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Küresel Televizyon Endüstrisinde Dizi Üretimlerinde Yaşanan Değişim: Bir NETFLIX Yapımı Olarak Witcher Örneği

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 646 - 666, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.797552

Abstract

Televizyon endüstrisinin karlı üretimlerinden olan diziler, televizyon ekonomisinin ihtiyaçları ile de uyumlu değişimler geçirmiştir. Bu değişimlerin sonuncusunun OTT (Over The Top) platformları ile gerçekleştiği düşünülmektedir. OTT platformlarının özellikleri ve izleyiciye sunduğu imkânlar, televizyon dizilerinin hem biçimsel hem de anlatı yapısında değişimler yaratmaktadır. Örneğin, uluslararası pazarda milyonlarca abonesi bulunan NETFLIX kendi üretimi olan dizilerde platformun kendisine özgü olan özelliklerini kullanarak dizilerin üretim ve dağıtım biçimini değiştirmektedir. Aynı zamanda, seçim yelpazesini geniş tutmak amacıyla kütüphanesindeki çeşitliliği güçlendirmek için özel lisans sözleşmeleri yapmaktadır. Söz konusu sözleşmelerde bölüm veya sezon sayısı gibi özellikleri önemsemeyen NETFLIX, uluslararası dolaşımın ana aktörü konumundaki ABD’de geleneksel sendikasyon kurallarında da değişimlere neden olmaktadır. Bu değişim aynı zamanda dizilerin ekonomik faktörler ile ilişkili anlatı yapılarını da etkilemektedir. Bu çalışma NETFLIX ile etkisi arttığı düşünülen bu değişimin neden ve sonuçlarına odaklanmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler eşliğinde NETFLIX orijinal dizisi The Witcher üzerinden analiz yapılmakta ve söz konusu değişimler ortaya konmaktadır.

