Research Article
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Leaf and root-growth characteristics contributing to salt tolerance of backcrossed pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) progenies under hydroponic conditions

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 91 - 99, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.13

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic differences in salt tolerance of third back-crossed peeper progenies and their respective parents through examining the changes in the shoot growth at agronomical, root growth at morphological and leaf development at physiological levels under salt stress. A hydroponic experiment was conducted by using an aerated Deep-Water Culture (DWC) technique in a controlled growth chamber of Erciyes University, Agricultural Faculty in Kayseri, Turkey. Five pepper plants (BC3-1, BC3-2, BC3-3, BC3-4, BC3-5) were selected from the third backcrossed (BC3) progenies of Sena and Kopan. Plants were grown in 8 L pots filled continuously aerated nutrient solution under at two electrical conductivity (EC) levels (control at 1.0 dS m−1 and salt at 8.0 dS m−1) in RBD design with four replications for six weeks. Significant reductions in leaf, shoot and root fresh and dry biomass productions, total leaf area, total root length, and total root volume of pepper plants were recorded under hydroponic salt stress. On the other hand, significant differences in salt tolerance among backcrossed peeper progenies and their respective parents existed. Particularly the progeny of BC3-3 was more tolerant characterized to salinity than the other progenies of third backcrossed and their respective parents. This was highly associated with vigorous root growth (root fresh and dry weight, total root length and volume) and photosynthetically active leaves (total leaf area, leaf chlorophyll index, chloride exclusion) under hydroponic salt stress. These traits could be useful characters to select and breed salt-tolerant pepper varieties for sustainable agriculture in the future. 

References

  • Al Rubaye, O.M., Yetisir, H., Ulas, F., Ulas, A. (2021). Enhancing salt stress tolerance of different pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) inbred line genotypes by rootstock with vigorous root system. Gesunde Pflanzen, 73, 375–389.
  • Ahmed, M. and ul Hassan, F. (2015). Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality traits and yield to sowing date. PLoS ONE, 10, e0126097.
  • Bojórquez-Quintal, E., Velarde-Buendía, A., Ku-González, Á., Carillo-Pech, M., Ortega-Camacho, D., Echevarría-Machado, I., Pottosin, I., Martínez-Estévez, M. (2014). Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation. Front. Plant. Sci., 5, 605.
  • Chartzoulakis, K. and Klapaki, G. (2000). Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stages. Sci. Hortic. 86: 247-260.
  • Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Rea, E., Cardarelli, M. (2012). Grafting cucumber plants enhance tolerance to sodium chloride and sulfate salinization. Sci. Hortic., 135, 177-185.
  • Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Jawad, R., Kumara, P., Rea, E., Cardarellic, M. (2013). The effectiveness of grafting to improve NaCl and CaCl2 tolerance in cucumber. Sci. Hortic., 164, 380-391.
  • Dölarslan, M. and Gül, E. (2012). Toprak bitki ilişkileri açısından tuzluluk. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, 5(2): 56-59 [in Turkish].
  • Gong, B., Wen, D., VandenLangenberg, K., Wei, M., Yang, F., Shi, Q., Wang, X. (2013). Comparative effects of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress on photosynthetic parameters, nutrient metabolism, and the antioxidant system in tomato leaves. Sci. Hortic., 157, 1–12.
  • Huez-López, M.A., April, L., Ulery, A.L., Samani, Z., Picchioni, G., Flynn, R.P. (2011). Response of Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to salt stress and organic and inorganic nitrogen sources: II. Nitrogen and water use efficiencies, and salt tolerance. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 14, 757-763.
  • Isayenkov, S.V. and Maathuis, F.J.M. (2019). Plant salinity stress: Many unanswered questions remain. Front. Plant Sci., 10.
