Clinical Research
BibTex RIS Cite
Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 4, 275 - 292, 30.12.2023

Abstract

References

  • Aggarwal, R., & Ranganathan, P. (2019). Study designs: Part 2 - descriptive studies. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 10(1), 34-36. https://doi.org/10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18
  • Anderson, E., Hayes, S., and Carpenter, B. (2020). Principal as caregiver of all: Responding to needs of others and self. CPRE. Policy Briefs. Consortium for Policy Research in Education.
  • Augustine, C. H., Gonzalez, G., Ikemoto, G. S., Russell, J., Zellman, G. L., Constant, L., . . . & Dembowsky, J. W. (2009). Improving school leadership: The promise of cohesive leadership systems. RAND Education.
  • Azukas, M. E. (2022). Leading remotely: Competencies required for virtual leadership. Association for Educational Communications and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-022-00708-x
  • Brulles, D. (2020). Gifted coordinators. In J. H. Robins, J. L. Jolly, F. A. Karnes, & S. M. Bean (Eds.), Methods and materials for teaching the gifted (5th ed., pp. 394-420). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003236610
  • Correa, N., & First, J. M. (2021). Examining the mental health impacts of COVID-19 on K-12 mental health providers, school teachers, and students. Journal of School Counseling, 19(42). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1328847.pdf
  • Ezzani, M., Mun, R.U., & Lee, L.E. (2021). District leaders focused on systematic equity in identification and services for gifted education: From policy to practice. Roeper Review, 43(2), 112-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2021.1881853
  • Floyd, C. B. (2023). Essential leadership: The work of Virginia gifted education coordinators to promote equity. Roeper Review, 45(2), 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2023.2172753
  • Floyd, C. B. (2022). Organizational barriers to equity: Stories from Virginia gifted education coordinators. Roeper Review, 44(4), 212-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2022.2115177
  • Guilbault, K. M. (2022, February 15). Conceptual model of the leadership roles of a district gifted education coordinator. OSF Home. https://www.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/UK5TG
  • Guilbault, K. M., JohnBull, R. M., & McCormick, K. M. (2022). District gifted education coordinators’ leadership roles and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 45(4), 352-380. https://doi.org/10.1177/01623532221124144
  • Hooge, E., Moolenaar, N. M., van Look, K. C. J., Janssen, S. K., & Sleegers, P. J. C. (2019). The role of district leaders for organization social capital. Journal of Educational Administration, 57(3), 296-316. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-03-2018-0045
  • Honig, M. I. (2003). Building policy from practice: District central office administrators’ roles and capacity for implementing collaborative education policy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 292–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X03253414
  • Honig, M. I. (2008). District central offices as learning organizations: How sociocultural and organizational learning theories elaborate district central office administrators' participation in teaching and learning improvement efforts. American Journal of Education, 114(4), 627-664. https://doi.org/10.1086/589317
  • Honig, M. I. (2012). District central office leadership as teaching. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(4), 733-774. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X12443258
  • Huck, C., & Zhang, J. (2021). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on k-12 education: A systematic literature review. Educational Research and Development Journal, 24(1), 53-84.
  • Kaul, M., Comstock, M., and Simon, N. S. (2022). Leading from the middle: How principals rely on district guidance and organizational conditions in times of crisis. AERA Open 8, 233285842210773. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858 4221077303
  • Kennedy, D. M. (1997). FYI: Secondary program coordinators: A job description. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 9(1), 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X9700900105
  • Longmuir, F. (2023). Leading in lockdown: Community, communication and compassion in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 51(5), 1014–1030. https://doi.org/10.1177/174 11432211027634.
  • Mania-Singer, J. (2017). A systems theory approach to the district central office’s role in school-level improvement. Administrative Issues Journal, 7(1), 70-83. https://dc.swosu.edu/aij/vol7/iss1/7
  • Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED509055
  • Milligan, J., Neal, G., & Singleton, J. (2014). Preparing effective administrators of special and gifted education programs: The university’s role. Journal of Higher Education Theory & Practice, 14(4), 62–68.
  • Novak, A. M., & Lewis, K. D. (2023). Perceptions of a gifted coordinator on university/district collaboration providing culturally responsive gifted professional learning: A phased analysis of the four-zone equity-driven model of professional learning. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 46(3), 276–315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162353 2231180903
