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Aflatoxin M1 Levels In Raw Sheep, Goat And Cow Milks In Niğde Province

Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2, 119 - 125, 14.02.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.376355

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw cow, sheep and goat milk consumed in Niğde and to evaluate whether they pose a risk for public health regarding legal limits and to compare the AFM1 levels in milk of different species. In the study, 90 raw milk samples were collected and analysed by ELISA tecnique. All of the milk samples were found to be contaminated with AFM1. On the other hand AFM1 contents of all sheep and goat milk samples were below the legal limits, while 3 of the raw cow milk samples (10%) exceeded the limits of concern (50 ng/L). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed between AFM1 levels in milk of different species (p <0.05). In conclusion, AFM1 exposure risk in case of sheep and goat milk consumption is found to be lower than cow milk consumption in Niğde. However, presence of AFM1 in cow milk samples should be considered as a public health jeopardy, therefore milks should be systematically monitored.  

References

  • Akdemir Ç, Altıntaş A. Ankara’da işlenen sütlerde aflatoksin-M1 varlığının ve düzeylerinin HPLC ile araştırılması. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2004; 51:175-179.
  • Anonim, 2006. European Commission. Commission regulation (EC) No 1881 of 19 December 2006, setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Europ Union L364:5–24.
  • Anonim, 2011. TGK, Türk Gıda Kodeksi Bulaşanlar Yönetmeliği (29.12.2011 Tarih ve 28157 (3. Mükerrer) Sayılı RG).
  • Anonim, 2017a. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). List of classifications. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/latest_classif.php. Erişim tarihi: 12.10. 2017.
  • Anonim, 2017b Niğde İl Gelişme Planı (NİGEP). 06.02.2017 http://www.nigdetb.org.tr/Portals/ 218/selection. pdf. http://www.ohu.edu.tr/haber/nigde-il-gelisme-plani-tanitim-toplantisi-yapildi/208. Erişim tarihi: 15.09.2017
  • Asi MR., Iqbal SZ, Ariño A, Hussain A. Effect of seasonal variations and lactation times on aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk of different species from Punjab, Pakistan. Food Contr. 2012; 25(1): 34–38.
  • Bahrami R. Shahbazi Y, Nikousefat Z. Aflatoxin M1 in milk and traditional dairy products from west part of Iran: occurrence and seasonal variation with an emphasis on risk assessment of human exposure. Food Contr. 2016; 62: 250– 256.
  • Bakirci I. A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products produced in Van province of Turkey. Food Control 2001; 12(1):47-51.
  • Bilandzic N, Bozic D, Dokic M, Sedak M, Solomun Kolanovi, B., Varenina, I., Tanković S, Cvetnićc Z. Seasonal effect on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw and UHT milk from Croatia. Food Contr. 2014a; 40: 260-264.
  • Bilandzic N, Luburic BD, Dokic M, Sedak M, Kolanovi SB, Varenina I, Cvetnic Z. Assessment of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk of four dairy species in Croatia. Food Contr. 2014b; 43:18–21.
  • Bilandzic N, Varenina I, Kolanovic SB, Luburic BD, Varga I, Zeljezic B, Cvetnic L, Benic M, Sanin Tankovic, Cvetnic Z. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow, goat and sheep milk during spring and autumn in Croatia during 2016. Toxin Rev. 2017; Early Online: 1–7. DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2017.1306785
  • Codex Alimentarius. International Food Standards. General Standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed. Codex Stan 193-1995. Amended in 2015.
  • Creppy EE. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett.. 2002; 127: 19-28.
  • Duarte SC, Almeida AM, Teixeira AS, Pereira AL, Falcão AC, Pena A, Lino CM. Aflatoxin M1 in marketed milk in Portugal: Assessment of human and animal exposure, Food Contr. 2013; 30: 411-417.
  • Ertas N, Gonulalan Z, Yildirim Y, Karadal F. A survey of concentration of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products marketed in Turkey. Food Contr. 2011; 22(12): 1956-1959.
  • Fallah AA, Rahnama M Jafari T, Saei Dehkordi SS. Seasonal variation of aflatoxin M1 contamination in industrial and traditional Iranian dairy products. Food Contr. 2011; 22: 1653–1656.
  • Finoli C, Vecchio A. Occurrence of aflatoxins in feedstuff, sheep milk and dairy products in western Sicily. Ital J Anim Sci. 2003; 2(3): 191–196.
  • Hassan HF, Kassaify Z. The risks associated with aflatoxinsM1 occurrence in Lebanese dairy products. Food Contr. 2014; 37: 68–72.
  • Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Eleftheriadou A, Mouratidou T. Katikou P. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in ewe’s milk samples and the produced curd and Feta cheese. Food Contr. 2005; 16: 257-261.
  • Kireçci E, Savaşçı M, Ayyıldız A. Sarıkamış’ta tüketilen süt ve peynir ürünlerinde aflatoksin M1 varlığının belirlenmesi. İnfeksiyon Derg. 2007;21(2):93- 96.
  • Malissiova E, Tsakalof A, Arvanitoyannis IS, Katsafliaka A, Katsioulis A, Tserkezou P, Koureasa M, Govarise A, Hadjichristodoulou C. Monitoring Aflatoxin M1 levels in ewe's and goat's milk in Thessaly, Greece; potential risk factors under organic and conventional production schemes. Food Contr. 2013; 34: 241-248.
  • Molle G, Decandia M, Cabiddu A, Landau SY, Cannas A. An update on the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures. Small Ruminant Res. 2008; 77:93-112.
  • Murphy PA, Hendrich S, Landgren C, Bryant C. Food mycotoxins: an update. J Food Sci. 2006; 71: R51-R65.
  • Özdemir M. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 Levels in goat milk consumed in Kilis Province. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2007; 54: 99-103.
  • Prandini A, Tansini G, Sigolo S, Filippi L, Laporta M, Piva G. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47: 984-991.
  • Rahimi E, Bonyadian M, Rafei M, Kazemeini HR. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(1):129-131.
  • Roussi V, Govaris A, Varagouli A, Botsoglou NA. Occurrence of aflatoxin M (1) raw and market milk commercialized in Greece. Food Addit Contam. 2002; 19(9):863-868.
  • Sidhu OP, Chandra H, Behl HM. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47(4): 774-7.
  • Viridis S, Scarano C, Spanu V, Murittu G, Ibba I, de Santis E. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005–2013). Ital. J Food Saf. 2014; 3: 206–209.

Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri

Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2, 119 - 125, 14.02.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.376355

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, Niğde ilinde tüketime sunulan çiğ inek, koyun ve keçi sütlerinde aflatoksin M1 (AFM1) varlığının araştırılması, yasal düzenlemeler dikkate alınarak halk sağlığı yönünden tehlike oluşturup oluşturmadığının belirlenmesi ve sütlerdeki toksin içeriklerinin karşılaştırılması amaçlandı. Çalışmada, 90 çiğ süt örneği toplanarak ELISA tekniği ile analiz edildi. İncelenen tüm süt örneklerinin AFM1 ile kontamine olduğu koyun ve keçi sütlerindeki AFM1 düzeyinin yasal limitlerin altında, çiğ inek sütü örneklerinin 3'ünde (%10) ise bu limitlerin üzerinde (50 ng/L) olduğu belirlendi. Ayrıca farklı hayvan türlerinin sütlerindeki AFM1 düzeyleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar gözlemlendi (p <0.05). Sonuç olarak, Niğde'de koyun ve keçi sütü tüketimi ile AFM1’e maruz kalma potansiyelinin inek sütü tüketimine oranla daha düşük olduğu belirlendi. Bununla birlikte inek sütlerinde yasal limitlerin üzerinde tespit edilen AFM1 varlığının halk sağlığı bakımından önemli olduğu ve bu nedenle sütlerin sistematik olarak kontrol edilmesi gerektiği sonucuna varıldı.