References

  • ABAD-SANTOS, A. (2020). Why everyone is watching The Witcher. Vox. www.vox.com/2020/2/1/21115115/the-witcher-timeline-spoilers-explained adresinden 04.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ADALIAN, J. (2015, Haziran). 10 Episodes Is the New 13 (Was the New 22). Vulture. www.vulture.com/2015/06/10-episodes-is-the-new-13-was-the-new-22.html adresinden 29.06.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ÇÖTELİ, S. (2016). İnternet’ten İzlenen Dizi ve Seriyallerin “Araç İletidir” ve “Kullanımlar Doyumlar” Bağlamında İncelenmesi. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 3(2), ss. 119–134. https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.21108.
  • FENNIS, T. (2016). How Do Netflix’s Production Practices Allow for Complex Storytelling? An Analysis of House of Cards. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
  • FOKKEMA, F. (2016). Television Content vs. Netflix Content A Content Analysis Regarding To The Storylines and Character Development in House Of Cards. Utrecht University, Utrecht.
  • FORWARD, D. (2019). ‘Dark’ character tree: How all the people of Winden are connected. Purefandom. www.purefandom.com/2019/06/20/dark-character-tree-how-everyone-connects/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • FRIEDMAN, J. (2000). Syndication. T. Pendergast & S. Pendergast (Der.), St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Volume 4: P-T. içinde Michigan: St. James Press.
  • GENNIS, S. (2019). The Witcher Showrunner Explains the Secrets to the Successful Netflix Adaptation. Tv Guide. www.tvguide.com/news/the-witcher-netflix-lauren-schmidt-hissrich/ adresinden 09.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • GENNIS, S. (2020). Netflix’s The Witcher Season 2: Cast, Release Date, and More. Tv Guide. https://www.tvguide.com/news/netflix-witcher-season-2-cast-release-date/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • GIMPEL, G. (2015). The Future of Video Platforms: Key Questions Shaping the TV and Video Industry. International Journal on Media Management, 17(1), ss. 25–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/14241277.2015.1014039
  • HOOLIHAN, H. (2019). ‘The Witcher’ Explained: Everything You Need to Know about Geralt from Page to Screen. Collider. www.collider.com/the-witcher-explained/ adresinden 10.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • HOSKINS, C., ve MIRUS, R. (1988). Reasons for the US dominance of the international trade in television programmes. Media, Culture & Society, 10(4), ss. 499–515. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1177/016344388010004006
  • MAAS, J. (2020, Haziran). ‘The Witcher’ Showrunner Teases Season 2: Hello Vesemir, Goodbye Multiple Timelines (Video). The Wrap. www.thewrap.com/the-witcher-season-2-vesemir-timelines-production-shutdown-changes-lauren-schmidt-hissrich/
  • MARTINS, A. C. (2019). Netflix and TV-as-Film: A Case Study of Stranger Things and The OA. T. Plothe & A. M. Buck (Der.), Netflix at the Nexus Content, Practice, and Production in the Age of Streaming Television (ss. 81–96). New York: Peter Lang.
  • MARTINSON, J. (2015). Netflix’s Ted Sarandos: ‘We like giving great storytellers big canvases.’ The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/media/2015/mar/15/netflix-ted-sarandos-house-of-cards adresinden 05.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • MATRIX, S. (2014). The Netflix Effect: Teens, Binge Watching, and On-Demand Digital Media Trends. Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, 6(1), ss. 119–138. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1353/jeu.2014.0002
  • MEISLER, A. (1998, 4 Ekim). Not Even Trying to Appeal to the Masses. The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1998/10/04/arts/television-radio-not-even-trying-to-appeal-to-the-masses.html adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • MITTELL, J. (2015). Complex TV The Poetics of Contemporary Television Storytelling. New York: University Press.
  • MOE, H. (2005). Television, Digitalisation and Flow: Questioning the Promises of Viewer Control. P. Masip & J. Rom (Der.), Digital Utopia in the Media: From Discourses to Facts. A Balance. Proceedings of the III International Conference on Communication and Reality (ss. 773–784) içinde. Facultat de Cièències de la Comunicació Blanquerna.
  • MUTLU, E. (1995). Televizyonda Program Yapımı. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • NEWMAN, M. Z. (2006). From Beats to Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative. The Velvet Light Trap, 58, ss. 16–28. https://doi.org/10.1353/vlt.2006.0033
  • NIELSEN. (2019). Nielsen “Sweeps” Months. Nielsen.Com. www.nielsen.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2019/04/Nielsen-Sweeps-Periods-2013-2014.pdf adresinden 24.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ÖZEL, S. (2019). TV Taksonomisi Program Türleri ve Formatlar Üzerine Yaklaşımlar. İ. Erdoğan (Der.), Türkiye’de Televizyon Formatları Eleştirel Çalışmalar içinde. İstanbul: Doruk Yayımcılık.
  • PHILLIPS, P. (2020). The real reason The Witcher’s first season has only 8 episodes. Looper. www.looper.com/182996/the-real-reason-the-witchers-first-season-has-only-8-episodes/ adresinden 08.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • SMITH, D. (2013). Kevin Spacey Speech: Why The Netflix Model Can Save Television [Video + Full Transcript]. International Business Times. https://www.ibtimes.com/kevin-spacey-speech-why-netflix-model-can-save-television-video-full-transcript-1401970 adresinden 05.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • THOMAS, K. (2020). How Everyone in Netflix’s Dark Is Connected. Tv Guide. www.tvguide.com/news/features/dark-how-everything-connected-netflix/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • THOMPSON, K. (2003). Storytelling In Film And Television. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: Harvard University Press.
  • TURHAN, F. (2019, Kasım-Aralık). Lauren Schmidt Hissrich Röportajı. Episode, ss. 23–27.
  • TÜZÜN ATEŞALP, S. (2016). “Nitelikli Televizyon”: Medya Profesyonellerinin Perspektifinden Türk Televizyon Dizilerinde Nitelik. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi, 25, ss. 9–37. https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.283029
  • VANDERWERFF, E. (2015). Netflix is accidentally inventing a new art form — not quite TV and not quite film. Vox. www.vox.com/2015/7/29/9061833/netflix-binge-new-artform adresinden 06.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • VOLPE, A. (2017, Ekim). The One Thing That Isn’t Evolving With Netflix & Hulu’s Takeover of TV. Thrillist. www.thrillist.com/lifestyle/nation/creative-virtual-party-ideas-for-having-fun-indoors adresinden 29.06.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • WATERMAN, D. (1988). World television trade: The economic effects of privatization and new technology. Telecommunications Policy, 12(2), ss. 141–151. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961(88)90006-7.
  • WILLIAMS, R. (2003). Televizyon, Teknoloji ve Kültürel Biçim (A. U. Türkbağ, Çev). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.

