Research Article
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The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3, 223 - 232, 30.09.2021

Abstract

STEM is integrated learning which consists of four aspects namely science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The 5M inquiry is a learning model that is being promoted in Indonesia to increase the critical thinking skills of students. In this study, the 5M inquiry learning activity was integrated with the STEM aspects in developing students' critical thinking skills in learning packages of simple machine materials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of STEM-based inquiry learning packages in simple machine material for improving the critical thinking skills of junior high school students. This type of research used quasi-experimental research with a one-shot case study pretest-posttest design. The research was replicated in four of 2nd grade of Junior High School 1 Pamekasan which conducted to 112 of students. The sampling technique used purposive sampling based on the fact that students were quite familiar with excavators. Data collection was used by tests of students' critical thinking skills and questionnaires of students' responses. The critical thinking skills test was given to students before and after the learning process, students were given the same initial test (pre-test) and final test (post-test). Questionnaires of students' responses were given to students after the learning process with STEM-based inquiry learning. Data analysis used descriptive analysis, normalized gain (N-gain) score, and paired t-test. The results showed that: 1) the increase of critical thinking skills based on the N-gain score is the high category; 2) the result of paired t-test showed that there is a significant difference in students' critical thinking skills before and after learning with STEM-based inquiry learning; 3) the student's response is the positive response with very good criteria to STEM-based inquiry learning. Based on the study, STEM-based inquiry learning packages were effective in improving the critical thinking skills of junior high school students.

