Research Article
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Morphological characterization of some Besni pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes in Kayseri conditions

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 152 - 164, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.20

Abstract

The pepper genetic resources, which is a widely produced and consumed vegetable in Turkey and the world, are faced with some threats arising from the environmental conditions and agricultural activities. Therefore, it is very important to protect pepper genetic resources and include them in breeding programs. During the production adventure of pepper in Turkey, pepper genotypes known by the name of the regions were developed in different regions such as Demre, Uşak, Karaisalı, and Arapkir pepper. One of them, Besni Pepper, is grown in and around Besni district of Adıyaman province and makes significant contributions to the regional economy. In this study, 26 pepper genotypes collected from the villages of Besni and Gölbaşı districts, and three control varieties were characterized according to 42 morphological traits. Pepper genotypes showed significant variation in terms of the characteristics considered. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the investigated traits. The PCA analysis yielded 10 principal components explaining 86% of the total variation. The eigen values of 10 PC’s varied from 10,50 to 1,10. The first three PC’s explain 51,20% of the total variance. The variation between genotypes is mostly due to fruit characteristics such as fruit shape, fruit size, and blossom end shape. While the genotypes were divided into 4 groups in the cluster analysis, the pepper varieties used as control were separated from all genotypes and formed a separate group.

References

  • Altuntaş, Ö., Küçük, R., Değirmenci, M., (2021). Investigation of promising genotypes selected from Arapgir bell pepper population in terms of their plant characteristics. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Journal of Agricultural Science, 31 (1), 30-03.
  • Arif, A. B., Sujiprihati, S., Syukur, M., (2012). Estimation of genetic parameter on days to harvest and weight per fruit characters of hybrization chilli and cayyenne papper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal Agronmi Indonesia, 40, 119–124
  • Arslan, N., (2010). Uluslararası biyoçeşitlilik yılı münasebetiyle tarımsal biyoçeşitlilik ve yerel çeşitlerin/ekotiplerin önemi. Ziraat Mühendisliği, 354, 4-9 (in Turkish).
  • Balkaya, A., Özbakır, M., Karaağaç, O., (2010). Characterization of fruit characteristics and evaluation of variation in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) populations collected from the Black Sea region. Journal of Agricultural Science, 16, 17-25.
  • Barboza, G.E., Carrizo García, C., Leiva González, S., Scaldaferro, M., Reyes, X., (2019). Four new species of Capsicum (Solanaceae) from the tropical Andes and an update on the phylogeny of the genus. PLoS ONE 14 (1): e0209792.
  • Başak, H., (2019). Agronomic and morphological characterization of Kırşehir local green long pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum) Populations. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Journal of Agriculture and Natural Science, 22 (2), 202-216.
  • Baysal, S., (2013). Development of high performance commercial processing pepper varieties I. Collection of genetic material and determination of yield and some quality characteristics. Ege University Institute of Science, Department of Horticulture, Master Thesis, 52 p.
  • Binbir, S., Baş, T., (2010). Characterization of some local pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) populations. Journal of Anadolu Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, 20 (2), 70-88.
  • Bozokalfa, M.D., Eşiyok, D., (2010). Determination of genetic diversity by agronomic traits in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions. Journal of Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, 47 (2), 123-134.
  • Brown, J.S, (1991). Principal component and cluster analysis of cotton cultivar variability across the U.S. Cotton Belt. Crop Science, 31, 915-922.
  • Carvalho, S.I.C, Bianchetti, L.B., Henz, G.P., (2003). Germplasm collection of Capsicum spp. maintained by Embrapa Hortaliças. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 22, 17-20.
  • Cole, P.S., (1993). Evaluation and increase of USDA Capsicum germplasm. Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 12, 39-41.
  • Çürük, S., Külahlıoğlu, İ., Öntürk, G., (2015). Plant, flower and fruit characteristics of the local pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in the Yayladağı district of Hatay. In: 7th Horticultural Congress, 25-29.