The Change in TV Series Production in The Global Television Industry: Witcher Example as a NETFLIX Production

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 646 - 666, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.797552

Abstract

TV series, which is one of the profitable productions of the television industry, has also undergone changes in line with the needs of the television economy. The last of these exchanges is thought to have occurred with OTT (Over The Top) platforms. The features of OTT platforms and the opportunities they offer to the audience create shifts in both the formal and narrative structure of television series. For example, NETFLIX, which has millions of subscribers in the international market, is changing the way series are produced and distributed using its own productions and platform features. It also holds special licensing agreements to strengthen the variety in its library in order to keep its product line broad. NETFLIX does not care about features such as the number of episodes or seasons in these contracts. Besides, it is also causing changes in traditional syndication rules in the United States, the main actor in international circulation. This change also affects the narrative structures associated with the economic factors of the series. This study focuses on the causes and consequences of this change, which is thought to have increased in effect with NETFLIX. The Witcher, which is NETFLIX original series, is analyzed, based on the data obtained, and the changes in question are revealed.

References

  • ABAD-SANTOS, A. (2020). Why everyone is watching The Witcher. Vox. www.vox.com/2020/2/1/21115115/the-witcher-timeline-spoilers-explained adresinden 04.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ADALIAN, J. (2015, Haziran). 10 Episodes Is the New 13 (Was the New 22). Vulture. www.vulture.com/2015/06/10-episodes-is-the-new-13-was-the-new-22.html adresinden 29.06.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ÇÖTELİ, S. (2016). İnternet’ten İzlenen Dizi ve Seriyallerin “Araç İletidir” ve “Kullanımlar Doyumlar” Bağlamında İncelenmesi. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 3(2), ss. 119–134. https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.21108.
  • FENNIS, T. (2016). How Do Netflix’s Production Practices Allow for Complex Storytelling? An Analysis of House of Cards. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
  • FOKKEMA, F. (2016). Television Content vs. Netflix Content A Content Analysis Regarding To The Storylines and Character Development in House Of Cards. Utrecht University, Utrecht.
  • FORWARD, D. (2019). ‘Dark’ character tree: How all the people of Winden are connected. Purefandom. www.purefandom.com/2019/06/20/dark-character-tree-how-everyone-connects/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • FRIEDMAN, J. (2000). Syndication. T. Pendergast & S. Pendergast (Der.), St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Volume 4: P-T. içinde Michigan: St. James Press.
  • GENNIS, S. (2019). The Witcher Showrunner Explains the Secrets to the Successful Netflix Adaptation. Tv Guide. www.tvguide.com/news/the-witcher-netflix-lauren-schmidt-hissrich/ adresinden 09.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • GENNIS, S. (2020). Netflix’s The Witcher Season 2: Cast, Release Date, and More. Tv Guide. https://www.tvguide.com/news/netflix-witcher-season-2-cast-release-date/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • GIMPEL, G. (2015). The Future of Video Platforms: Key Questions Shaping the TV and Video Industry. International Journal on Media Management, 17(1), ss. 25–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/14241277.2015.1014039
  • HOOLIHAN, H. (2019). ‘The Witcher’ Explained: Everything You Need to Know about Geralt from Page to Screen. Collider. www.collider.com/the-witcher-explained/ adresinden 10.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • HOSKINS, C., ve MIRUS, R. (1988). Reasons for the US dominance of the international trade in television programmes. Media, Culture & Society, 10(4), ss. 499–515. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1177/016344388010004006
  • MAAS, J. (2020, Haziran). ‘The Witcher’ Showrunner Teases Season 2: Hello Vesemir, Goodbye Multiple Timelines (Video). The Wrap. www.thewrap.com/the-witcher-season-2-vesemir-timelines-production-shutdown-changes-lauren-schmidt-hissrich/
  • MARTINS, A. C. (2019). Netflix and TV-as-Film: A Case Study of Stranger Things and The OA. T. Plothe & A. M. Buck (Der.), Netflix at the Nexus Content, Practice, and Production in the Age of Streaming Television (ss. 81–96). New York: Peter Lang.
