capability-based army. RUSI Journal, 139(3), 1-3.
  • JOES, A. J. (2007). Urban gerilla warfare. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
  • JOHNSON, L. K. (Ed.) (2007). Handbook of intelligence studies. Oxon: Routledge.
  • JOHNSON, L. K. (2010). National Security Intelligence. L. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of national security intelligence (ss. 3-32). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • KAHN, D. (2001). An historical theory of intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 16(3), 79-92.
  • KALDOR, M. (2012). New&old wars: organised violance in a global era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • KEKES, J. (2010). War. Philosophy, 85 (332), 201-218.
  • KENT, S. (1965). Strategic intelligence for American world policy. Connecticut: Archon Books.
  • LERNER, K. L.; LERNER, B. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of espionage, intelligence, and Security: vol. 2. Farmington Hills: Thomson&Gale
  • LEVY, J.; THOMPSON, W. R. (2010). Causes of war. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell
  • LIPSCHUTZ, R. D. (2000). After authority: war, peace, and global politics in the 21st century. New York: University of New York Press.
  • LOVEWINE, G. C. (2014). Outsourching the global war on terrorism: private military companies and American intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
  • LUKE, T. W. (2004). Everyday Techics as Extraordinary Threats, Urban Technostructures and Non-Places in Terrorist Actions. S. Graham (Ed.), Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics (ss.120-136). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • MARIGHELLA, C. (1970). Mini-Manual of the urban guerilla. Spade.
  • MELLO, P. A. (2010). In search for new wars: the debate about a transformation of war. European Journal of International Relations.16(2), 297-309.
  • MILLER, D. A. (2003). The war against Iraq. Lucent.
  • ODDO, J. (2011). “War legimate discourse: representing ‘us’ and ‘them’ in four US presidental addresses. Discourse & Society. 22(3), 287-314.
  • ÖZDAĞ, Ü. (2011). İstihbarat teorisi. Ankara: Kripto.
  • PETER, R. (1996). Our soldiers, their cities. Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly. 26(1), 43-50.
  • PILLAR, P. R. (2006). Intelligence, policy, and the war in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. 85(2), 15-27.
  • REYNOLDS, N. E. (2007). U. S. Marines in Iraq, 2003: Basrah, Baghdad and beyond. Wahington: United States Marine Corps History Division.
  • RITCHIE, N.; Rogers, P. (2007). The political road to war with Iraq: Bush, 9/11 and the drive to overthrow Saddam. Londra ve New York: Routledge.
  • ROBERTS, L. vd. (2004). Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey. Lancet, 264, 1857-1864.
  • ROGERS, P. (2006). A war too far: Iraq, Iran and the new American century. Londra: Pluto Press.
  • ROSENAU, W. G. (1997). Every room is a new battle: the lessons of modern urban warfare. Studies in Conflict&Terrorism. 20(4), 371-394.
  • SASSEN, S. (2002). Governance Hotspots: Challenges We Must Confront in the Post September 11th World. K. Booth and T. Dunne (Eds.), Worlds in collision: terror and the future of global order (ss. 313–324). Londra: Macmillan Palgrave.
  • SEREN, M. (2017). Stratejik istihbarat ve ulusal güvenlik. Ankara: Orion.
  • SEVENDSON, A. D. M. (2010). Intelligence cooperation and the war on terror: Anglo-American security relations after 9/11. Londra ve New York: Routledge.
  • SHORROCK, T. (2008). Spies for hire: the secret world of intelligence outsourcing. New York: Simon&Schuster.
  • SPILLER, R. J. (2003). Urban Warfare: Its History and Its Future. W. G. Robertson; L. A. Yates (Eds.), Block by block: the challanges of urban operations (ss. 439-450). Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff Collage Press.
  • STRAMER, J. (2010). The Language of War: George W. Bush’s Discursive Practices in Securitizing the Western Value System in The ‘War On Terror’. B. Brecher (Ed.), The new order of war (ss. 35- 48). Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi.
  • TREVERTON, G. F. (2004). Reshaping national intelligence for an age of information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • TUCKER-JONES, A. (2014). The Iraq war: operation Iraqi freedom, 2003-2011. South Yorkshire: Pen&Sword Military.
  • VAZQUEZ, J. A. (2009). The war puzzle revisited. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • von CLAUSEWITZ, C. (2011). Savaş üzerine. (çev. S. Koçak). İstanbul: Doruk.
  • WRIGHT, Q. (1942). A study of war: volume I. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • YALÇINKAYA, H. (2008). Savaş: uluslararası ilişkilerde güç kullanımı. Ankara: İmge Yayınevi.
  • YAPHE, J. vd. (2003). Aftershocks of the Iraq war: what purposes have been fulfilled. Middle East Policy, 10(3), 1-21.
  • Beyaz Saray (The White House) (27 Mart 2003). Operation Iraqi freedom. Erişim tarihi: 16.01.2020, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030327-10.html
  • CNN, (12.08.2002). “Saddam Launches UK Charm Offensive”. Erişim tarihi: 20.02.2020 https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/08/12/uk.saddam/
  • HOWCROFT, J. (2014). Intelligence challanges in urban operations. Small Wars Journal. Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2020, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/intelligence-challenges-in-urban-operations

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Emre ÇITAK (Primary Author)
HİTİT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8704-6495
Türkiye

Publication Date April 28, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Çıtak, E. (2022). Meskûn Mahal Çatışmaları ve İstihbarat: Irak Savaşı Bağlamında Bir Değerlendirme . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (1) , 229-248 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.708393

 Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)