  • Davis, P.H., (1965-1985). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 1-9. Edinburgh Univ. Press. Edinburgh U. K.
  • Davis, P.H., Mill R.R., Tan, K., 1988. Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 10. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, U.K.
  • Demir, İ., (1990). Genel Bitki Islahı. E. Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No 496: 366 s. (in Turkish).
  • do Rêgo, E.R., do Rêgo, M.M., Cruz, C.D., Finger, F.L. and Casali, V.W.D., (2011) Phenotypic diversity, correlation and importance of variables for fruit quality and yield traits in Brazilian peppers (Capsicum baccatum). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58, 909-918.
  • Dunteman, G.H., (1989). Principal Components Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Ppublications, Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences Series, No. 69.
  • Düzyaman, E., Duman, İ., (2004). A study on the morphological variability of some important pepper genotypes grown in Turkey. Journal of Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, 41 (3), 55-66.
  • Erik, S., Tarıkahya, B., (2004). On flora of Turkey. Kebikeç Human Resources Research Journal, 17, 139-163.
  • Eshbaugh, W.H., (1988). Capsicum germplasm collecting trip-Bolivia 1987. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 7, 24-26.
  • FAO, (2020). Agricultural Statistics. https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data
  • Gomez, M.L., Cuartero, J., (1984). Capsicum collection in the peruvian central areas. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 3, 13-16.
  • Gonzalez, M.M., Azurdia, C.A., (1985). Capsicum characterization in Guatemala. Capsicum Newsletter, 4, 16.
  • Güner, A., Ekim, T., Özhatay, N. and Baser, H.C., (2000). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 11. Edingburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Gyulai, G., Gémesné, J.A., Sági, Z.S., Venczel, G., Pintér, P., Kristóf, Z., Törjék, O., Heszky, L., Bottka, S., Kiss, J., Zatykó, L., (2000). Doubled haploid development and PCR-analysis of F1 hybrid derived DH-R2 paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) lines. Journal of Plant Physiololgy, 156 (2), 168-174
  • Hasanuzzaman, M., Golam, F., (2011). Gene actions involved in yield and yield contributing traits of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Australian Journal of Crop and Science, 5, 1868-1875.
  • Hawkes, J.G., (1991). The importance of genetic resources in plant breeding. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 43 (1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1991.tb00578.x
  • Heiser, C.B., Jr. Smith, P.G., (1953). The cultivated capsicum pepper. Ecological Botany, 7, 214-226
  • İlhan, D., (2017). Bitki biyoteknolojisinde genetik kaynakların önemi. Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 10 (2), 134-144 (in Turkish).
  • Karaağaç, O., Balkaya, A., (2010). Evaluation of variation and characterization of collected red pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. conoides (Mill.) Irish] populations from Bafra plain. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 25 (1), 10-20.
  • Karagöz, A., Tan A., Özbek K., Yıldız A., Keskin E., Bilgin A., Aykas L., Deniz D., Odası, Z. M., (2020). Current situation and future in the field of plant genetic resources in agriculture. In: Turkish Agricultural Engineering IX. Technical Congress Proceedings Book 1, 257-281.
  • Keleş, D., (2007). Characterization of different pepper types and low temperature tolerance. Çukurova University Institute Natural and Applied Sciences, PhD Thesis 212 p. (in Turksih).
  • Keleş, D., Rastgeldi, U., Karipçin, Z., Karagül, S., Soylu, M.K., Çömlekçioğlu, N. ve Büyükalaca, S., (2016). Şanlıurfa pepper breeding by selection. Alatarim 15 (1), 39-44.
  • Mohammadi, S.A., Prasanna, B.M., (2003). Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants-Salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science, 43, 1235-1248.
  • Mutlu, S., Haytaoğlu, M.A., Kır, A., İçer, B., (2009). Morphological characterization in the national gene bank pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasm. Anatolia, 19 (1), 63-91.
  • Negri, V., (2007). Towards a more comprehensive definition of “landrace” than currently published. In: Report of a Task Force on On-farm Conservation and Management, Second Meeting, 19-20 June 2006, Stegelitz, Germany. 20 pp. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, 52 p.
  • Nicolai, M., Cantet, M., Lefebvre, V., Sage-Palloix, A.M., Palloix, A., (2013). Genotyping a large collection of pepper (Capsicum spp.) with SSR loci brings new evidence for the wild origin of cultivated C. annuum and the structuring of genetic diversity by human selection of cultivar types. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60 (8), 2375-2390.