  • MARTINSON, J. (2015). Netflix’s Ted Sarandos: ‘We like giving great storytellers big canvases.’ The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/media/2015/mar/15/netflix-ted-sarandos-house-of-cards adresinden 05.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • MATRIX, S. (2014). The Netflix Effect: Teens, Binge Watching, and On-Demand Digital Media Trends. Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, 6(1), ss. 119–138. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1353/jeu.2014.0002
  • MEISLER, A. (1998, 4 Ekim). Not Even Trying to Appeal to the Masses. The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1998/10/04/arts/television-radio-not-even-trying-to-appeal-to-the-masses.html adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • MITTELL, J. (2015). Complex TV The Poetics of Contemporary Television Storytelling. New York: University Press.
  • MOE, H. (2005). Television, Digitalisation and Flow: Questioning the Promises of Viewer Control. P. Masip & J. Rom (Der.), Digital Utopia in the Media: From Discourses to Facts. A Balance. Proceedings of the III International Conference on Communication and Reality (ss. 773–784) içinde. Facultat de Cièències de la Comunicació Blanquerna.
  • MUTLU, E. (1995). Televizyonda Program Yapımı. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • NEWMAN, M. Z. (2006). From Beats to Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative. The Velvet Light Trap, 58, ss. 16–28. https://doi.org/10.1353/vlt.2006.0033
  • NIELSEN. (2019). Nielsen “Sweeps” Months. Nielsen.Com. www.nielsen.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2019/04/Nielsen-Sweeps-Periods-2013-2014.pdf adresinden 24.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • ÖZEL, S. (2019). TV Taksonomisi Program Türleri ve Formatlar Üzerine Yaklaşımlar. İ. Erdoğan (Der.), Türkiye’de Televizyon Formatları Eleştirel Çalışmalar içinde. İstanbul: Doruk Yayımcılık.
  • PHILLIPS, P. (2020). The real reason The Witcher’s first season has only 8 episodes. Looper. www.looper.com/182996/the-real-reason-the-witchers-first-season-has-only-8-episodes/ adresinden 08.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • SMITH, D. (2013). Kevin Spacey Speech: Why The Netflix Model Can Save Television [Video + Full Transcript]. International Business Times. https://www.ibtimes.com/kevin-spacey-speech-why-netflix-model-can-save-television-video-full-transcript-1401970 adresinden 05.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • THOMAS, K. (2020). How Everyone in Netflix’s Dark Is Connected. Tv Guide. www.tvguide.com/news/features/dark-how-everything-connected-netflix/ adresinden 06.08.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • THOMPSON, K. (2003). Storytelling In Film And Television. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: Harvard University Press.
  • TURHAN, F. (2019, Kasım-Aralık). Lauren Schmidt Hissrich Röportajı. Episode, ss. 23–27.
  • TÜZÜN ATEŞALP, S. (2016). “Nitelikli Televizyon”: Medya Profesyonellerinin Perspektifinden Türk Televizyon Dizilerinde Nitelik. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi, 25, ss. 9–37. https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.283029
  • VANDERWERFF, E. (2015). Netflix is accidentally inventing a new art form — not quite TV and not quite film. Vox. www.vox.com/2015/7/29/9061833/netflix-binge-new-artform adresinden 06.07.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • VOLPE, A. (2017, Ekim). The One Thing That Isn’t Evolving With Netflix & Hulu’s Takeover of TV. Thrillist. www.thrillist.com/lifestyle/nation/creative-virtual-party-ideas-for-having-fun-indoors adresinden 29.06.2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • WATERMAN, D. (1988). World television trade: The economic effects of privatization and new technology. Telecommunications Policy, 12(2), ss. 141–151. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961(88)90006-7.
  • WILLIAMS, R. (2003). Televizyon, Teknoloji ve Kültürel Biçim (A. U. Türkbağ, Çev). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sedat ÖZEL> (Primary Author)
KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8280-1930
Türkiye


Ömer KISAOĞLU>
KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9657-9592
Türkiye

Early Pub Date October 30, 2022
Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

APA Özel, S. & Kısaoğlu, Ö. (2022). Küresel Televizyon Endüstrisinde Dizi Üretimlerinde Yaşanan Değişim: Bir NETFLIX Yapımı Olarak Witcher Örneği . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (2) , 646-666 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.797552

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