References

  • Akdemir Ç, Altıntaş A. Ankara’da işlenen sütlerde aflatoksin-M1 varlığının ve düzeylerinin HPLC ile araştırılması. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2004; 51:175-179.
  • Anonim, 2006. European Commission. Commission regulation (EC) No 1881 of 19 December 2006, setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Europ Union L364:5–24.
  • Anonim, 2011. TGK, Türk Gıda Kodeksi Bulaşanlar Yönetmeliği (29.12.2011 Tarih ve 28157 (3. Mükerrer) Sayılı RG).
  • Anonim, 2017a. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). List of classifications. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/latest_classif.php. Erişim tarihi: 12.10. 2017.
  • Anonim, 2017b Niğde İl Gelişme Planı (NİGEP). 06.02.2017 http://www.nigdetb.org.tr/Portals/ 218/selection. pdf. http://www.ohu.edu.tr/haber/nigde-il-gelisme-plani-tanitim-toplantisi-yapildi/208. Erişim tarihi: 15.09.2017
  • Asi MR., Iqbal SZ, Ariño A, Hussain A. Effect of seasonal variations and lactation times on aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk of different species from Punjab, Pakistan. Food Contr. 2012; 25(1): 34–38.
  • Bahrami R. Shahbazi Y, Nikousefat Z. Aflatoxin M1 in milk and traditional dairy products from west part of Iran: occurrence and seasonal variation with an emphasis on risk assessment of human exposure. Food Contr. 2016; 62: 250– 256.
  • Bakirci I. A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products produced in Van province of Turkey. Food Control 2001; 12(1):47-51.
  • Bilandzic N, Bozic D, Dokic M, Sedak M, Solomun Kolanovi, B., Varenina, I., Tanković S, Cvetnićc Z. Seasonal effect on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw and UHT milk from Croatia. Food Contr. 2014a; 40: 260-264.
  • Bilandzic N, Luburic BD, Dokic M, Sedak M, Kolanovi SB, Varenina I, Cvetnic Z. Assessment of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk of four dairy species in Croatia. Food Contr. 2014b; 43:18–21.
  • Bilandzic N, Varenina I, Kolanovic SB, Luburic BD, Varga I, Zeljezic B, Cvetnic L, Benic M, Sanin Tankovic, Cvetnic Z. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow, goat and sheep milk during spring and autumn in Croatia during 2016. Toxin Rev. 2017; Early Online: 1–7. DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2017.1306785
  • Codex Alimentarius. International Food Standards. General Standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed. Codex Stan 193-1995. Amended in 2015.
  • Creppy EE. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett.. 2002; 127: 19-28.
  • Duarte SC, Almeida AM, Teixeira AS, Pereira AL, Falcão AC, Pena A, Lino CM. Aflatoxin M1 in marketed milk in Portugal: Assessment of human and animal exposure, Food Contr. 2013; 30: 411-417.
  • Ertas N, Gonulalan Z, Yildirim Y, Karadal F. A survey of concentration of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products marketed in Turkey. Food Contr. 2011; 22(12): 1956-1959.
  • Fallah AA, Rahnama M Jafari T, Saei Dehkordi SS. Seasonal variation of aflatoxin M1 contamination in industrial and traditional Iranian dairy products. Food Contr. 2011; 22: 1653–1656.
  • Finoli C, Vecchio A. Occurrence of aflatoxins in feedstuff, sheep milk and dairy products in western Sicily. Ital J Anim Sci. 2003; 2(3): 191–196.
  • Hassan HF, Kassaify Z. The risks associated with aflatoxinsM1 occurrence in Lebanese dairy products. Food Contr. 2014; 37: 68–72.
  • Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Eleftheriadou A, Mouratidou T. Katikou P. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in ewe’s milk samples and the produced curd and Feta cheese. Food Contr. 2005; 16: 257-261.
  • Kireçci E, Savaşçı M, Ayyıldız A. Sarıkamış’ta tüketilen süt ve peynir ürünlerinde aflatoksin M1 varlığının belirlenmesi. İnfeksiyon Derg. 2007;21(2):93- 96.
  • Malissiova E, Tsakalof A, Arvanitoyannis IS, Katsafliaka A, Katsioulis A, Tserkezou P, Koureasa M, Govarise A, Hadjichristodoulou C. Monitoring Aflatoxin M1 levels in ewe's and goat's milk in Thessaly, Greece; potential risk factors under organic and conventional production schemes. Food Contr. 2013; 34: 241-248.
  • Molle G, Decandia M, Cabiddu A, Landau SY, Cannas A. An update on the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures. Small Ruminant Res. 2008; 77:93-112.
  • Murphy PA, Hendrich S, Landgren C, Bryant C. Food mycotoxins: an update. J Food Sci. 2006; 71: R51-R65.
  • Özdemir M. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 Levels in goat milk consumed in Kilis Province. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2007; 54: 99-103.
  • Prandini A, Tansini G, Sigolo S, Filippi L, Laporta M, Piva G. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47: 984-991.
  • Rahimi E, Bonyadian M, Rafei M, Kazemeini HR. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(1):129-131.
  • Roussi V, Govaris A, Varagouli A, Botsoglou NA. Occurrence of aflatoxin M (1) raw and market milk commercialized in Greece. Food Addit Contam. 2002; 19(9):863-868.
  • Sidhu OP, Chandra H, Behl HM. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47(4): 774-7.
  • Viridis S, Scarano C, Spanu V, Murittu G, Ibba I, de Santis E. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005–2013). Ital. J Food Saf. 2014; 3: 206–209.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Fulden KARADAL> (Primary Author)