  • Nsabiyera, V., Ochwo-ssemakula, M.L.M., Sseruwagi, P., Gibson, P. and Ojiewo, C., (2013). Morphological characterization of local and exotic hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) collections in Uganda. Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability, 7, 22-32.
  • Occhiuto, P.N., Peralta, I.E., Asprelli, P.D. and Galmarini, C.R., (2014). Characterization of capsicum germplasm collected in northwestern Argentina based on morphological and quality traits. AgriScientia, 31, 63-73.
  • Olmstead, R.G., Bohs, L., Migid, H.A., Santiago-Valentin, E., Garcia, V.F., Collier, S.M., (2008). A molecular phylogeny of the Solanaceae. Taxon, 57 (4),1159-1181
  • Özdamar, K., (2004). Statistical Data Analysis with Package Programs (Multivariate Analysis). 5th Edition. 528 p.
  • Özhatay, N., Kültür, S., (2006). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey III. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30, 281-316.
  • Özhatay, N., Kültür, S., Aslan, S., (2009). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey IV. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33, 191-226. doi:10.3906/bot-0805-12.
  • Pentcheva, T., (1987). Characteristics of some local peppers. institute of introduction and plant genetic resources, Bulgaria. Capsicum Newsletter, 6, 15.
  • Pernezny, K., Roberts, P. D., Murphy J. F., Goldberg, N. P., (2003). Compendium of pepper diseases, The American Phytopathological Society, 63.
  • Pickersgill, B., (1991). Cytogenetics and evolution of Capsicum. In: Part L B Chromosome engineering in plants: genetics, breeding, evolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 139-160
  • Purseglove, J.W., (1974). Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons, pp. 430-435 Longmans, London.
  • Saleh, B.K., Kasili, R.W., Mamati, E.G., Arari, W., Nyende, A.B., (2016). classification of local pepper collections (Capsicum spp.) from Eritrea using morphological traits. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 590-600.
  • Şalk, A., Arın, L., Deveci, M., Polat, S., (2008). Özel Sebzecilik; Tekirdağ, Turkey: p. 485.
  • Samos, A., Kundt, A., (1984). The paprika. Kultura Hungarian foreign trade comp and academic kiado Budapest, 302 p.
  • Santos, R.M.C., do Rêgo, E.R., Borém, A., Nascimento, M.F., Nascimento, N.F.F., Finger, F.L., Rêgo, M.M., (2014). Epistasis and inheritance of plant habit and fruit quality traits in ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Genetic and Molecular Research, 13, 8876-8.
  • Sneath, P.H.A., Sokal, R.R., (1973). Numerical taxonomy the principles and practice of numerical classification, W. H. Freeman: San Francisco.
  • Tan, A., (1992). Plant diversity and plant genetic resources in Turkey. Anadolu, 2 (2), 50-54.
  • Tan, A., İnal, A., (2003). Aegean agricultural research institute plant genetic resources studies. Aegean Agricultural Research Institute Publication, 112, 13 s., İzmir.
  • Taş, K., Balkaya, A., (2021). Determination of morphological variation by principal component analysis and characterization of the Capsicum chinense genetic resources. Ekin Journal of Crop Breeding and Genetics, 7 (2), 86-105.
  • Vesselinov, E., Krasteva, L., Popova, D., (1982). Pepper introduction and breeding in Bulgaria. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 1, 74-78.
  • Villota-Cerón, D., Bonilla-Betancourt, M.L., CarmenCarrillo, H., Jaramillo-Vásquez, J., GarcíaDávila, M.A., (2012). Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. exis tentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica CI Palmira, Colombia. Acta Agronómica, 61 (1), 16-26.
  • Virga, G., Licata, M, Concentino, B.B., Tuttolomondo, T., Sabatino L., Leta, C., Labella , S., (2020). Agro-morphological characterization of Sicilian chili pepper accessions for ornamental purposes. Plants, 9 (10), 1400.
  • Vural, H., Eşiyok, D., Duman, İ., (2000). Cultivated Vegetables, Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, İzmir. 293-305.
  • Vural, M., (2003). Endangered plants of Turkey. In: FAO/UN Thematic Group, Workshop Report on Biological Diversity and Organic Agriculture in Turkey, 15-16 April, 168-183.
  • Wang, S.T., Hsiao, C.H., Berke, T., Shieh, S.C., (2000). 9th international chilli pepper nursery (ICPN) at Tari, Taiwan. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 19, 36-38.
  • Zewdie, Y., Tong, N., Bosland, P.W., (2004). Establishing a core collection of capsicum using a cluster analysis with enlightened selection of accessions. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 51, 147-151.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 152 - 164, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.20