  • Johnson, C.M. & Ulrich, A. (1959). Analytical methods for use in plant analysis. 1st Edn., California Agricultural Experiment Station, California, CA., USA.
  • Kumar, K., Kumar, M., Kim, S.R., Ryu, H., Cho, Y.G. (2013). Insights into genomics of salt stress response in rice. Rice, 6(1), 1-15. doi:10.1186/1939-8433-6-27.
  • Kurtar, E.S., Balkaya, A., Kandemir, D. (2016). Screening for salinity tolerance in developed winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) lines. Yuz. Yil Univ. J. Agric. Sci., 26, 183–195. [In Turkish].
  • Lucini, L., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Canaguier, R., Kumar, P., Colla, G. (2015). The effect of a plant-derived biostimulant on metabolic profiling and crop performance of lettuce grown under saline conditions. Sci. Hortic., 182, 124-133.
  • Lycoskoufis, I.H., Savvas, D., Mavrogianopoulos, G. (2005). Growth, gas exchange and nutrient status in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in recirculating nutrient solution as affected by salinity imposed to half of the root system. Scientia Hort., 106(2), 147-161.
  • Munns, R. and Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 59: 651–681.
  • Navarro, J.M., Flores, P., Garrido, C., Martinez, V. (2006). Changes in the contents of antioxidant compounds in pepper fruits at different ripening stages as affected by salinity. Food Chemistry, 96: 66-73.
  • Özdemir, B., Tanyolac, Z.Ö., Ulukapı, K., Onus, A.N. (2016). Evaluation of salinity tolerance level of some pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. Int. J. of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 5(2), 247-251.
  • Pasternak, D. (1987). Salt tolerance and crop production: a comprehensive approach. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 25, 271-291.
  • Penella, C., Nebauer, S.G., Lopez-Galarza, S., Oliver, A.Q. (2017). Grafting pepper onto tolerant rootstocks: An environmental-friendly technique overcome water and salt stress. Sci Hortic, 226, 33–41.
  • Sagi, M., Savidov, N.A., Vov, N.P.L., Lips, S.H. (1997). Nitrate reductase and molybdenum cofactor in annual ryegrass as affected by salinity and nitrogen source. Physiol Plant., 99,546-553.
  • Seemann, J.R., Critchley, C. (1985). Effects of salt stress on the growth, ion content, stomatal behaviour and photosynthetic capacity of a salt-sensitive species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Planta, 164, 151–162.
  • SAS Institute (2003). SAS for Windows 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Shannon, M.C. (1998). Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv. Agron., 60, 75-119.
  • Tripodi, P. and Kumar, S. (2019). The Capsicum Crop: An Introduction. In: Ramchiary N, Kole C, editors. The Capsicum genome. Switzerland: Springer; 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97217-6_1.
  • Ulas, F., Aydın, A., Ulas, A. and Yetisir, H. (2019). Grafting for sustainable growth performance of melon (Cucumis melo) under salt stressed hydroponic condition. European J. of Sustainable Development, 8:201-210.
  • Ulas, A., Aydin, A., Ulas, F., Yetisir, H., Miano, T.F. (2020). Cucurbita rootstocks improve salt tolerance of melon scions by inducing physiological, biochemical and nutritional responses. Horticulturae, 6, 66.
  • Ulas, F. (2021). Effects of grafting on growth, root morphology and leaf physiology of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) as affected by salt stress under hydroponic conditions. Int J Agric Environ Food Sci 5(2):203-212
  • Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Altman, A. (2003). Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta, 218: 1-14.
  • Wu, G.Q., Liang, N., Feng, R.J., Zhang, J.J. (2013). Evaluation of salinity tolerance in seedlings of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars using proline, soluble sugars and cation accumulation criteria. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(9), 2665–2674. doi:10.1007/s11738-013-1298-6.
  • Yoon, J.B., Yang, D.C., Do, J.W., Park, H.G. (2006). Overcoming two post-fertilization genetic barriers in interspecific hybridization between Capsicum annuum into Capsicum baccatum for introgression of anthracnose resistance. Breeding Science, 56:31-38.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 91 - 99, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.13