Türkiye


Nurhan ERTAŞ ONMAZ>


Harun HIZLISOY This is me


Yeliz YILDIRIM>


Serhat AL>

0000-0003-2721-9275


Zafer GÖNÜLALAN>

0000-0002-3935-6296

Publication Date February 14, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { kvj376355, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe University}, year = {2018}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {119 - 125}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.376355}, title = {Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri}, key = {cite}, author = {Karadal, Fulden and Ertaş Onmaz, Nurhan and Hızlısoy, Harun and Yıldırım, Yeliz and Al, Serhat and Gönülalan, Zafer} }
APA Karadal, F. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Hızlısoy, H. , Yıldırım, Y. , Al, S. & Gönülalan, Z. (2018). Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 11 (2) , 119-125 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.376355
MLA Karadal, F. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Hızlısoy, H. , Yıldırım, Y. , Al, S. , Gönülalan, Z. "Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 119-125 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kvj/issue/35377/376355>
Chicago Karadal, F. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Hızlısoy, H. , Yıldırım, Y. , Al, S. , Gönülalan, Z. "Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 119-125
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Aflatoxin M1 Levels In Raw Sheep, Goat And Cow Milks In Niğde Province AU - FuldenKaradal, NurhanErtaş Onmaz, HarunHızlısoy, YelizYıldırım, SerhatAl, ZaferGönülalan Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.376355 DO - 10.30607/kvj.376355 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 119 EP - 125 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.376355 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.376355 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veterinary Journal Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri %A Fulden Karadal , Nurhan Ertaş Onmaz , Harun Hızlısoy , Yeliz Yıldırım , Serhat Al , Zafer Gönülalan %T Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri %D 2018 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.376355 %U 10.30607/kvj.376355
ISNAD Karadal, Fulden , Ertaş Onmaz, Nurhan , Hızlısoy, Harun , Yıldırım, Yeliz , Al, Serhat , Gönülalan, Zafer . "Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 / 2 (February 2018): 119-125 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.376355
AMA Karadal F. , Ertaş Onmaz N. , Hızlısoy H. , Yıldırım Y. , Al S. , Gönülalan Z. Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(2): 119-125.
Vancouver Karadal F. , Ertaş Onmaz N. , Hızlısoy H. , Yıldırım Y. , Al S. , Gönülalan Z. Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(2): 119-125.
IEEE F. Karadal , N. Ertaş Onmaz , H. Hızlısoy , Y. Yıldırım , S. Al and Z. Gönülalan , "Niğde İlindeki Çiğ Koyun, Keçi ve İnek Sütlerinde Aflatoksin M1 Düzeyleri", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 119-125, Feb. 2018, doi:10.30607/kvj.376355

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