Abstract

References

  • Altuntaş, Ö., Küçük, R., Değirmenci, M., (2021). Investigation of promising genotypes selected from Arapgir bell pepper population in terms of their plant characteristics. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Journal of Agricultural Science, 31 (1), 30-03.
  • Arif, A. B., Sujiprihati, S., Syukur, M., (2012). Estimation of genetic parameter on days to harvest and weight per fruit characters of hybrization chilli and cayyenne papper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal Agronmi Indonesia, 40, 119–124
  • Arslan, N., (2010). Uluslararası biyoçeşitlilik yılı münasebetiyle tarımsal biyoçeşitlilik ve yerel çeşitlerin/ekotiplerin önemi. Ziraat Mühendisliği, 354, 4-9 (in Turkish).
  • Balkaya, A., Özbakır, M., Karaağaç, O., (2010). Characterization of fruit characteristics and evaluation of variation in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) populations collected from the Black Sea region. Journal of Agricultural Science, 16, 17-25.
  • Barboza, G.E., Carrizo García, C., Leiva González, S., Scaldaferro, M., Reyes, X., (2019). Four new species of Capsicum (Solanaceae) from the tropical Andes and an update on the phylogeny of the genus. PLoS ONE 14 (1): e0209792.
  • Başak, H., (2019). Agronomic and morphological characterization of Kırşehir local green long pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum) Populations. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Journal of Agriculture and Natural Science, 22 (2), 202-216.
  • Baysal, S., (2013). Development of high performance commercial processing pepper varieties I. Collection of genetic material and determination of yield and some quality characteristics. Ege University Institute of Science, Department of Horticulture, Master Thesis, 52 p.
  • Binbir, S., Baş, T., (2010). Characterization of some local pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) populations. Journal of Anadolu Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, 20 (2), 70-88.
  • Bozokalfa, M.D., Eşiyok, D., (2010). Determination of genetic diversity by agronomic traits in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions. Journal of Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, 47 (2), 123-134.
  • Brown, J.S, (1991). Principal component and cluster analysis of cotton cultivar variability across the U.S. Cotton Belt. Crop Science, 31, 915-922.
  • Carvalho, S.I.C, Bianchetti, L.B., Henz, G.P., (2003). Germplasm collection of Capsicum spp. maintained by Embrapa Hortaliças. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 22, 17-20.
  • Cole, P.S., (1993). Evaluation and increase of USDA Capsicum germplasm. Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 12, 39-41.
  • Çürük, S., Külahlıoğlu, İ., Öntürk, G., (2015). Plant, flower and fruit characteristics of the local pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in the Yayladağı district of Hatay. In: 7th Horticultural Congress, 25-29.
  • Davis, P.H., (1965-1985). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 1-9. Edinburgh Univ. Press. Edinburgh U. K.
  • Davis, P.H., Mill R.R., Tan, K., 1988. Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 10. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, U.K.
  • Demir, İ., (1990). Genel Bitki Islahı. E. Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No 496: 366 s. (in Turkish).
  • do Rêgo, E.R., do Rêgo, M.M., Cruz, C.D., Finger, F.L. and Casali, V.W.D., (2011) Phenotypic diversity, correlation and importance of variables for fruit quality and yield traits in Brazilian peppers (Capsicum baccatum). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58, 909-918.
  • Dunteman, G.H., (1989). Principal Components Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Ppublications, Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences Series, No. 69.
  • Düzyaman, E., Duman, İ., (2004). A study on the morphological variability of some important pepper genotypes grown in Turkey. Journal of Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, 41 (3), 55-66.
  • Erik, S., Tarıkahya, B., (2004). On flora of Turkey. Kebikeç Human Resources Research Journal, 17, 139-163.
  • Eshbaugh, W.H., (1988). Capsicum germplasm collecting trip-Bolivia 1987. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 7, 24-26.
  • FAO, (2020). Agricultural Statistics. https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data
  • Gomez, M.L., Cuartero, J., (1984). Capsicum collection in the peruvian central areas. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 3, 13-16.