  • Peters, S. J. (2022). The challenges of achieving equity within public school gifted and talented programs. Gifted Child Quarterly, 66(2), 82-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/00169862211002535
  • Peters, S. J., & Brulles, D. (2017). Designing gifted education programs and services: From purpose to implementation. Routledge.
  • Peters, S. J., Langi, M., Kuhfeld, M. & Lewis, K. (2023). Unequal learning loss: How the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the academic growth of learners at the tails of the achievement distribution. (EdWorkingPaper: 23-787). Annenberg Institute at Brown University. https://doi.org/10.26300/z2ek-4937
  • Pressley, T. (2021). Factors contributing to teacher burnout during COVID-19. Educational Researcher, 50(5), 325-327. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X211004138
  • Rinn, A. N., Mun, R. U., & Hodges, J. (2022). 2020-2021 State of the states in gifted education. National Association for Gifted Children and the Council of State Directors of Programs for the Gifted. https://cdn.ymaws.com/nagc.org/resource/resmgr/2020-21_state_of_the_states_.pdf
  • Rorrer, A. K., Skrla, L., & Scheurich, J. J. (2008). Districts as institutional actors in educational reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 307-357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08318
  • Steilen, K., & Stone-Johnson, C. (2023). “There wasn’t a guidebook for this”: Caring leadership during crisis. Frontiers in Education, 8, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2023.1183134
  • Stosich, E. L. (2020). Central office leadership for instructional improvement: Developing collaborative leadership among principals and instructional leadership team members. Teachers College Record, 122(9), 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146812012200908
  • Thornton, K. (2021). Learning through COVID-19: New Zealand secondary principals describe their reality. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 49, 393–409.
  • United States Department of Education. (2020). Supplemental fact sheet: Addressing the risk of COVID-19 in preschool, elementary and secondary schools while serving children with disabilities. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/frontpage/faq/rr/policyguidance/Supple%20Fact%20Sheet%203.21.20%20FINAL.pdf
  • Veale, N. W. (2010). A comparison between collaborative and authoritative leadership styles of special education administrators. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 147-156. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137054.pdf
  • Walls, J., & Seashore Louis, K. (2023). Moral distress amongst district leaders: Intensity, dilemmas, and coping m mechanisms in the context of Covid-19. Educational Administration Quarterly, 59(3), 507–541. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X231170226
  • Weaver, R., Landers, M., Stephens, T., and Joseph, E. (Eds.) (2003). Administering special education programs: A practical guide for school leaders. Praeger Publishers.
  • Weeks, A. C., DiScala, J., Barlow, D. L., Massey, S. A., Kodama, C., Jarrell, K., Jacobs, L., Moses, A., Follman, R., & Hall, R. (2016). The Lilead survey: A national study of district-level library supervisors: The position, office, and characteristics of the supervisor. School Library Research, 19, 1-29. https://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/vol19/SLR_LileadSurvey_V19.pdf
  • Weiner, J., Francois, C., Stone-Johnson, C., & Childs, J. (2021). Keep safe, keep learning: Principals' role in creating psychological safety and organizational learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Education, 5, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.618483
  • Westphal, A., Kalinowski, E., Hoferichter, C. J., & Vock, M. (2022). K-12 teachers’ stress and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Frontiers Psychology, 13, 920326. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2022.920326
  • Whitworth, B. A. (2014). Exploring the critical role of a district science coordinator (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Virginia.
  • Whitworth, B. A., Maeng, J. L., Wheeler, L. B., & Chiu, J. L. (2017). Investigating the role of a district science coordinator. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(7), 914-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21391
  • Wolfgang, C. & Snyderman, D. (2021). An analysis of the impact of school closings on gifted services: Recommendations for meeting gifted students’ needs in a post-COVID-19 world. Gifted Education International, 38(1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/02614294211054262
  • Young, E. L., Butler, R., Smith, T. B., Hilton, S. C., & Smith, A. (2021). Recruiting and retaining school psychologists: The experiences of district level administrative supervisors. Psychology in the Schools, 58(8), 1501-1517. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22506
  • Yazçayır, G., Kılınç, Ş., & Ak, G. (2022). Special education school administrators’ experiences regarding distance and hybrid education. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 181-201. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo. 7379857

