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Comparison Of Some Effects Of Wild-Grown And Cultivated Forms Of Ganoderma Lucidum In Turkey On Chicken Embryos

Year 2018, Volume 9, Issue 2, 188 - 195, 25.10.2018

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst is a mushroom which used for alternative medicine worldwide particularly in China, also known as “Immortality Mushroom or Reishi”. In recent years, cultivated G. lucidum is also produced in Turkey and consumed by people especially as tea, coffee and tablets. The aim of this study was to determine the some effects of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum in Turkey on the development of chicken embryos, as an alternative experimental animal, for the first time. Two experiments were carried out for this purpose. Wild-grown and cultivated forms of G. lucidum were tested at the same doses in the first and second experiment, respectively. Aqueous extracts of G. lucidum at different doses (1750 µg/egg, 875 µg/egg and 219 µg/egg) were injected into the fertilized chicken eggs at 8th day of incubation as well as sterile bi-distilled water for control groups. Following parameters were examined on 11th day of the incubation: rates of dead and abnormal embryo, malformation types, live and relative embryo weights. In addition, some of the embryos were totally stained with Alizarin Red-S method for bone development. Both wild-grown and cultivated forms of G. lucidum at doses tested did not present significant embryotoxic and teratogenic effects as well as did not affect the bone development of embryos at the macroscopic level.

