Year 2019, Volume 3 , Issue 2, Pages 83 - 92 2019-06-28

Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics

Madhav Dhakal [1] , Shrawan K. Sah [2] , Geeta Kharel [3]

Weeds are often the most severe problem in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) (DSR), causes reductions in yield and profitability. The traditional method of controlling rice weeds or manual weeding has several demerits as the practice is uneconomical and difficult. The effects of 10 different weed management practices were evaluated to identify the most effective and economical methods of managing weeds in DSR during in Nepal during the rainy season of 2010. Pendimethalin was applied pre-emergence where 2,4-D, bispyribac sodium, and oxadiargyl were applied post-emergence alone or combined with hand weeding. Sesbania (Sesbania aculeata Wild. Pers.) was co-cultured with rice and killed by 2,4-D. Weed emergence, density, and biomass per unit area of 3 weed types: broadleaf, sedges, and grasses were assessed during 20, 40, 60 days after seeding (DAS), and at harvest. Treatments were compared either to weedy check or weed-free control to determine weed control indices. A total of 42 weed species belonging to 27 genera and 11 families emerged across the growing season of rice. Most of the weeds were annual where broadleaf and sedges were dominant during the first two months, and grasses were dominant under flooding. Weeds reduced the rice yield by more than 80% in weedy-check with respect to weed-free control. A sequential application of pendimethalin as pre-emergence and bispyribac-sodium postemergence herbicides followed by a hand weeding at 45 DAS provided up to 85% weed control over weedy check than other weed control measures. However, that method found uneconomical when compared to the same without hand weeding because of the high cost of manual labor. Pendimethalin was effective in controlling early flush of weeds and bispyribac efficiently controlled weeds even after flooding turned out to be a less expensive method controlling in DSR. An integrated approach of weed management including both pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides can provide season-long weed control greater economic return.

Direct-seeded rice, Weeds, Herbicides, Hand weeding, Benefit to cost ratio
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Primary Language en
Subjects Agriculture, Plant Science, Agricultural, Engineering, Agronomy
Published Date June 2019
Journal Section Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0003-3082-5225
Author: Madhav Dhakal (Primary Author)
Institution: Texas Tech University
Country: United States

Orcid: 0000-0002-0510-6088
Author: Shrawan K. Sah
Institution: Agriculture and Forestry University
Country: Nepal

Orcid: 0000-0001-5677-6746
Author: Geeta Kharel
Institution: Texas Tech University
Country: United States


Application Date : October 12, 2018
Acceptance Date : April 17, 2019
Publication Date : June 28, 2019

Bibtex @research article { jaefs469712, journal = {International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences}, issn = {}, eissn = {2618-5946}, address = {Dicle University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture, 21280 Diyarbakir / Turkey}, publisher = {Gültekin ÖZDEMİR}, year = {2019}, volume = {3}, pages = {83 - 92}, doi = {10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6}, title = {Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics}, key = {cite}, author = {Dhakal, Madhav and Sah, Shrawan K. and Kharel, Geeta} }
APA Dhakal, M , Sah, S , Kharel, G . (2019). Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 3 (2) , 83-92 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6
MLA Dhakal, M , Sah, S , Kharel, G . "Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics". International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences 3 (2019 ): 83-92 <>
Chicago Dhakal, M , Sah, S , Kharel, G . "Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics". International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences 3 (2019 ): 83-92
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics AU - Madhav Dhakal , Shrawan K. Sah , Geeta Kharel Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6 DO - 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6 T2 - International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 83 EP - 92 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2618-5946 M3 - doi: 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6 UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics %A Madhav Dhakal , Shrawan K. Sah , Geeta Kharel %T Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics %D 2019 %J International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences %P -2618-5946 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6 %U 10.31015/jaefs.2019.2.6
ISNAD Dhakal, Madhav , Sah, Shrawan K. , Kharel, Geeta . "Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics". International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences 3 / 2 (June 2019): 83-92 .
AMA Dhakal M , Sah S , Kharel G . Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics. int. j. agric. environ. food sci.. 2019; 3(2): 83-92.
Vancouver Dhakal M , Sah S , Kharel G . Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice: dynamics and economics. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences. 2019; 3(2): 92-83.