References

  • Baharin, N., Kamarudin, N., & Manaf, U. K. A. (2018). Integrating STEM Education Approach in Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(7), 810-821
  • Basuki, I., & Hariyanto. (2014). Asesemen Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
  • Becker, K. & Kyungsuk, P. (2011). Effects Of Integrative Approaches Among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Subjects on Students' Learning, a Preliminary Metaanalysis. Journal of STEM Education, Innovations & Research, 12(6), 23-37
  • Beers, S. (2011). 21st Century Skills. Preparing Students for Their Future. Retrieved from: https://cosee.umaine.edu/files/coseeos/21st_century_skills.pdf
  • Borich, G. D. (1994). Observation Skills for Effective Teaching. USA: Macmilan Publishing Company.
  • Borich, G. D. & Ong A. (2006). Teaching Strategies That Promote Thinking Models and Curriculum Approaches. Singapore: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • Burrows, A., & Slater, T. (2015). A Proposed Integrated STEM Framework for Contemporary Teacher Preparation. Teacher Education and Practice, 28(3), 318-330
  • Brown R. , Brown J, K. Reardon, & C. Merrill. (2011). Understanding Stem. Current Perceptions. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70(6), 5-9
  • Bybee, R. (2010). What is STEM education? Science, 329(5995), 996. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194998
  • Byker, E.J, Coffey H., Harden S., Good A., Heafner T.L., Brown K.E., dan Holzberg D. (2017). Hoping to Teach Someday? Inquire Within: Examining Inquiry-Based Learning with First-Semester Undergrads. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 8(2), 54-80
  • Chinn, C. A., & Malhortra, B. A. (2002). Epistemologically Authentic Inquiry in Schools: A Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Inquiry Tasks. Science Education, 86, 175-218
  • Chittum, J. R., Jones, B. D., Akalin, S., & Schram, Á. B. (2017). The Effects of an Afterschool STEM Program on Students’ Motivation and Engagement. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(11)
  • Ciolan, L., & Ciolan, L. E. (2014). Two perspectives, same reality? How authentic is learning for students and for their teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 142, 24-28.
  • Drake, J. R. (2012). A Critical Analysis of Active Learning and an Alternative Pedagogical Framework for Introductory Information Systems Courses. Journal of Information Technology Education, 11, 39-52
  • Duran, M. & Şendağ S. 2012. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking Skills of Urban High School Students: Role of an IT/STEM Program. Creative Education. 3(2), 241-250.
  • Ennis, R.H. (1993). Critical Thinking Assessment. Theory into Practice. 32(3), 179-186.
  • Ennis, R. H. (2011). The Nature of Critical Thinking: An Outline of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities. Retrivied from https://education.illinois.edu/docs/default-source/faculty-documents/robert-ennis/thenatureofcriticalthinking_51711_000.pdf
  • Erman, E. (2017). Factors Contributing to Students’ Misconception in Learning Covalent Bonds. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(4), 520-537.
  • Erman, E., Wasis, Susantini E. & Azizah U. (2018). Scientific Thingking Skills: Why Junior High School Science Teachers Cannot Use Discovery and Inquiry Models In Classrom. International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST 2018). 1, 201-204
  • Erman, E. & Sari, D.A.P. (2019). Science in a Black Box: Can Teachers Address Science from SocioScientific Issues? Journal of Physics, 1417 (012093)
  • Erman, E., Liliasari L., Ramdani, M & Wachidah, N. (2020). Addressing Macroscopic Issues: Helping Student Form Associations Between Biochemistry and Sports and Aiding Their Scientific Literacy. International Journal of Science and Mathematics 18, 831–853
  • Fraenkel, J. R, Wallen, N. E, Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill
  • Ghaemi, F. dan Mirsaeed S.J.G. (2017). The Impact of Inquiry-based Learning Approach on Critical Thinking Skill of EFL Students. EFL Journal, 2(2), 89-102.
  • Gnagey, J. (2016). The Impact of Inclusive STEM High Schools on Student Achievement. AERA 2(2), 1–21
  • Gronlund, N E. (1981). Measurement and Evaluation Teaching. Canada: Collier Macmillian Canada.
  • Hake, R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Scores. AREA-D American Education Research Association’s Devision. D, Measurement and Research Methodology
  • Hernandez, P. R., Bodin, R., Elliott, J. W., Ibrahim, B., Rambo, H. K. E., Chen, T. W., & Miranda, M. A. (2014). Connecting The STEM Dots, Measuring The Effect of an Integrated Engineering Design Intervention. International Journal ofTechnology and Design Education, 24(1),107–120
  • Holmlund, T. D., Lesseig K. & Slavit D. (2018). Making Sense of “ STEM Education” in K-12 Contexts. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(32), 1-12
  • Kennedy, T. J & Odell M. R.L. (2014). Engaging Students In STEM Education. Science Education International, 25(3), 246-258.
  • LaForce, M., Noble, E., King, H., Century, J., Blackwell, C., Holt, S., Ibrahim, A., & Loo, S. (2016). The eight essential elements of inclusive STEM high schools. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(21), 1-11
  • Larmer J & Mergendoller J. (2010). Seven Essentials for Project-Based Learning. Educ. Leadership Journal. 68(1), 34-37.
  • Lee, D., Huh, D., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2015). Collaboration, Intragroup Conflict, and Social Skills in Project-Based Learning. International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 43(5), 561-590
  • Linder, S., Emerson, A., Heffron, B., Shevlin, E., Vest, A., & Eckhoff, A. (2016). STEM Use in Early Childhood Education: Viewpoints From the Field. YC Young Children, 71(3),
  • Marsono, Purnomo, Tuwoso, Romlie, M. & Solichin. (2017). The Urgency of Transferable Skills Development for Vocational Teacher A literature review study in Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Conference on Technology and Vocational Teachers, 102, 247-250
  • Martin, L & Hansen. (2018). Examining Ways to Meaningfully Support Students in STEM. Springer Open. International Journal of STEM Education, 5:53
  • Maulucci, M. S. R., Brown, B. A., Grey, S. T., & Sullivan, S. (2014). Urban Middle School Students' Reflections on Authentic Science Inquiry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(9), 1119-1149
  • Morrison, J. S. (2006). Attributes of STEM Education: The Students, The Academy, The Classroom. TIES STEM Education Monograph Series. Retrieved From https://goo.gl/J4CiUq.
  • Ostler, Elliot. (2012). 21st Century STEM Education: A Tactical Model for Long-Range Success. International Journal of Allied Science and Technology, 2(1), 28-33
  • Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from: www.p21.org/about-us/p21-framework.
  • Peters, E. E. (2010). Shifting to a Student-Centered Science Classroom: An Exploration of Teacher and Student Changes in Perceptions and Practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21(3), 329-349.
  • Ramnarain, U. & Mupira, P. (2018). The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning on The Achievement Goal-orientation of Grade 10 Physical Sciences Learnes at Township Schools in South Africa. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(6), 810-825
  • Reeve, J. (2013). How Students Create Motivationally Supportive Learning Environments for Themselves: The Concept of Agentic Engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 579-595
  • Rosebery, A. S., Warren, B., & Tucker R, E. (2015). Developing Interpretive Power in Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(10), 1571-1600.
  • Rothwell, J. (2013). The Hidden STEM Economy. Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. Retrivied from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/SrvyHiddenSTEMJune3b.pdf
  • Satchwell, E., & Loepp, F. (2002). Designing and Implementing an Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Curriculum for The Middle School. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 39(3), 41-66.
  • Slavin, R. E. (2011). Psikologi Pendidikan Teori dan Praktik Jilid 1. Jakarta: PT. Indeks.
  • Shernoff, D. J. (2013). Optimal Learning Environments to Promote Student Engagement. New York: Springer
  • Šorgo, A., Dojer, B., Golob, N., Repnik, R., Repolusk, S., Pesek, I., Virtič P., M.; Špernjak, A., & Špur, N. (2018). Opinions about STEM Content and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Upper Secondary School Students’ Career Aspirations to Become Researchers or Teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(10), 1448-1468
  • Stohlmann, M., Moore, T. J., & Roehrig, G. H. (2012). Considerations for Teaching Integrated STEM Education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 2(1), 28-34
  • Sujeewa, A., Polgampala, V., Shen, H. & Huang F. (2017). STEM Teacher Education and Professional Development and Training: Challenges and Trends. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(5), 93-97
  • Taber, K. S. (2013). Modelling Learners and Learning in Science Education: Developing Representations of Concepts, Conceptual Structure and Conceptual Change to Inform Teaching and Research. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Thibaut, L., Stijn, C., & Haydee, D. L. (2018). Intregated STEM Education: A Systematic Review of Instructional Practices in Secondary Education. European Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1-12
  • Tillman, D., An, S., Cohen, J., Kjellstrom, W., & Boren, R. (2014). Exploring Wind Power: Improving Mathematical Thinking Through Digital Fabrication. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 23(4), 401-421
  • Tomkin J. H., Beilstein S. O., Morphew J. W. & Herman G. L. (2019). Evidence that Communities of Practice are Associated with Active Learning in Large STEM Lectures. Springer Open. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1),1-15
  • Tunkham P., Donpudsa S. & Dornbundit P. (2016). Development of STEM Activities in Chemistry on “Protein” to Enhance 21st Century Learning Skills for Senior High School Students. Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts, 15 (3): 217-234
  • Viorel, D. & Viorel M. 2015. Scientific Literacy in School. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 167-172