References

  • Brown L.P., Flint O.P., Orton T.C., Gibson G.G., Chemical teratogenesis: testing methods and the role of metabolism. Drug Metabolism Reviews 17:221-260 (1986).
  • Budai P., Fejes S., Várnagy L., Somlyay I., Takács I., Teratogenicity test of dimethoate containing insecticide formulation and heavy elements (Cu, Cd) in chicken embryos after administration as single compounds or in combination. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 66:885-889 (2001).
  • Budai P., Fejes S., Várnagy L., Szabo R. ve Keserü M., Embryonic toxicity of a dimethoate containing insecticide formulation and Cu-sulphate in chicken after individual or combined administration. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 67:99-103 (2002).
  • Chang H.-M., But P.P., Yao S.-C., Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica. World Scientific (1986).
  • Çelik I., Oguz H., Demet O., Boydak M., Donmez H. Sur E., Nizamlioglu F., Embryotoxicity assay of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. British Poultry Science 41:401-409 (2000).
  • Dulay R., Eguchi F., Kalaw S., Reyes R., Alfonso N., Teratogenic and Toxic Effects of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Higher Basidiomycetes), on Zebrafish Embryo as Model. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 14:507-512 (2012).
  • Fejes S., Budai P., Varnagy L., Molnar T., Szabo R., Fancsi T., Toxicity of a mancozeb containing fungicide formulation and CU-sulphate to chicken embryos after administration as single compounds or in combination. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 67:105-109 (2002).
  • Hamburger V., Hamilton H.L., A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. Journal of morphology 88:49-92 (1951).
  • Hamilton J.W., Denison M.S., Bloom S.E., Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo [a] pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80:3372-3376 (1983).
  • Jelinek R., The chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST I and II). In: Neubert D, Merker HJ and Kwasigrooh TE (eds.) Methods in Prenatal Toxicology, Georg Thieme, Stutgart, pp. 381-386.
  • Jelinek R., Peterka M., Rychter Z., Chick embryotoxicity screening test--130 substances tested. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 23:588-595 (1985).
  • Jong S., Birmingham J., Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Advances in Applied Microbiology 37:101-134. (1992).
  • Kemper F., Luepke N., Toxicity testing by the hen's egg test (HET). Food and Chemical Toxicology 24:647-648. (1986).
  • Lee S., Park S., Oh J.-W., Yang C.-H., Natural inhibitors for protein prenyltransferase. Planta Medica 64:303-308 (1998).
  • Liu G.T., Recent advances in research of pharmacology and clinical applications of Ganoderma P. Karst. species (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in China. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1:63-67 (1999).
  • Liu X., Yuan J.-P., Chung C.-K., Chen X.-J., Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Letters 182:155-161 (2002).
  • Mauldin J.M., Quality control procedures for the hatchery. Poultry Science 93:1-24 (1993).
  • Nishigori H., Mizumura M., Iwatsuru M., The hen's fertile egg screening test (HEST): A comparison between the acute toxicity for chick embryos and rodents of 20 drugs. Cell Biology and Toxicology 8:255-265 (1992).
  • Özcan M., Hidrokinon’un (HK) Gelişim Toksisitesinin Döllenmiş Tavuk Embriyosunda Analiz ve Değerlendirilmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, GÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara (1992).
  • Öznurlu Y., Yumurtaya verilen Aflatoksin B1’in, etçi piliçlerin kemik dokularının embriyonik gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi. S.Ü. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, Konya, (2003).
  • Özparlak H., The use of chick embryos in embryotoxicity and teratogenicity tests. Selçuk Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Fen Dergisi 40:13-22 (2015).
  • Prelusky D., Hamilton R., Foster B., Trenholm H., Thompson B., Optimization of chick embryotoxicity bioassay for testing toxicity potential of fungal metabolites. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists 70:1049-1055 (1987).
  • Romanoff A., Life in Twenty-one Days. Extention Bulletin 205 (1997).
  • SPSS, SPSS for Windows 13.0.0. SPSS Inc., Chicago 60606, USA (2004).
  • Sur E., Yumurtaya verilen Aflatoksin, B1 (AFB1)’in Tavukların Lenfoid Organlarının Embriyonal Gelişimi Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Enzim Histokimyasal Yöntemlerle Araştırılması. Doktora Tezi, SÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya (2001).
  • Tamayo Arango L.J., Suárez Avendaño P.A., Cano Valderrama A.I., Martínez C., Brayian A., Ciro Y., Sergio A., Mejía Giraldo C.A., Lenis Sanin Y.Y., Didactic model of the chicken embryo development using modified Dawson's diaphanization and staining technique. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 25:620-624 (2012).
  • Üstün O., Makrofungusların besin değeri ve biyolojik etkileri. Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi 68:223-240 (2011).
  • Varga T., Cravedi J., Fuzesi I., Varnagy L., Residues of fenitrothion in chick embryos following exposure of fertile eggs to this organophosphorus insecticide. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 153:275-278 (2002).
  • Varga T., Hlubik I., Várnagy L., Budai P., Molnár E., Embryonic toxicity of insecticide Sumithion 50 EC and herbicide Fusilade S in pheasants after individual or combined administration. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:123-128 (1999).
  • Varnagy L., Degradation of some pesticides in avian embryos. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:117-122 (1999).
  • Varnagy L., Budai P., Molnar E., Füzesi I., Fáncsi T., Teratogenicity testing of BI 58 EC (38% dimethoate) in chicken embryos with special respect to degradation of the active ingredient. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 49:355-361 (2001).
  • Wasson R.G., Soma: Divine mushroom of immortality. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich New York (1968).
  • Wolf T., Luepke N.-P., Formation of micronuclei in incubated hen's eggs as a measure of genotoxicity. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 394:163-175 (1997).
  • Wolf T., Niehaus-Rolf C., Luepke N.-P., Some new methodological aspects of the hen’s egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN). Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 514:59-76 (2002).
  • Wyttenbach C.R., Thompson S.C., The effects of the organophosphate insecticide malathion on very young chick embryos: malformations detected by histological examination. American Journal of Anatomy 174:187-202 (1985).

Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması

Year 2018, Volume 9, Issue 2, 188 - 195, 25.10.2018

Abstract

“Ölümsüzlük mantarı” veya “Reishi” olarak da bilinen Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst tüm dünyada ve özellikle de Çin’de alternatif tıp alanında kullanılan bir mantardır. Son yıllarda G. lucidum’un kültür formu Türkiye’de de yetiştirilmektedir ve halk tarafından özellikle çay, kahve ve tablet olarak tüketilmektedir. Bu çalışmayla Türkiye’deki yabani ve kültür G. lucidum’un alternatif bir deney hayvanı olarak tavuk embriyoları üzerindeki bazı etkilerinin ilk kez tespit edilmesi amaçlandı. Bu amaçla iki deney gerçekleştirildi. G. lucidum’un birinci deneyde yabani ve ikinci deneyde kültür formu aynı dozlarda test edildi. Deneylerde döllü tavuk yumurtalarına kuluçkanın 8. gününde G. lucidum’un sulu ekstraktları farklı dozlarda (1750 µg/yumurta, 875 µg/yumurta ve 219 µg/yumurta) enjekte edildi. Kontrol gruplarına steril bi-distile su enjekte edildi. Kuluçkanın 11. gününde ölü ve anormal embriyo oranları, malformasyon tipleri, canlı ve rölatif embriyo oranları tespit edildi. Ayrıca kemik gelişiminin belirlenebilmesi için embriyoların bir kısmı total olarak Alizarin Red-S yöntemiyle boyandı. G. lucidum’un hem yabani hem de kültür formları test edilen dozlarda önemli bir embriyotoksik ve teratojenik etki göstermedi. Ayrıca embriyoların kemik gelişimini de makroskobik seviyede etkilemedi.