A survey of the challenges and responsibilities of school district gifted education coordinators before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 4, 275 - 292, 30.12.2023

Abstract

District-level gifted education coordinators (DGECs) complete the critical work of overseeing and leading gifted and advanced education programs in school systems. However, only a few studies have explored what their roles and responsibilities entail (Ezzani et al., 2021; Floyd, 2023; Guilbault et al., 2022; Kennedy, 1997). Emerging qualitative research from the COVID-19 pandemic indicates that the pandemic posed unique challenges for DGECs (Guilbault et al., 2022), but quantitative information is also needed to further elucidate those challenges. The present study utilized descriptive cross-sectional methods to quantify and define (1) DGECs’ roles and responsibilities, (2) how their roles and responsibilities changed throughout 2020-2021, and (3) what challenges DGECs faced during the pandemic. Participants included a purposive national sample of 35 DGECs from small, medium, and large school districts in the United States. They completed an online questionnaire that was fitted to the research questions. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 2x3 contingency tables with subsequent Pearson’s chi-square tests of independence to examine how roles and responsibilities changed over three different time points: prior to COVID-19, during the spring 2020 semester, and during the spring 2021 semester. Results suggest that instructional leadership duties (such as overseeing district identification processes) and program management duties (like developing and revising policies, handbooks, and procedures) were the most common types of roles and responsibilities shared across the sample, while communication and collaboration duties were less widespread. Throughout the pandemic, duties that required face-to-face interactions and communication (e.g., observing teachers, in-person professional development, and parent informational nights) were most negatively impacted. Conversely, the provision of virtual professional development, overseeing district identification processes, and reporting of activities to the state department of education increased throughout the 2020-2021 school year. Furthermore, results revealed high levels of stress among the DGECs with a majority of them considering leaving their role. Major leadership challenges included the following: (a) adapting to constant changes to policies and procedures, (b) delivery of professional learning, (c) gaps in student and teacher access to technology, (d) equity issues, (e) identification procedures, (f) ensuring continuity of services, and (g) providing teachers of the gifted with the necessary digital materials needed for online instruction. Recommendations for practice and future research will be discussed.

Ethical Statement

We received no financial support for this work, and there are no conflicts of interest to disclose. Research approval was granted by our university’s Institutional Review Board (IRB), and we adhered to ethical standards: (1) engaging in research best practices, (2) ensuring that there was no harm to participants, (3) maintaining informed consent, and (4) ensure privacy and confidentiality.

Thanks

We would like to thank all of the DGECs who participated in the study. Their voices are critical to better understanding how leaders pivoted during this crisis and learned from their experiences so we can better prepare districts for the future. In addition, we confirm that the manuscript describes an original work.

