Information for Authors

AIM AND SCOPE

European Journal of Biology (Eur J Biol) is an international, scientific, open access periodical published in accordance with independent, unbiased, and double-blinded peer-review principles. The journal is the official publication of İstanbul University Faculty of Science and it is published biannually on June and December. The publication language of the journal is English. European Journal of Biology has been previously published as IUFS Journal of Biology. It has been published in continuous publication since 1940.

European Journal of Biology aims to contribute to the literature by publishing manuscripts at the highest scientific level on all fields of biology. The journal publishes original research and review articles, and short communications that are prepared in accordance with the ethical guidelines in all fields of biology and life sciences.

The scope of the journal includes but not limited to; animal biology and systematics, plant biology and systematics, hydrobiology, ecology and environmental biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, biotechnology and genetics, physiology, toxicology, cancer biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology.

The target audience of the journal includes specialists and professionals working and interested in all disciplines of biology.

The editorial and publication processes of the journal are shaped in accordance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)Council of Science Editors (CSE)Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)European Association of Science Editors (EASE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). The journal is in conformity with the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (doaj.org/bestpractice).

European Journal of Biology is currently indexed by Web of Science Zoological Record, CAB Abstracts (CABI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and TUBITAK-ULAKBIM TR Index.

Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. No fees are requested from the authors at any point throughout the evaluation and publication process. All manuscripts must be submitted via the online submission system, which is available at der- gipark.gov.tr/iufsjb. The journal guidelines, technical information, and the required forms are available on the journal’s web page.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the İstanbul University.

Statements or opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in the journal reflect the views of the author(s) and not the opini- ons of the İstanbul University Faculty of Science, editors, editorial board, and/or publisher; the editors, editorial board, and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials.

All published content is available online, free of charge at dergipark.gov.tr/iufsjb. Printed copies of the journal are distributed free  of charge.

İstanbul University Faculty of Science holds the international copyright of all the content published in the journal.

EDITORIAL POLICIES AND PEER REVIEW PROCESS

Publication Policy

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the journal. The journal gives priority to original research papers submitted for publication.

General Principles

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

Short presentations that took place in scientific meetings can be referred if indicated in the article. The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims. Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors. Refused manuscripts and graphics are not returned to the author. 

Open Access Statement

European Journal of Biology is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

The articles in European Journal of Biology are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.en/)

Article Processing Charge

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Peer Review Process

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by Editor-in-Chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.

The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by Editor-in-Chief upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

- Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

- Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

- Is the problem significant and concisely stated?

- Are the methods described comprehensively?

- Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

- Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

- Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.

PUBLICATION ETHICS AND PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE STATEMENT

European Journal of Biology is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

All parties involved in the publishing process (Editors, Reviewers, Authors and Publishers) are expected to agree on the following ethical principles.

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Each manuscript is reviewed by one of the editors and at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unnethical behaviors.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication. In accordance with the code of conduct we will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing.

Research Ethics

The journal adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

-    Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.

-    The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.

-    The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.

-    Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion.

-    Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.

-    The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest or must be disclosed.

-    In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.

-    If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.

-    In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.

Author Responsibilities

It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. And authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analyzing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research group are not sufficient roles to be accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a co-decision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form. The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

Responsibility for the Editor and Reviewers

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

MANUSCRIPT ORGANIZATION

European Journal of Biology (Eur J Biol) is an international, scientific, open access periodical published in accordance with independent, unbiased, and double blinded peerreview principles. The journal is the official publication of İstanbul University Faculty of Science and it is published biannually on June and December. The publication language of the journal is English. European Journal of Biology has been previously published as IUFS Journal of Biology. It has been published in continuous publication since 1940.

European Journal of Biology aims to contribute to the literature by publishing manuscripts at the highest scientific level on all fields of biology. The journal publishes original research and review articles, and short communications that are prepared in accordance with the ethical guidelines in all fields of biology and life sciences.

The scope of the journal includes but not limited to; animal biology and systematics, plant biology and systematics, hydrobiology, ecology and environmental biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, biotechnology and genetics, physiology, toxicology, cancer biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology.


The editorial and publication processes of the journal are shaped in accordance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)Council of Science Editors (CSE), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)European Association of Science Editors (EASE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). The journal is in conformity with the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (doaj.org/bestpractice).