References

  • Brown L.P., Flint O.P., Orton T.C., Gibson G.G., Chemical teratogenesis: testing methods and the role of metabolism. Drug Metabolism Reviews 17:221-260 (1986).
  • Budai P., Fejes S., Várnagy L., Somlyay I., Takács I., Teratogenicity test of dimethoate containing insecticide formulation and heavy elements (Cu, Cd) in chicken embryos after administration as single compounds or in combination. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 66:885-889 (2001).
  • Budai P., Fejes S., Várnagy L., Szabo R. ve Keserü M., Embryonic toxicity of a dimethoate containing insecticide formulation and Cu-sulphate in chicken after individual or combined administration. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 67:99-103 (2002).
  • Chang H.-M., But P.P., Yao S.-C., Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica. World Scientific (1986).
  • Çelik I., Oguz H., Demet O., Boydak M., Donmez H. Sur E., Nizamlioglu F., Embryotoxicity assay of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. British Poultry Science 41:401-409 (2000).
  • Dulay R., Eguchi F., Kalaw S., Reyes R., Alfonso N., Teratogenic and Toxic Effects of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Higher Basidiomycetes), on Zebrafish Embryo as Model. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 14:507-512 (2012).
  • Fejes S., Budai P., Varnagy L., Molnar T., Szabo R., Fancsi T., Toxicity of a mancozeb containing fungicide formulation and CU-sulphate to chicken embryos after administration as single compounds or in combination. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 67:105-109 (2002).
  • Hamburger V., Hamilton H.L., A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. Journal of morphology 88:49-92 (1951).
  • Hamilton J.W., Denison M.S., Bloom S.E., Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo [a] pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80:3372-3376 (1983).
  • Jelinek R., The chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST I and II). In: Neubert D, Merker HJ and Kwasigrooh TE (eds.) Methods in Prenatal Toxicology, Georg Thieme, Stutgart, pp. 381-386.
  • Jelinek R., Peterka M., Rychter Z., Chick embryotoxicity screening test--130 substances tested. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 23:588-595 (1985).
  • Jong S., Birmingham J., Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Advances in Applied Microbiology 37:101-134. (1992).
  • Kemper F., Luepke N., Toxicity testing by the hen's egg test (HET). Food and Chemical Toxicology 24:647-648. (1986).
  • Lee S., Park S., Oh J.-W., Yang C.-H., Natural inhibitors for protein prenyltransferase. Planta Medica 64:303-308 (1998).
  • Liu G.T., Recent advances in research of pharmacology and clinical applications of Ganoderma P. Karst. species (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in China. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1:63-67 (1999).
  • Liu X., Yuan J.-P., Chung C.-K., Chen X.-J., Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Letters 182:155-161 (2002).
  • Mauldin J.M., Quality control procedures for the hatchery. Poultry Science 93:1-24 (1993).
  • Nishigori H., Mizumura M., Iwatsuru M., The hen's fertile egg screening test (HEST): A comparison between the acute toxicity for chick embryos and rodents of 20 drugs. Cell Biology and Toxicology 8:255-265 (1992).
  • Özcan M., Hidrokinon’un (HK) Gelişim Toksisitesinin Döllenmiş Tavuk Embriyosunda Analiz ve Değerlendirilmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, GÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara (1992).
  • Öznurlu Y., Yumurtaya verilen Aflatoksin B1’in, etçi piliçlerin kemik dokularının embriyonik gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi. S.Ü. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, Konya, (2003).
  • Özparlak H., The use of chick embryos in embryotoxicity and teratogenicity tests. Selçuk Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Fen Dergisi 40:13-22 (2015).
  • Prelusky D., Hamilton R., Foster B., Trenholm H., Thompson B., Optimization of chick embryotoxicity bioassay for testing toxicity potential of fungal metabolites. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists 70:1049-1055 (1987).
  • Romanoff A., Life in Twenty-one Days. Extention Bulletin 205 (1997).
  • SPSS, SPSS for Windows 13.0.0. SPSS Inc., Chicago 60606, USA (2004).
  • Sur E., Yumurtaya verilen Aflatoksin, B1 (AFB1)’in Tavukların Lenfoid Organlarının Embriyonal Gelişimi Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Enzim Histokimyasal Yöntemlerle Araştırılması. Doktora Tezi, SÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya (2001).
  • Tamayo Arango L.J., Suárez Avendaño P.A., Cano Valderrama A.I., Martínez C., Brayian A., Ciro Y., Sergio A., Mejía Giraldo C.A., Lenis Sanin Y.Y., Didactic model of the chicken embryo development using modified Dawson's diaphanization and staining technique. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 25:620-624 (2012).
  • Üstün O., Makrofungusların besin değeri ve biyolojik etkileri. Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi 68:223-240 (2011).
  • Varga T., Cravedi J., Fuzesi I., Varnagy L., Residues of fenitrothion in chick embryos following exposure of fertile eggs to this organophosphorus insecticide. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 153:275-278 (2002).
  • Varga T., Hlubik I., Várnagy L., Budai P., Molnár E., Embryonic toxicity of insecticide Sumithion 50 EC and herbicide Fusilade S in pheasants after individual or combined administration. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:123-128 (1999).
  • Varnagy L., Degradation of some pesticides in avian embryos. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:117-122 (1999).
  • Varnagy L., Budai P., Molnar E., Füzesi I., Fáncsi T., Teratogenicity testing of BI 58 EC (38% dimethoate) in chicken embryos with special respect to degradation of the active ingredient. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 49:355-361 (2001).
  • Wasson R.G., Soma: Divine mushroom of immortality. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich New York (1968).
  • Wolf T., Luepke N.-P., Formation of micronuclei in incubated hen's eggs as a measure of genotoxicity. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 394:163-175 (1997).
  • Wolf T., Niehaus-Rolf C., Luepke N.-P., Some new methodological aspects of the hen’s egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN). Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 514:59-76 (2002).
  • Wyttenbach C.R., Thompson S.C., The effects of the organophosphate insecticide malathion on very young chick embryos: malformations detected by histological examination. American Journal of Anatomy 174:187-202 (1985).