Abstract

References

  • Al Rubaye, O.M., Yetisir, H., Ulas, F., Ulas, A. (2021). Enhancing salt stress tolerance of different pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) inbred line genotypes by rootstock with vigorous root system. Gesunde Pflanzen, 73, 375–389.
  • Ahmed, M. and ul Hassan, F. (2015). Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality traits and yield to sowing date. PLoS ONE, 10, e0126097.
  • Bojórquez-Quintal, E., Velarde-Buendía, A., Ku-González, Á., Carillo-Pech, M., Ortega-Camacho, D., Echevarría-Machado, I., Pottosin, I., Martínez-Estévez, M. (2014). Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation. Front. Plant. Sci., 5, 605.
  • Chartzoulakis, K. and Klapaki, G. (2000). Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stages. Sci. Hortic. 86: 247-260.
  • Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Rea, E., Cardarelli, M. (2012). Grafting cucumber plants enhance tolerance to sodium chloride and sulfate salinization. Sci. Hortic., 135, 177-185.
  • Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Jawad, R., Kumara, P., Rea, E., Cardarellic, M. (2013). The effectiveness of grafting to improve NaCl and CaCl2 tolerance in cucumber. Sci. Hortic., 164, 380-391.
  • Dölarslan, M. and Gül, E. (2012). Toprak bitki ilişkileri açısından tuzluluk. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, 5(2): 56-59 [in Turkish].
  • Gong, B., Wen, D., VandenLangenberg, K., Wei, M., Yang, F., Shi, Q., Wang, X. (2013). Comparative effects of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress on photosynthetic parameters, nutrient metabolism, and the antioxidant system in tomato leaves. Sci. Hortic., 157, 1–12.
  • Huez-López, M.A., April, L., Ulery, A.L., Samani, Z., Picchioni, G., Flynn, R.P. (2011). Response of Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to salt stress and organic and inorganic nitrogen sources: II. Nitrogen and water use efficiencies, and salt tolerance. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 14, 757-763.
  • Isayenkov, S.V. and Maathuis, F.J.M. (2019). Plant salinity stress: Many unanswered questions remain. Front. Plant Sci., 10.
  • Johnson, C.M. & Ulrich, A. (1959). Analytical methods for use in plant analysis. 1st Edn., California Agricultural Experiment Station, California, CA., USA.
  • Kumar, K., Kumar, M., Kim, S.R., Ryu, H., Cho, Y.G. (2013). Insights into genomics of salt stress response in rice. Rice, 6(1), 1-15. doi:10.1186/1939-8433-6-27.
  • Kurtar, E.S., Balkaya, A., Kandemir, D. (2016). Screening for salinity tolerance in developed winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) lines. Yuz. Yil Univ. J. Agric. Sci., 26, 183–195. [In Turkish].
  • Lucini, L., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Canaguier, R., Kumar, P., Colla, G. (2015). The effect of a plant-derived biostimulant on metabolic profiling and crop performance of lettuce grown under saline conditions. Sci. Hortic., 182, 124-133.
  • Lycoskoufis, I.H., Savvas, D., Mavrogianopoulos, G. (2005). Growth, gas exchange and nutrient status in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in recirculating nutrient solution as affected by salinity imposed to half of the root system. Scientia Hort., 106(2), 147-161.
  • Munns, R. and Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 59: 651–681.
  • Navarro, J.M., Flores, P., Garrido, C., Martinez, V. (2006). Changes in the contents of antioxidant compounds in pepper fruits at different ripening stages as affected by salinity. Food Chemistry, 96: 66-73.
  • Özdemir, B., Tanyolac, Z.Ö., Ulukapı, K., Onus, A.N. (2016). Evaluation of salinity tolerance level of some pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. Int. J. of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 5(2), 247-251.
  • Pasternak, D. (1987). Salt tolerance and crop production: a comprehensive approach. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 25, 271-291.
  • Penella, C., Nebauer, S.G., Lopez-Galarza, S., Oliver, A.Q. (2017). Grafting pepper onto tolerant rootstocks: An environmental-friendly technique overcome water and salt stress. Sci Hortic, 226, 33–41.
  • Sagi, M., Savidov, N.A., Vov, N.P.L., Lips, S.H. (1997). Nitrate reductase and molybdenum cofactor in annual ryegrass as affected by salinity and nitrogen source. Physiol Plant., 99,546-553.
  • Seemann, J.R., Critchley, C. (1985). Effects of salt stress on the growth, ion content, stomatal behaviour and photosynthetic capacity of a salt-sensitive species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Planta, 164, 151–162.
  • SAS Institute (2003). SAS for Windows 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Shannon, M.C. (1998). Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv. Agron., 60, 75-119.
  • Tripodi, P. and Kumar, S. (2019). The Capsicum Crop: An Introduction. In: Ramchiary N, Kole C, editors. The Capsicum genome. Switzerland: Springer; 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97217-6_1.
  • Ulas, F., Aydın, A., Ulas, A. and Yetisir, H. (2019). Grafting for sustainable growth performance of melon (Cucumis melo) under salt stressed hydroponic condition. European J. of Sustainable Development, 8:201-210.
  • Ulas, A., Aydin, A., Ulas, F., Yetisir, H., Miano, T.F. (2020). Cucurbita rootstocks improve salt tolerance of melon scions by inducing physiological, biochemical and nutritional responses. Horticulturae, 6, 66.
  • Ulas, F. (2021). Effects of grafting on growth, root morphology and leaf physiology of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) as affected by salt stress under hydroponic conditions. Int J Agric Environ Food Sci 5(2):203-212
  • Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Altman, A. (2003). Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta, 218: 1-14.
  • Wu, G.Q., Liang, N., Feng, R.J., Zhang, J.J. (2013). Evaluation of salinity tolerance in seedlings of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars using proline, soluble sugars and cation accumulation criteria. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(9), 2665–2674. doi:10.1007/s11738-013-1298-6.
  • Yoon, J.B., Yang, D.C., Do, J.W., Park, H.G. (2006). Overcoming two post-fertilization genetic barriers in interspecific hybridization between Capsicum annuum into Capsicum baccatum for introgression of anthracnose resistance. Breeding Science, 56:31-38.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Horticulture
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Firdes ULAŞ (Primary Author)
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SEYRANİ ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, BAHÇE BİTKİLERİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-6692-8424
Türkiye

Thanks Acknowledgments: The author would like to thank all the staff members of the Plant Physiology Laboratory of Erciyes University, Turkey, for their technical support and for supplying all facilities during the experiments. The author is grateful to Prof Dr Halit Yetisir to providing the seeds.
Publication Date March 15, 2022
Application Date January 1, 2022
Acceptance Date March 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Ulaş, F. (2022). Leaf and root-growth characteristics contributing to salt tolerance of backcrossed pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) progenies under hydroponic conditions . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (1) , 91-99 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.13


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