  • Gonzalez, M.M., Azurdia, C.A., (1985). Capsicum characterization in Guatemala. Capsicum Newsletter, 4, 16.
  • Güner, A., Ekim, T., Özhatay, N. and Baser, H.C., (2000). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. V 11. Edingburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Gyulai, G., Gémesné, J.A., Sági, Z.S., Venczel, G., Pintér, P., Kristóf, Z., Törjék, O., Heszky, L., Bottka, S., Kiss, J., Zatykó, L., (2000). Doubled haploid development and PCR-analysis of F1 hybrid derived DH-R2 paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) lines. Journal of Plant Physiololgy, 156 (2), 168-174
  • Hasanuzzaman, M., Golam, F., (2011). Gene actions involved in yield and yield contributing traits of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Australian Journal of Crop and Science, 5, 1868-1875.
  • Hawkes, J.G., (1991). The importance of genetic resources in plant breeding. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 43 (1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1991.tb00578.x
  • Heiser, C.B., Jr. Smith, P.G., (1953). The cultivated capsicum pepper. Ecological Botany, 7, 214-226
  • İlhan, D., (2017). Bitki biyoteknolojisinde genetik kaynakların önemi. Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 10 (2), 134-144 (in Turkish).
  • Karaağaç, O., Balkaya, A., (2010). Evaluation of variation and characterization of collected red pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. conoides (Mill.) Irish] populations from Bafra plain. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 25 (1), 10-20.
  • Karagöz, A., Tan A., Özbek K., Yıldız A., Keskin E., Bilgin A., Aykas L., Deniz D., Odası, Z. M., (2020). Current situation and future in the field of plant genetic resources in agriculture. In: Turkish Agricultural Engineering IX. Technical Congress Proceedings Book 1, 257-281.
  • Keleş, D., (2007). Characterization of different pepper types and low temperature tolerance. Çukurova University Institute Natural and Applied Sciences, PhD Thesis 212 p. (in Turksih).
  • Keleş, D., Rastgeldi, U., Karipçin, Z., Karagül, S., Soylu, M.K., Çömlekçioğlu, N. ve Büyükalaca, S., (2016). Şanlıurfa pepper breeding by selection. Alatarim 15 (1), 39-44.
  • Mohammadi, S.A., Prasanna, B.M., (2003). Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants-Salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science, 43, 1235-1248.
  • Mutlu, S., Haytaoğlu, M.A., Kır, A., İçer, B., (2009). Morphological characterization in the national gene bank pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasm. Anatolia, 19 (1), 63-91.
  • Negri, V., (2007). Towards a more comprehensive definition of “landrace” than currently published. In: Report of a Task Force on On-farm Conservation and Management, Second Meeting, 19-20 June 2006, Stegelitz, Germany. 20 pp. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, 52 p.
  • Nicolai, M., Cantet, M., Lefebvre, V., Sage-Palloix, A.M., Palloix, A., (2013). Genotyping a large collection of pepper (Capsicum spp.) with SSR loci brings new evidence for the wild origin of cultivated C. annuum and the structuring of genetic diversity by human selection of cultivar types. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60 (8), 2375-2390.
  • Nsabiyera, V., Ochwo-ssemakula, M.L.M., Sseruwagi, P., Gibson, P. and Ojiewo, C., (2013). Morphological characterization of local and exotic hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) collections in Uganda. Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability, 7, 22-32.
  • Occhiuto, P.N., Peralta, I.E., Asprelli, P.D. and Galmarini, C.R., (2014). Characterization of capsicum germplasm collected in northwestern Argentina based on morphological and quality traits. AgriScientia, 31, 63-73.
  • Olmstead, R.G., Bohs, L., Migid, H.A., Santiago-Valentin, E., Garcia, V.F., Collier, S.M., (2008). A molecular phylogeny of the Solanaceae. Taxon, 57 (4),1159-1181
  • Özdamar, K., (2004). Statistical Data Analysis with Package Programs (Multivariate Analysis). 5th Edition. 528 p.
  • Özhatay, N., Kültür, S., (2006). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey III. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30, 281-316.
  • Özhatay, N., Kültür, S., Aslan, S., (2009). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey IV. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33, 191-226. doi:10.3906/bot-0805-12.
  • Pentcheva, T., (1987). Characteristics of some local peppers. institute of introduction and plant genetic resources, Bulgaria. Capsicum Newsletter, 6, 15.