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section MYCOLOGY
Authors

Haluk ÖZPARLAK (Primary Author)
SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Bülent ÇELİK This is me


Döndü BALTA This is me

Publication Date October 25, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { mantar449790, journal = {Mantar Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2147-6845}, address = {}, publisher = {Selcuk University}, year = {2018}, volume = {9}, pages = {188 - 195}, doi = {10.30708/mantar.449790}, title = {Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması}, key = {cite}, author = {Özparlak, Haluk and Çelik, Bülent and Balta, Döndü} }
APA Özparlak, H. , Çelik, B. & Balta, D. (2018). Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması . Mantar Dergisi , 9 (2) , 188-195 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mantar/issue/39914/449790
MLA Özparlak, H. , Çelik, B. , Balta, D. "Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması" . Mantar Dergisi 9 (2018 ): 188-195 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mantar/issue/39914/449790>
Chicago Özparlak, H. , Çelik, B. , Balta, D. "Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması". Mantar Dergisi 9 (2018 ): 188-195
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması AU - Haluk Özparlak , Bülent Çelik , Döndü Balta Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Mantar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 188 EP - 195 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - -2147-6845 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Fungus Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması %A Haluk Özparlak , Bülent Çelik , Döndü Balta %T Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması %D 2018 %J Mantar Dergisi %P -2147-6845 %V 9 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Özparlak, Haluk , Çelik, Bülent , Balta, Döndü . "Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması". Mantar Dergisi 9 / 2 (October 2018): 188-195 .
AMA Özparlak H. , Çelik B. , Balta D. Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması. Değerlendirme süreci. 2018; 9(2): 188-195.
Vancouver Özparlak H. , Çelik B. , Balta D. Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması. Mantar Dergisi. 2018; 9(2): 188-195.
IEEE H. Özparlak , B. Çelik and D. Balta , "Ganoderma lucidum’un Türkiye’deki Yabani Ve Kültür Formlarının Tavuk Embriyoları Üzerindeki Bazı Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması", Mantar Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 188-195, Oct. 2018, doi:10.30708/mantar.449790

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