Year 2020, Volume 7 , Issue 2, Pages 266 - 279 2020-06-13

Factors Affecting Academic Self-efficacy of Syrian Refugee Students: A Path Analysis Model

Hasibe YAHSİ SARİ [1] , Selahattin GELBAL [2] , Halil SARI [3]

In this study, the effect of resilience, perceived social support, life satisfaction and self-regulation variables on the academic self-efficacy of Syrian refugee undergraduate students were examined with a path analysis model. The sample consisted of Syrian undergraduate students living in Turkey. The sample of the research was randomly selected and participation was voluntarily. Data collection tools used were demographic information form, Arabic versions of academic self-efficacy, resilience, perceived social support, life satisfaction and self-regulation scales. In the data analysis, self-regulation and perceived social support selected as the exogenous variables, academic self-efficacy was selected as the endogenous variable, and resilience and life satisfaction were selected as the mediator variables. In the study, the direct and indirect effects from exogenous variables to academic self-efficacy were examined. The findings of the research revealed that self-regulation and perceived social support directly affected academic self-efficacy, life satisfaction had a mediating effect on perceived social support, and resilience had self-regulation. It is concluded that in order to increase the academic self-efficacy of refugee students, self-regulation and social support from the society should be increased, as well as life satisfaction and resilience against difficulties.
Resilience, Self efficacy, Perceived social support, Path analysis, Life satisfaction, Syrian refugee
  • Abdallah, T. (1998). The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Psychometric properties in an Arabic-speaking Sample, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 7(2), 113-119.
  • Akkaya, A.Y., Çilingir, G.A., & Levent, G.T. (2018) A study on academic challenges of Syrian students at the University of Van Yuzuncu Yıl. Journal of Social Policy Studies, 18(40/2), 413-448.
  • Aldan Karademir, Ç., Deveci, Ö., & Çayli, B. (2018). Investigation of secondary school students’ self-regulation and academic self- efficacy. e-Kafkas Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 14-29.
  • Alemdağ, C., Erman, Ö., & Yilmaz, A.K. (2014). Preservice physical education teachers’ academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 25(1), 23-35.
  • Almohazie, M.F. (2018). Reliability and validity of an Arabic translation of academic self-efficacy scale (ase) on students at King Faisal University (Unpublished dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, The United States). Retrieved from
  • Alzubaidi, E., Aldridge, J.M. & Khine, M.S. (2016). Learning English as a second language at the university level in Jordan: Motivation, self-regulation and learning environment perceptions. Learning Environments Research, 19(1), 133-152.
  • Arslan, G., & Balkis, M. (2016). The relationship between emotional maltreatment, problem behaviors, psychological resilience, and self-efficacy in adolescents. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6(1), 8-22.
  • Azar, A. (2010). In-service and pre-service secondary science teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching. ZKU Journal of Social Sciences, 6(12), 235-252.
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  • Bayramdurdyyeva, G. (2019). Factors affecting the success of international students. International Journal of Humanities and Education, 5(11), 509-524.
  • Bong, M., & Clark, R.E. (1999). Comparison between self-concept and self-efficacy in academic motivation research. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 139-153.
  • Çakır, Y., & Palabıyıkoğlu, R. (1997). Reliability and validity study of multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Kriz, 5(1), 15-24.
  • Can, M., & Cantez, E. (2018). Investigation of happiness, resilience and self-efficacy levels in university students. Aydın İnsan ve Toplum Dergisi, 4(2), 61-76. Retrieved from
  • Chemers, M.M., Hu, L.T., & Garcia, B.F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 55-64.
  • Chung, M.C., AlQarni, N., Al Muhairi, S., & Mitchell, B. (2017). The relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees: is gender a moderator? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 94, 107-115.
  • Connor, K.M. & Davidson, J.R.T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 71-82.
  • Cortes, L., & Buchanan, M.J. (2007). The experience of Columbian child soldiers from a resilience perspective. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 29(1), 43-55.
  • Çuhadar, C., Gündüz, Ş., & Tanyeri, T. (2013). Investigation of relationship between studying approach and academic self-efficacy of computer education and instructional technologies department students. Mersin University Journal of The Faculty of Education, 9(1), 251-259. Retrieved from
  • Danielsen, A.G., Samdal, O., Hetland, J., & Wold, B. (2009), “School-related social support and students’ perceived life satisfaction”, The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 303-318.
  • Demir, Ö., & Aliyev, R. (2019). Resilience among Syrian university students in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Education, 8(1), 33-51.
  • Demirdağ, S. (2015). Comparing academic self-efficacy of students based on skills, educational setting and quality of education. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 4(1), 315-323.
  • Deryahanoğlu, G., Demirdöken, Ç., Canaydin, A., & Yamaner, F. (2019). Analysis of the level of academic self-efficacy and social support of the sports sciences faculty students. The Journal of International Social Research, 12(66), 1407-1413.
  • Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal striving and subjective well-being, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 120-132.
  • Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J. & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
  • Diener-Biswas, R., Diener, E., Tamir, M. (2004). The psychology of subjective wellbeing. Doedalus, 133(2), 18-25.
  • Ekici, G. (2012). Academic self-efficacy scale: Academic self-efficacy scale: the study of adaptation to Turkish, validity and reliability. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 43(43), 174-185.
  • Elias, R.R. (2016). Hope, parenting styles, and resilience in Lebanese university youth (Unpublished master's dissertation). Beirut, Lebanon. Retrieved from
  • Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The effects of autonomy on motivation and performancein the college classroom. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(4), 477-486.
  • Gez, A. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between psychological resilience and perceived social support of Syrian children and adolescents. (Unpublished master's dissertation). Mersin, Turkey.
  • Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü (2020). Statistics, temporary protection. Retrieved from
  • Güney, E. (2016). Research of resiliency traits and perceived social support levels of high school students whose parents are divorced and nondivorced. (Unpublished master's dissertation). Konya, Turkey.
  • Hırlak, B., Taşlıyan M., Fidan, E., & Güler, B. (2017). The relationship between the quality of faculty life, academic self-efficacy and satisfaction with life: A field research on students of faculty of economics and administrative sciences. Journal of Social & Humanities Sciences Research (JSHSR), 4(9), 86-104.
  • Hubbard, J., Realmuto, G.M., Northwood, A.K., & Masten, A.S. (1995). Comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses with post traumatic stress disorder in survivors of childhood trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1167- 1173.
  • Karaman, M.A., Karadas, C., & Vela, J.C. (2019). Development of perceived school counselor support scale: Based on the ASCA mindsets and behaviors. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 6(2), 202-217.
  • Kayacan, K., & Selvi, M. (2017). The effect of inquiry based learning enriched with self regulated activities on conceptual understanding and academic self-efficacy. Kastamonu Education Journal, 25(5), 1771-1786.
  • Keskin, B.B., & Akça, F. (2019). The importance of resilience: Family, school, community size predictions. International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, 5, 170-182.
  • Kuterovac-Jagodić, G. (2003). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in Croatian children exposed to war: A prospective study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 9-25.
  • Masten, A.S. (2001) Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.
  • Masten, A.S. & Coastworth, J.D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205-220.
  • Merhi, R. & Kazarian, S.S. (2012). Validation of the Arabic translation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Arabic-MSPSS) in a Lebanese community sample. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 23(2), 159-168.
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (1998). Statistical analysis with latent variables. Mplus User’s guide, 2012.
  • Peltonen, K., Qouta, S., Diab, M., & Punamaki, R.-L. (2014). Resilience among children in war: The role of multilevel social factors. Traumatology, 20(4), 232- 240.
  • Phan, H.P. (2012). Relations between informational sources, self-efficacy and academic achievement: A developmental approach. Educational Psychology, 32, 81-105.
  • Pieloch, K.A., McCullough, M.B., & Marks, A.K. (2016). Resilience of children with refugee statuses: A research review. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 57(4), 330–339.
  • Rutter, M. (2006). Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1-12.
  • Şeker, S.S. (2017). The examination of prospective music teachers’ academic self-efficacy and academic motivation levels. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 17(3), 1465-1484.
  • Süleymanov, A., Sonmez, P., Demirbas Unver, F., & Akbaba, S.M. (2017). International migration and children. Transnational Press: London, England, 2017, ISBN: 978-1-910781-56-2
  • Turgut, N. (2018). Pyschological Resilience Academic Achievement, And SelfEfficacy Levels in Nursing Students, (Unpublished Master’s thesis, Near East University, Lefkoşa, North Cyprus). Retrieved from
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2020). Regional Strategic Overview. Retrieved from
  • Velayutham, S., Aldridge, J.M., & Fraser, B.J. (2011). Development and validation of an instrument to measure students’ motivation and self-regulation in science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 15, 2159–2179.
  • Zimet, G.D., Dahlem, N.W., Zimet, S.G., & Farley, G.K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment, 52(1), 30-41.
  • Zimmerman B.J. (1995). Self-efficacy and educational development. Self-efficacy in Changing Societies, Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
  • Zimmerman, B.J., & Schunk, D.H. (Eds.). (1989). Springer series in cognitive development. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice. Springer-Verlag: New York.
Primary Language en
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Published Date June
Journal Section Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-0451-6034
Author: Hasibe YAHSİ SARİ (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0001-5181-7262
Author: Selahattin GELBAL
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0001-7506-9000
Author: Halil SARI (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Publication Date : June 13, 2020

APA Yahsi̇ Sari̇, H , Gelbal, S , Sarı, H . (2020). Factors Affecting Academic Self-efficacy of Syrian Refugee Students: A Path Analysis Model . International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education , 7 (2) , 266-279 . DOI: 10.21449/ijate.702041