Originality, high scientific quality, and citation potential are the most important criteria for a manuscript to be accepted for publication. Manuscripts submitted for evaluation should not have been previously presented or already published in an electronic or printed medium. Manuscripts that have been presented in a meeting should be submitted with detailed information on the organization, including the name, date, and location of the organization.

Manuscripts submitted to European Journal of Biology will go through a doubleblind peerreview process. Each submission will be reviewed by at least three external, independent peer reviewers who are experts in their fields in order to ensure an unbiased evaluation process. The editorial board will invite an external and independent editor to manage the evaluation processes of manuscripts submitted by editors or by the editorial board members of the journal. The Editor in Chief is the final authority in the decision making process for all submissions.

An approval of research protocols by the Ethics Committee in accordance with international agreements (World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki “Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects,” amended in October 2013, www.wma.net) is required for experimental, clinical, and drug studies. If required, ethics committee reports or an equivalent official document will be requested from the authors.

For manuscripts concerning experimental research on humans, a statement should be included that shows the written informed consent of patients and volunteers was obtained following a detailed explanation of the procedures that they may undergo. Information on patient consent, the name of the ethics committee, and the ethics committee approval number should also be stated in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. It is the authors’responsibility to carefully protect the patients’anonymity. For photographs that may reveal the identity of the patients, signed releases of the patient or of their legal representative should be enclosed.

European Journal of Biology requires experimental research studies on vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates to comply with relevant institutional, national and/or international guidelines. The journal supports the principles of Basel Declaration (baseldeclaration.org) and the guidelines published by International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) (iclas.org). Authors are advised to clearly state their compliance with relevant guideline.

European Journal of Biology advises authors to comply with IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

All submissions are screened by a similarity detection software (iThenticate by CrossCheck).

In the event of alleged or suspected research misconduct, e.g., plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, the Editorial Board will follow and act in accordance with COPE guidelines.

Each individual listed as an author should fulfil the authorship criteria recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

(ICMJE - www.icmje.org). The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:

1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design  of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND

2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND

3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND

4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he/she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.

All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged in the title page of the manuscript.

European Journal of Biology requires corresponding authors to submit a signed and scanned version of the authorship contribution form (available for download through the journal’s web page) during the initial submission process in order to act appropriately on authorship rights and to prevent ghost or honorary authorship. If the editorial board suspects a case of“gift authorship,” the submission will be rejected without further review. As part of the submission of the manuscript, the corresponding author should also send a short statement declaring that he/she accepts to undertake all the responsibility for authorship during the submission and review stages of the manuscript.

European Journal of Biology requires and encourages the authors and the individuals involved in the evaluation process of submitted manuscripts to disclose any existing or potential conflicts of interests, including financial, consultant, and institutional, that might lead to potential bias or a conflict of interest. Any financial grants or other supports received for a submitted study from individuals or institutions should be disclosed to the Editorial Board. To disclose a potential conflict of interest, the ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form should be filled and submitted by all contributing authors. Cases of a potential conflict of interest of the editors, authors, or reviewers are resolved by the journal’s Editorial Board within the scope of COPE and ICMJE guidelines.

The Editorial Board of the journal handles all appeal and complaint cases within the scope of COPE guidelines. In such cases, authors should get in direct contact with the editorial office regarding their appeals and complaints. When needed, an ombudsperson may be assigned to resolve cases that cannot be resolved internally. The Editor in Chief is the final authority in the decision making process for all appeals and complaints.

When submitting a manuscript to European Journal of Biology, authors accept to assign the copyright of their manuscript to İstanbul University Faculty of Science. If rejected for publication, the copyright of the manuscript will be assigned back to the authors. European Journal of Biology requires each submission to be accompanied by a Copyright Transfer Form (available for download at the journal’s web page). When using previously published content, including figures, tables, or any other material in both print and electronic formats, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder. Legal, financial and criminal liabilities in this regard belong to the author(s).

Statements or opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in European Journal of Biology reflect the views of the author(s) and not the opinions of the editors, the editorial board, or the publisher; the editors, the editorial board, and the publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials. The final responsibility in regard to the published content rests with the authors.