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3, 223 - 232, 30.09.2021

Abstract

References

  • Baharin, N., Kamarudin, N., & Manaf, U. K. A. (2018). Integrating STEM Education Approach in Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(7), 810-821
  • Basuki, I., & Hariyanto. (2014). Asesemen Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
  • Becker, K. & Kyungsuk, P. (2011). Effects Of Integrative Approaches Among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Subjects on Students' Learning, a Preliminary Metaanalysis. Journal of STEM Education, Innovations & Research, 12(6), 23-37
  • Beers, S. (2011). 21st Century Skills. Preparing Students for Their Future. Retrieved from: https://cosee.umaine.edu/files/coseeos/21st_century_skills.pdf
  • Borich, G. D. (1994). Observation Skills for Effective Teaching. USA: Macmilan Publishing Company.
  • Borich, G. D. & Ong A. (2006). Teaching Strategies That Promote Thinking Models and Curriculum Approaches. Singapore: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • Burrows, A., & Slater, T. (2015). A Proposed Integrated STEM Framework for Contemporary Teacher Preparation. Teacher Education and Practice, 28(3), 318-330
  • Brown R. , Brown J, K. Reardon, & C. Merrill. (2011). Understanding Stem. Current Perceptions. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70(6), 5-9
  • Bybee, R. (2010). What is STEM education? Science, 329(5995), 996. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194998
  • Byker, E.J, Coffey H., Harden S., Good A., Heafner T.L., Brown K.E., dan Holzberg D. (2017). Hoping to Teach Someday? Inquire Within: Examining Inquiry-Based Learning with First-Semester Undergrads. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 8(2), 54-80
  • Chinn, C. A., & Malhortra, B. A. (2002). Epistemologically Authentic Inquiry in Schools: A Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Inquiry Tasks. Science Education, 86, 175-218
  • Chittum, J. R., Jones, B. D., Akalin, S., & Schram, Á. B. (2017). The Effects of an Afterschool STEM Program on Students’ Motivation and Engagement. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(11)
  • Ciolan, L., & Ciolan, L. E. (2014). Two perspectives, same reality? How authentic is learning for students and for their teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 142, 24-28.
  • Drake, J. R. (2012). A Critical Analysis of Active Learning and an Alternative Pedagogical Framework for Introductory Information Systems Courses. Journal of Information Technology Education, 11, 39-52
  • Duran, M. & Şendağ S. 2012. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking Skills of Urban High School Students: Role of an IT/STEM Program. Creative Education. 3(2), 241-250.
  • Ennis, R.H. (1993). Critical Thinking Assessment. Theory into Practice. 32(3), 179-186.
  • Ennis, R. H. (2011). The Nature of Critical Thinking: An Outline of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities. Retrivied from https://education.illinois.edu/docs/default-source/faculty-documents/robert-ennis/thenatureofcriticalthinking_51711_000.pdf
  • Erman, E. (2017). Factors Contributing to Students’ Misconception in Learning Covalent Bonds. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(4), 520-537.
  • Erman, E., Wasis, Susantini E. & Azizah U. (2018). Scientific Thingking Skills: Why Junior High School Science Teachers Cannot Use Discovery and Inquiry Models In Classrom. International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST 2018). 1, 201-204
  • Erman, E. & Sari, D.A.P. (2019). Science in a Black Box: Can Teachers Address Science from SocioScientific Issues? Journal of Physics, 1417 (012093)
  • Erman, E., Liliasari L., Ramdani, M & Wachidah, N. (2020). Addressing Macroscopic Issues: Helping Student Form Associations Between Biochemistry and Sports and Aiding Their Scientific Literacy. International Journal of Science and Mathematics 18, 831–853
  • Fraenkel, J. R, Wallen, N. E, Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill
  • Ghaemi, F. dan Mirsaeed S.J.G. (2017). The Impact of Inquiry-based Learning Approach on Critical Thinking Skill of EFL Students. EFL Journal, 2(2), 89-102.
  • Gnagey, J. (2016). The Impact of Inclusive STEM High Schools on Student Achievement. AERA 2(2), 1–21
  • Gronlund, N E. (1981). Measurement and Evaluation Teaching. Canada: Collier Macmillian Canada.
  • Hake, R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Scores. AREA-D American Education Research Association’s Devision. D, Measurement and Research Methodology
  • Hernandez, P. R., Bodin, R., Elliott, J. W., Ibrahim, B., Rambo, H. K. E., Chen, T. W., & Miranda, M. A. (2014). Connecting The STEM Dots, Measuring The Effect of an Integrated Engineering Design Intervention. International Journal ofTechnology and Design Education, 24(1),107–120
  • Holmlund, T. D., Lesseig K. & Slavit D. (2018). Making Sense of “ STEM Education” in K-12 Contexts. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(32), 1-12
  • Kennedy, T. J & Odell M. R.L. (2014). Engaging Students In STEM Education. Science Education International, 25(3), 246-258.