References

  • Aggarwal, R., & Ranganathan, P. (2019). Study designs: Part 2 - descriptive studies. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 10(1), 34-36. https://doi.org/10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18
  • Anderson, E., Hayes, S., and Carpenter, B. (2020). Principal as caregiver of all: Responding to needs of others and self. CPRE. Policy Briefs. Consortium for Policy Research in Education.
  • Augustine, C. H., Gonzalez, G., Ikemoto, G. S., Russell, J., Zellman, G. L., Constant, L., . . . & Dembowsky, J. W. (2009). Improving school leadership: The promise of cohesive leadership systems. RAND Education.
  • Azukas, M. E. (2022). Leading remotely: Competencies required for virtual leadership. Association for Educational Communications and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-022-00708-x
  • Brulles, D. (2020). Gifted coordinators. In J. H. Robins, J. L. Jolly, F. A. Karnes, & S. M. Bean (Eds.), Methods and materials for teaching the gifted (5th ed., pp. 394-420). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003236610
  • Correa, N., & First, J. M. (2021). Examining the mental health impacts of COVID-19 on K-12 mental health providers, school teachers, and students. Journal of School Counseling, 19(42). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1328847.pdf
  • Ezzani, M., Mun, R.U., & Lee, L.E. (2021). District leaders focused on systematic equity in identification and services for gifted education: From policy to practice. Roeper Review, 43(2), 112-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2021.1881853
  • Floyd, C. B. (2023). Essential leadership: The work of Virginia gifted education coordinators to promote equity. Roeper Review, 45(2), 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2023.2172753
  • Floyd, C. B. (2022). Organizational barriers to equity: Stories from Virginia gifted education coordinators. Roeper Review, 44(4), 212-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783193.2022.2115177
  • Guilbault, K. M. (2022, February 15). Conceptual model of the leadership roles of a district gifted education coordinator. OSF Home. https://www.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/UK5TG
  • Guilbault, K. M., JohnBull, R. M., & McCormick, K. M. (2022). District gifted education coordinators’ leadership roles and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 45(4), 352-380. https://doi.org/10.1177/01623532221124144
  • Hooge, E., Moolenaar, N. M., van Look, K. C. J., Janssen, S. K., & Sleegers, P. J. C. (2019). The role of district leaders for organization social capital. Journal of Educational Administration, 57(3), 296-316. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-03-2018-0045
  • Honig, M. I. (2003). Building policy from practice: District central office administrators’ roles and capacity for implementing collaborative education policy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 292–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X03253414
  • Honig, M. I. (2008). District central offices as learning organizations: How sociocultural and organizational learning theories elaborate district central office administrators' participation in teaching and learning improvement efforts. American Journal of Education, 114(4), 627-664. https://doi.org/10.1086/589317
  • Honig, M. I. (2012). District central office leadership as teaching. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(4), 733-774. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X12443258
  • Huck, C., & Zhang, J. (2021). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on k-12 education: A systematic literature review. Educational Research and Development Journal, 24(1), 53-84.
  • Kaul, M., Comstock, M., and Simon, N. S. (2022). Leading from the middle: How principals rely on district guidance and organizational conditions in times of crisis. AERA Open 8, 233285842210773. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858 4221077303
  • Kennedy, D. M. (1997). FYI: Secondary program coordinators: A job description. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 9(1), 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X9700900105
  • Longmuir, F. (2023). Leading in lockdown: Community, communication and compassion in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 51(5), 1014–1030. https://doi.org/10.1177/174 11432211027634.
  • Mania-Singer, J. (2017). A systems theory approach to the district central office’s role in school-level improvement. Administrative Issues Journal, 7(1), 70-83. https://dc.swosu.edu/aij/vol7/iss1/7
  • Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED509055
  • Milligan, J., Neal, G., & Singleton, J. (2014). Preparing effective administrators of special and gifted education programs: The university’s role. Journal of Higher Education Theory & Practice, 14(4), 62–68.
  • Novak, A. M., & Lewis, K. D. (2023). Perceptions of a gifted coordinator on university/district collaboration providing culturally responsive gifted professional learning: A phased analysis of the four-zone equity-driven model of professional learning. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 46(3), 276–315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162353 2231180903
  • Peters, S. J. (2022). The challenges of achieving equity within public school gifted and talented programs. Gifted Child Quarterly, 66(2), 82-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/00169862211002535