Manuscript Preparation 

European Journal of Biology endorses ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in December 2017 - http:// www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf ). Authors are required to prepare manuscripts in accordance with the CONSORT guidelines for randomized research studies, STROBE guidelines for observational original research studies, STARD guidelines for studies on diagnostic accuracy, PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and metaanalysis, ARRIVE guidelines for experimental animal studies, TREND guidelines for non-randomized public behaviour, and COREQ guidelines for qualitative research.

Manuscripts can only be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission and evaluation system, available at the journal’s web page. Manuscripts submitted via any other medium will not be evaluated.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will first go through a technical evaluation process where the editorial office staff will ensure that the manuscript has been prepared and submitted  in accordance with the journal’s guidelines. Submissions that  do not conform to the journal’s guidelines will be returned to the submitting author with technical correction requests.

During the initial submission, authors are required to submit the following:

Copyright Agreement Form,

• Author Contributions Form, and ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form (should be filled in by all contributing authors). These forms are available for download at the journal’s web page.

Preparation of the Manuscript

Title page: A separate title page should be submitted with all submissions and this page should include:

• The full title of the manuscript as well as a short title (running head) of no more than 50 characters,

• Name(s), affiliations, and highest academic degree(s) of the author(s),

• Grant information and detailed information on the other sources of support,

• Name, address, telephone (including the mobile phone number) and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author,

• Acknowledgment of the individuals who contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but who do not fulfil the authorship criteria.

Abstract: An English abstract should be submitted with all submissions except for Letters to the Editor. Please check Table 1 below for word count specifications (250 words).

Keywords: Each submission must be accompanied by a minimum of three to a maximum of six keywords for subject indexing at the end of the abstract. The keywords should be listed in full without abbreviations.

Manuscript Types

Original Articles: This is the most important type of article since it provides new information based on original research. The main text of original articles should be structured with Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Discussion subheadings. Please check Table 1 for the limitations of Original Articles.

Statistical analysis to support conclusions is usually necessary. Statistical analyses must be conducted in accordance with international statistical reporting standards. Information on statistical analyses should be provided with a separate subheading under the Materials and Methods section and the statistical software that was used during the process must be specified.

Units should be prepared in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

Short Communications: Short communication is for a concise, but independent report representing a significant contribution to Biology. Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results. But if these results are of exceptional interest and are particularly topical and relevant will be considered for publication.

Short Communications should include an abstract and should be structed with the following subheadings: “Introduction”, “Material and Methods”, “Results and Discussion”.

Editorial Comments: Editorial comments aim to provide a brief critical commentary by reviewers with expertise or with high reputation in the topic of te research article published in the journal. Authors are selected and invited by the journal to provide such comments. Abstract, Keywords, and Tables, Figures, Images, and other media are not included.

Review Articles: Reviews prepared by authors who have extensive knowledge on a particular field and whose scientific background has been translated into a high volume of publications with a high citation potential are welcomed. These authors may even be invited by the journal. Reviews should describe, discuss, and evaluate the current level of knowledge of a topic in clinical practice and should guide future studies. The main text should contain Introduction, Experimental and Clinical Research Consequences, and Conclusion sections. Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Review Articles.

Letters to the Editor: This type of manuscript discusses important parts, overlooked aspects, or lacking parts of a previously published article. Articles on subjects within the scope of the journal that might attract the readers’ attention, particularly educative cases, may also be submitted in the form of a“Letter to the Editor.”Readers can also present their comments on the published manuscripts in the form of a “Letter to the Editor.” Abstract, Keywords, and Tables, Figures, Images, and other media should not be included. The text should be unstructured. The manuscript that is being commented on must be properly cited within this manuscript.

Tables:Tables should be included in the main document, presented after the reference list, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text. A descriptive title must be placed above the tables. Abbreviations used in the tables should be defined below the tables by footnotes (even if they are defined within the main text). Tables should be created using the“insert table” command of the word processing software and they should be arranged clearly to provide easy reading. Data presented in the tables should not be a repetition of the data presented within the main text but should be supporting the main text.

Figures and Figure LegendsFigures, graphics, and photographs should be submitted as separate files (n TIFF or JPEG format with 1200 dpi for graphic and 600 dpi for colour images) through the submission system. The files should not be embedded in a Word document or the main document. When there are figure subunits, the subunits should be labeled merged to form a single image. Each subunit should be submitted separately through the submission system. Images should be labeled (a, b, c, etc.) to indicate figure subunits. Thick and thin arrows, arrowheads, stars, asterisks, and similar marks can be used on the images to support figure legends. Like the rest of the submission, the figures too should be blind. Any information within the images that may indicate an individual or institution should be blinded. The minimum resolution of each submitted figure should be 300 DPI. To prevent delays in the evaluation process, all submitted figures should be clear in resolution and large in size (minimum dimensions: 100 × 100 mm). Figure legends should be listed at the end of the main document.