  • LaForce, M., Noble, E., King, H., Century, J., Blackwell, C., Holt, S., Ibrahim, A., & Loo, S. (2016). The eight essential elements of inclusive STEM high schools. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(21), 1-11
  • Larmer J & Mergendoller J. (2010). Seven Essentials for Project-Based Learning. Educ. Leadership Journal. 68(1), 34-37.
  • Lee, D., Huh, D., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2015). Collaboration, Intragroup Conflict, and Social Skills in Project-Based Learning. International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 43(5), 561-590
  • Linder, S., Emerson, A., Heffron, B., Shevlin, E., Vest, A., & Eckhoff, A. (2016). STEM Use in Early Childhood Education: Viewpoints From the Field. YC Young Children, 71(3),
  • Marsono, Purnomo, Tuwoso, Romlie, M. & Solichin. (2017). The Urgency of Transferable Skills Development for Vocational Teacher A literature review study in Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Conference on Technology and Vocational Teachers, 102, 247-250
  • Martin, L & Hansen. (2018). Examining Ways to Meaningfully Support Students in STEM. Springer Open. International Journal of STEM Education, 5:53
  • Maulucci, M. S. R., Brown, B. A., Grey, S. T., & Sullivan, S. (2014). Urban Middle School Students' Reflections on Authentic Science Inquiry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(9), 1119-1149
  • Morrison, J. S. (2006). Attributes of STEM Education: The Students, The Academy, The Classroom. TIES STEM Education Monograph Series. Retrieved From https://goo.gl/J4CiUq.
  • Ostler, Elliot. (2012). 21st Century STEM Education: A Tactical Model for Long-Range Success. International Journal of Allied Science and Technology, 2(1), 28-33
  • Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from: www.p21.org/about-us/p21-framework.
  • Peters, E. E. (2010). Shifting to a Student-Centered Science Classroom: An Exploration of Teacher and Student Changes in Perceptions and Practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21(3), 329-349.
  • Ramnarain, U. & Mupira, P. (2018). The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning on The Achievement Goal-orientation of Grade 10 Physical Sciences Learnes at Township Schools in South Africa. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(6), 810-825
  • Reeve, J. (2013). How Students Create Motivationally Supportive Learning Environments for Themselves: The Concept of Agentic Engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 579-595
  • Rosebery, A. S., Warren, B., & Tucker R, E. (2015). Developing Interpretive Power in Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(10), 1571-1600.
  • Rothwell, J. (2013). The Hidden STEM Economy. Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. Retrivied from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/SrvyHiddenSTEMJune3b.pdf
  • Satchwell, E., & Loepp, F. (2002). Designing and Implementing an Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Curriculum for The Middle School. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 39(3), 41-66.
  • Slavin, R. E. (2011). Psikologi Pendidikan Teori dan Praktik Jilid 1. Jakarta: PT. Indeks.
  • Shernoff, D. J. (2013). Optimal Learning Environments to Promote Student Engagement. New York: Springer
  • Šorgo, A., Dojer, B., Golob, N., Repnik, R., Repolusk, S., Pesek, I., Virtič P., M.; Špernjak, A., & Špur, N. (2018). Opinions about STEM Content and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Upper Secondary School Students’ Career Aspirations to Become Researchers or Teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(10), 1448-1468
  • Stohlmann, M., Moore, T. J., & Roehrig, G. H. (2012). Considerations for Teaching Integrated STEM Education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 2(1), 28-34
  • Sujeewa, A., Polgampala, V., Shen, H. & Huang F. (2017). STEM Teacher Education and Professional Development and Training: Challenges and Trends. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(5), 93-97
  • Taber, K. S. (2013). Modelling Learners and Learning in Science Education: Developing Representations of Concepts, Conceptual Structure and Conceptual Change to Inform Teaching and Research. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Thibaut, L., Stijn, C., & Haydee, D. L. (2018). Intregated STEM Education: A Systematic Review of Instructional Practices in Secondary Education. European Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1-12
  • Tillman, D., An, S., Cohen, J., Kjellstrom, W., & Boren, R. (2014). Exploring Wind Power: Improving Mathematical Thinking Through Digital Fabrication. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 23(4), 401-421
  • Tomkin J. H., Beilstein S. O., Morphew J. W. & Herman G. L. (2019). Evidence that Communities of Practice are Associated with Active Learning in Large STEM Lectures. Springer Open. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1),1-15
  • Tunkham P., Donpudsa S. & Dornbundit P. (2016). Development of STEM Activities in Chemistry on “Protein” to Enhance 21st Century Learning Skills for Senior High School Students. Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts, 15 (3): 217-234
  • Viorel, D. & Viorel M. 2015. Scientific Literacy in School. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 167-172