  • Peters, S. J., & Brulles, D. (2017). Designing gifted education programs and services: From purpose to implementation. Routledge.
  • Peters, S. J., Langi, M., Kuhfeld, M. & Lewis, K. (2023). Unequal learning loss: How the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the academic growth of learners at the tails of the achievement distribution. (EdWorkingPaper: 23-787). Annenberg Institute at Brown University. https://doi.org/10.26300/z2ek-4937
  • Pressley, T. (2021). Factors contributing to teacher burnout during COVID-19. Educational Researcher, 50(5), 325-327. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X211004138
  • Rinn, A. N., Mun, R. U., & Hodges, J. (2022). 2020-2021 State of the states in gifted education. National Association for Gifted Children and the Council of State Directors of Programs for the Gifted. https://cdn.ymaws.com/nagc.org/resource/resmgr/2020-21_state_of_the_states_.pdf
  • Rorrer, A. K., Skrla, L., & Scheurich, J. J. (2008). Districts as institutional actors in educational reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 307-357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08318
  • Steilen, K., & Stone-Johnson, C. (2023). “There wasn’t a guidebook for this”: Caring leadership during crisis. Frontiers in Education, 8, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2023.1183134
  • Stosich, E. L. (2020). Central office leadership for instructional improvement: Developing collaborative leadership among principals and instructional leadership team members. Teachers College Record, 122(9), 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146812012200908
  • Thornton, K. (2021). Learning through COVID-19: New Zealand secondary principals describe their reality. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 49, 393–409.
  • United States Department of Education. (2020). Supplemental fact sheet: Addressing the risk of COVID-19 in preschool, elementary and secondary schools while serving children with disabilities. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/frontpage/faq/rr/policyguidance/Supple%20Fact%20Sheet%203.21.20%20FINAL.pdf
  • Veale, N. W. (2010). A comparison between collaborative and authoritative leadership styles of special education administrators. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 147-156. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137054.pdf
  • Walls, J., & Seashore Louis, K. (2023). Moral distress amongst district leaders: Intensity, dilemmas, and coping m mechanisms in the context of Covid-19. Educational Administration Quarterly, 59(3), 507–541. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X231170226
  • Weaver, R., Landers, M., Stephens, T., and Joseph, E. (Eds.) (2003). Administering special education programs: A practical guide for school leaders. Praeger Publishers.
  • Weeks, A. C., DiScala, J., Barlow, D. L., Massey, S. A., Kodama, C., Jarrell, K., Jacobs, L., Moses, A., Follman, R., & Hall, R. (2016). The Lilead survey: A national study of district-level library supervisors: The position, office, and characteristics of the supervisor. School Library Research, 19, 1-29. https://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/vol19/SLR_LileadSurvey_V19.pdf
  • Weiner, J., Francois, C., Stone-Johnson, C., & Childs, J. (2021). Keep safe, keep learning: Principals' role in creating psychological safety and organizational learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Education, 5, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.618483
  • Westphal, A., Kalinowski, E., Hoferichter, C. J., & Vock, M. (2022). K-12 teachers’ stress and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Frontiers Psychology, 13, 920326. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2022.920326
  • Whitworth, B. A. (2014). Exploring the critical role of a district science coordinator (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Virginia.
  • Whitworth, B. A., Maeng, J. L., Wheeler, L. B., & Chiu, J. L. (2017). Investigating the role of a district science coordinator. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(7), 914-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21391
  • Wolfgang, C. & Snyderman, D. (2021). An analysis of the impact of school closings on gifted services: Recommendations for meeting gifted students’ needs in a post-COVID-19 world. Gifted Education International, 38(1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/02614294211054262
  • Young, E. L., Butler, R., Smith, T. B., Hilton, S. C., & Smith, A. (2021). Recruiting and retaining school psychologists: The experiences of district level administrative supervisors. Psychology in the Schools, 58(8), 1501-1517. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22506
  • Yazçayır, G., Kılınç, Ş., & Ak, G. (2022). Special education school administrators’ experiences regarding distance and hybrid education. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 181-201. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo. 7379857

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Special Talented Education
Journal Section Teacher of Gifted Students
Authors

Keri GUILBAULT 0000-0002-9563-633X

Sarah CAROLEO 0000-0002-0041-9616

Publication Date December 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 10 Issue: 4

Cite

APA GUILBAULT, K., & CAROLEO, S. (2023). A survey of the challenges and responsibilities of school district gifted education coordinators before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 10(4), 275-292.