  • Pernezny, K., Roberts, P. D., Murphy J. F., Goldberg, N. P., (2003). Compendium of pepper diseases, The American Phytopathological Society, 63.
  • Pickersgill, B., (1991). Cytogenetics and evolution of Capsicum. In: Part L B Chromosome engineering in plants: genetics, breeding, evolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 139-160
  • Purseglove, J.W., (1974). Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons, pp. 430-435 Longmans, London.
  • Saleh, B.K., Kasili, R.W., Mamati, E.G., Arari, W., Nyende, A.B., (2016). classification of local pepper collections (Capsicum spp.) from Eritrea using morphological traits. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 590-600.
  • Şalk, A., Arın, L., Deveci, M., Polat, S., (2008). Özel Sebzecilik; Tekirdağ, Turkey: p. 485.
  • Samos, A., Kundt, A., (1984). The paprika. Kultura Hungarian foreign trade comp and academic kiado Budapest, 302 p.
  • Santos, R.M.C., do Rêgo, E.R., Borém, A., Nascimento, M.F., Nascimento, N.F.F., Finger, F.L., Rêgo, M.M., (2014). Epistasis and inheritance of plant habit and fruit quality traits in ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Genetic and Molecular Research, 13, 8876-8.
  • Sneath, P.H.A., Sokal, R.R., (1973). Numerical taxonomy the principles and practice of numerical classification, W. H. Freeman: San Francisco.
  • Tan, A., (1992). Plant diversity and plant genetic resources in Turkey. Anadolu, 2 (2), 50-54.
  • Tan, A., İnal, A., (2003). Aegean agricultural research institute plant genetic resources studies. Aegean Agricultural Research Institute Publication, 112, 13 s., İzmir.
  • Taş, K., Balkaya, A., (2021). Determination of morphological variation by principal component analysis and characterization of the Capsicum chinense genetic resources. Ekin Journal of Crop Breeding and Genetics, 7 (2), 86-105.
  • Vesselinov, E., Krasteva, L., Popova, D., (1982). Pepper introduction and breeding in Bulgaria. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 1, 74-78.
  • Villota-Cerón, D., Bonilla-Betancourt, M.L., CarmenCarrillo, H., Jaramillo-Vásquez, J., GarcíaDávila, M.A., (2012). Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. exis tentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica CI Palmira, Colombia. Acta Agronómica, 61 (1), 16-26.
  • Virga, G., Licata, M, Concentino, B.B., Tuttolomondo, T., Sabatino L., Leta, C., Labella , S., (2020). Agro-morphological characterization of Sicilian chili pepper accessions for ornamental purposes. Plants, 9 (10), 1400.
  • Vural, H., Eşiyok, D., Duman, İ., (2000). Cultivated Vegetables, Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, İzmir. 293-305.
  • Vural, M., (2003). Endangered plants of Turkey. In: FAO/UN Thematic Group, Workshop Report on Biological Diversity and Organic Agriculture in Turkey, 15-16 April, 168-183.
  • Wang, S.T., Hsiao, C.H., Berke, T., Shieh, S.C., (2000). 9th international chilli pepper nursery (ICPN) at Tari, Taiwan. Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 19, 36-38.
  • Zewdie, Y., Tong, N., Bosland, P.W., (2004). Establishing a core collection of capsicum using a cluster analysis with enlightened selection of accessions. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 51, 147-151.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Horticulture
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Mirac SAHİN This is me
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7699-6380
Türkiye


Halit YETİŞİR (Primary Author)
Erciyes Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi
0000-0001-6955-9513
Türkiye


Hasan PİNAR
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0811-8228
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Erciyes Univeritesi BAP
Project Number FYL-2021-10960
Thanks The authors are grateful for the support provided by the Erciyes University Scientific Research Coordination Unit with project number of FYL-2021-10960 in generating the data presented in this publication.
Publication Date March 15, 2022
Application Date November 19, 2021
Acceptance Date March 14, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Sahin, M. , Yetişir, H. & Pinar, H. (2022). Morphological characterization of some Besni pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes in Kayseri conditions . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (1) , 152-164 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.20


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