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Published Date September 2021
Journal Section STEM Education
Authors

Maya ISDİANTİ This is me
Universitas Negeri Surabaya
0000-0001-7663-8279
Indonesia


Harun NASRUDİN This is me
Universitas Negeri Surabaya
0000-0002-4315-876X
Indonesia


Erman ERMAN (Primary Author)
Universitas Negeri Surabaya
0000-0002-8985-156X
Indonesia

Supporting Institution Graduate school of Unesa
Project Number No Project Number
Thanks We would like thank to the validators, who review data collecting tools and this study can be carried out correctly. We also to the Headmaster of SMPN 1 Pamekasan for the support in the implementation of STEM-based inquiry learning.
Publication Date September 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jegys832239, journal = {Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-360X}, address = {editorjegys@gmail.com}, publisher = {Genç Bilge Yayıncılık}, year = {2021}, volume = {9}, pages = {223 - 232}, doi = {}, title = {The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill}, key = {cite}, author = {Isdianti, Maya and Nasrudin, Harun and Erman, Erman} }
APA Isdianti, M. , Nasrudin, H. & Erman, E. (2021). The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill . Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists , 9 (3) , 223-232 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jegys/issue/64497/832239
MLA Isdianti, M. , Nasrudin, H. , Erman, E. "The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill" . Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 9 (2021 ): 223-232 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jegys/issue/64497/832239>
Chicago Isdianti, M. , Nasrudin, H. , Erman, E. "The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill". Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 9 (2021 ): 223-232
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill AU - Maya Isdianti , Harun Nasrudin , Erman Erman Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 223 EP - 232 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - -2149-360X M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill %A Maya Isdianti , Harun Nasrudin , Erman Erman %T The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill %D 2021 %J Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists %P -2149-360X %V 9 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Isdianti, Maya , Nasrudin, Harun , Erman, Erman . "The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill". Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 9 / 3 (September 2021): 223-232 .
AMA Isdianti M. , Nasrudin H. , Erman E. The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill. JEGYS. 2021; 9(3): 223-232.
Vancouver Isdianti M. , Nasrudin H. , Erman E. The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists. 2021; 9(3): 223-232.
IEEE M. Isdianti , H. Nasrudin and E. Erman , "The effectiveness of STEM based inquiry learning packages to improving students’ critical thinking skill", Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 223-232, Sep. 2021

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