Year 2019, Volume , Issue 44, Pages 360 - 374 2019-12-15

XX. YÜZYILIN İLK ÇEYREĞİNDE GÜRCİSTAN'DAKİ SİYASAL BASKILAR
ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ РЕПРЕССИИ В ГРУЗИИ В ПЕРВОЙ ЧЕТВЕРТИ ХХ-ГО ВЕКА
POLITICALREPRESIONSIN GEORGIADURINGTHE IQUARTETOFTHE XX CENTURY

Giorgi SOSIASHVILI [1]


ÖZ

25 Şubat 1921’de Sovyet Rusya, Gürcistan'ı işgal etti. Gürcistan Demokratik Cumhuriyeti Hükümeti ülkeyi terk etmek zorunda kaldı. Sovyet iktidarının kurulmasından sonra Bolşevikler tarafından farklı siyasî düşüncelerinden dolayı insanlara şiddetli baskılar uygulandı. Bundan sonra vatandaşların oy kullanma   hakları ellerinden alındı (Sosiashvili, 2011: 49). İnsanlar sürgün ve benzeri olaylarla da katledildiler. Bolşevik terörü toplumun en yüksek çevrelerine kadar ulaştı. Mülkiyetten yoksun bırakılmış vatandaşlar “işçi sınıfının düşmanları” ilan edildiler ve cezalandırıldılar. Bunlar bütün mülklerinden, evlerden, hayvanlardan vb. mahrum edildiler. Arşivlerde muhafaza edilen kaynaklardan dönemin Gürcistan’ında ne kadar zor bir durumun var olduğu çok net anlaşılmaktadır. Bolşevikler, Gürcü soyluların mülklerine el koydular ve bu malları hazineye devrettiler. Ayrıca, Bolşevik Hükümeti, diğer dinî azınlıkların yanı sıra Ortodoks Kilisesi'ne de saldırdı (Sosiashvili, 2014: 224). 1920'lerde 1000'den fazla kilise kapatıldı. Baskılardan önce, ülkede 1700 papaz, 1527 rahip ve 280 rahibenin hizmet verdiği 1350 kilise vardı ve bunların büyük kısmı kapatıldı (Dzhaparidze, 2009: 115). Sunulan kaynaklar, 20. yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde ülkedeki baskıların Gürcistan toplumuna ne kadar çarpıcı bir darbe vurduğunu net bir şekilde göstermektedir. Ne yazık ki, Bolşevik terörü bu noktada durmadı ve sonraki yıllarda vatandaşlara yapılan zülüm daha fazla yaygınlaştı, “Kızıl Terör” birçok masum insanın hayat hakkını elinden aldı. Bolşevik terörü Gürcü toplumunun yetişmiş insan gücünü yok etti. Dönemin yaraları birçok ailenin hayatını tamamen etkiledi.

25 февраля 1921 года Советская Россия оккупировала Грузию.После установления советской власти страна подверглась массовым репрессиям, большевики преследовали всех людей с различными политическими идеями.Это выражалось в формах лишения граждан права голоса (Сосиашвили, 2011: 49), изгнания или в некоторых случаях их физической ликвидации.Большевистский террор обрушился на высшие круги общества. Граждане, которые были лишены имущества, были наказаны за то, что они являлись дворянами и врагами рабочего класса, они были лишены всякой собственности, домов, скота и т. д. Источники, хранящиеся в архивах, дают нам информацию о тяжёлой ситуации в Грузии.Большевики забрали имущество грузинских дворян и национализировали. Большевистское правительство также напало на Православную Церковь наряду с другими религиозными меньшинствами (Сосиашвили, 2014: 224). В течение 20-х годов XX века было закрыто более 1000 церквей.До репрессий в стране насчитывалось около 1350 церквей, где служили 1700 священников, 1527 монахов и 280 монахинь, их число сократилось до нескольких десятков (Джапаридзе, 2009:115). Представленные источники позволяют нам увидеть четкую картину репрессий в стране в течение I квартала XX века, которые нанесли поразительный удар по грузинскому обществу. К сожалению, большевистский террор на этом не остановился, поскольку в последующие годы стало обычным делом преследовать граждан, в то время как красный террор унёс жизни многих других ни в чём не повинных людей.

On February 25, 1921 the Soviet Russia had occupied Georgia. After the establishment of the Soviet rule, the country had undergone massive repressions, as the Bolshevik’s had persecuted all the individuals with different political ideas. This was expressed in forms of taking citizens rights of voting away from them (Sosiashvili, 2011:49), making them exile or in certain occasions their physical liquidation. The Bolshevik terror has had struck upon the higher circles of the society. The citizens, who had been deprived of the belongings, were punished on the grounds of being "a nobleman and an enemy of the working class", they were deprived of any property, houses, livestock, etc., The sources kept at the archives gives us heavy and unvarnished information about the situation in Georgia. The Bolsheviks took away the property of the Georgian noblemen and gave it to the state.The bolshevik government also attacked the Orthodox Church along with other religious minorities (Sosiashvili, 2014:224).  During the 20s of the XX century more than 1000 churches had been closed. Prior to the repressions in the country there had been approximately 1350 churches, where 1700 priests, 1527 monks and 280 nuns had served. The number had decreased to couple of dozens (Japaridze, 2009:115).The presented sources allows us to see the clear-cut picture about the repressions in the country during the I quarter of the XX century, which had had an astonishing blow on the Georgian society. Unfortunately, the Bolshevik terror had not stopped there, as it became regular to persecute citizens in the later years, whereas the “Red Terror” took away the lives of many other innocent people.

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Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2406-8662
Author: Giorgi SOSIASHVILI (Primary Author)
Country: Georgia


Dates

Application Date : November 16, 2019
Acceptance Date : December 6, 2019
Publication Date : December 15, 2019

APA SOSIASHVILI, G . (2019). POLITICALREPRESIONSIN GEORGIADURINGTHE IQUARTETOFTHE XX CENTURY. Karadeniz Uluslararası Bilimsel Dergi , (44) , 360-374 . DOI: 10.17498/kdeniz.647659