All acronyms and abbreviations used in the manuscript should be defined at first use, both in the abstract and in the main text.The abbreviation should be provided in parentheses following the definition.

When a drug, chemical, product, hardware,  or software program  is mentioned within the main text, product information, including the name of the product, the producer of the product, and city and the country of the company (including the state if in USA), should be provided in parentheses in the following format: “Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)”

All references, tables, and figures should be referred to within the main text, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text.

Limitations, drawbacks, and the shortcomings of original articles should be mentioned in the Discussion section before the conclusion paragraph.

REFERENCES

While citing publications, preference should be given to the latest, most up to date publications. If an ahead of print publication is cited, the DOI number should be provided. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Journal titles should be abbreviated in accordance with the journal abbreviations in Index Medicus/ MEDLINE/PubMed. When there are six or fewer authors, all authors should be listed. If there are seven or more authors, the first six authors should be listed followed by“et al.” In the main text of the manuscript, references should be cited using Arabic numbers in parentheses. The reference styles for different types of publications are presented in the following examples.

Journal Article: Rankovic A, Rancic N, Jovanovic M, Ivanović M, Gajović O, Lazić Z, et al. Impact of imaging diagnostics on the budget – Are we spending too much? Vojnosanit Pregl 2013; 70: 709-11.

Book Section: Suh KN, Keystone JS. Malaria and babesiosis. Gor- bach SL, Barlett JG, Blacklow NR, editors. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams; 2004.p.2290-308.

Books with a Single Author: Sweetman SC. Martindale the Complete Drug Reference. 34th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2005.

Editor(s) as Author: Huizing EH, de Groot JAM, editors. Functional reconstructive nasal surgery. Stuttgart-New York: Thieme; 2003.

Conference Proceedings: Bengisson S. Sothemin BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sept 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. pp.1561-5.

Scientific or Technical Report: Cusick M, Chew EY, Hoogwerf B, Agrón E, Wu L, Lindley A, et al. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Kidney Int: 2004. Report No: 26.

Thesis: Yılmaz B. Ankara Üniversitesindeki Öğrencilerin Beslenme Durumları, Fiziksel Aktiviteleri ve Beden Kitle İndeksleri Kan Lipidleri Arasındaki Ilişkiler. H.Ü. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi. 2007.

Epub Ahead of Print Articles: Cai L, Yeh BM, Westphalen AC, Roberts JP, Wang ZJ. Adult living donor liver imaging. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2016 Feb 24. doi: 10.5152/dir.2016.15323. [Epub ahead of print].

Manuscripts Published in Electronic Format: Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis (serial online) 1995 Jan-Mar (cited 1996 June 5): 1(1): (24 screens). Available from: URL: http:/ www.cdc.gov/ncidodlElD/cid.htm.

SUBMISSION CHECKLIST

Ensure that the following items are present:

    Cover letter to the editor

    The category of the manuscript

    Confirming that “the paper is not under consideration for publication in another journal”.

    Including disclosure of any commercial or financial involvement.

    Confirming that the statistical design of the research article is reviewed.

    Confirming that last control for fluent English was done.

    Confirming that journal policies detailed in Information for Authors have been reviewed.

    Confirming that the references cited in the text and listed in the references section are in line with NLM.

    Copyright Agreement Form

      Permission of previously published copyrighted material if used in the present manuscript

●    Author Form

    Title page

    The category of the manuscript

    The title of the manuscript

    All authors’ names and affiliations (institution, faculty/department, city, country), e-mail addresses

    Corresponding author’s email address, full postal address, telephone and fax number

    ORCIDs of all authors.

    Main Manuscript Document

    The title of the manuscript

    Abstract (250 words)

    Key words: 3 to 6 words

    Main article sections

    Grant support (if exists)

    Conflict of interest (if exists)

    Acknowledgement (if exists)

    References

    All tables, illustrations (figures) (including title, description, footnotes)