Year 2019, Volume 9 , Issue 1, Pages 35 - 41 2019-10-14

Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare
Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare

İsmail Şen [1] , Jhon Mee [2] , Abuzer Taş [3] , Ayperi Aytmirza kizi [4] , Nur Abdusalam uulu [5]


The perinatal period is the most hazardous in the life of all animals. More than 60% of producers have reported that most of their calf mortality occurs at birth. Calf mortality represents economic losses to the dairy industry due to delayed genetic progress, fewer replacements available for voluntary culling of the lactating herd, and increased cost of replacement. The main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality are, in descending order of importance, combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis, parturient trauma, hypoglobulinemia, congenital infections and deficiencies, and omphalophlebitis. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. This paper discusses both the risk factors for, and the ultimate causes of, perinatal mortality and their effects on perinatal calf welfare, an underdocumented topic.

The perinatal period is the most hazardous in the life of all animals. More than 60% of producers have reported that most of their calf mortality occurs at birth. Calf mortality represents economic losses to the dairy industry due to delayed genetic progress, fewer replacements available for voluntary culling of the lactating herd, and increased cost of replacement. The main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality are, in descending order of importance, combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis, parturient trauma, hypoglobulinemia, congenital infections and deficiencies, and omphalophlebitis. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. This paper discusses both the risk factors for, and the ultimate causes of, perinatal mortality and their effects on perinatal calf welfare, an underdocumented topic.

  • Anderson, M.L. (2007). Infectious Causes of Bovine Abortion During Mid- to Late-Gestation, Theriogenology, volume 68, pp. 474-486.
  • Aydogdu, U., Yıldız, R., Guzelbektes, H., Coskun A. & Sen, İ. (2016). Cardiac Biomarkers In Premature Calves With Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 64 1 38–46.
  • Benjaminsson, B.H. (2007). Prenatal death in Icelandic cattle, Acta Vet. Scand. 49 1 1–3.
  • Bicalho, R.C., Galvão, K.N., Cheong, S.H., Gilbert, R.O., Warnick, L.D. & Guard, C.L. (2007). Effect of stillbirths on dam survival and reproduction performance in Holstein dairy cows, J Dairy Sci. 90 2797- 803.
  • Bicalho, R.C., Galvão, K.N., Warnick, L.D. & Guard, C.L. (2008). Stillbirth parturition reduces milk production in Holstein cows, Prev Vet Med. 84 112-20.
  • Bleul, U. (2009). Respiratory distress syndrome in calves. Vet. Clin. Food. Anim. 25, 179–193.
  • Berglund, B., Steinbock, L. & Elvander, M. (2009). Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem, Acta Vet Scand. 44 111–20.
  • Chassagne, M., Barnouin, J. & Chacornac, J.P. (1999). Risk factors for stillbirth in Holstein heifers under field conditions in France: a prospective survey, Theriogenology, 51 1477–1488.
  • Cutler, K.L. & Jones, I.G. (2003). The Trace Element Nutrition of Beef Suckler Cattle, Cattle Practice, 11 2 117-120.
  • Divers, T.J. (2008). Respiratory diseases. In: Rebhun, W. C. (ed.) Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Elsevier, USA. pp. 79–131.
  • Gundelach, Y., Essmeyer, K., Teltscher, M.K. & Hoedemaker M. (2009). Risk factors for perinatal mortality in dairy cattle: Cow and foetal factors, calving process. Theriogenology, 71 901–909.
  • Hansen, M., Misztal, I., Lund, M.S., Pedersen, J. & Christensen, L.G. (2004). Undesired Phenotypic and Genetic Trend for Stillbirth in Danish Holsteins, Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 1477–1486.
  • Heins, B., Hansen, L. & Seykora, A. (2006). Calving difficulty and stillbirths of pure Holsteins versus crossbreeds of Holstein with Normande, Montbelairde and Scandinavian, Red. J. Dairy Sci. 89 2805–2810.
  • Holland, MD. and Odde, KG. (1992). Factors Affecting Calf Birth Weight; A Review, Theriogenology, 38 769-798.
  • Jawor, P., Stefaniak, T. & Mee, J.F. (2017). Immune and inflammatory biomarkers in cases of bovine perinatal mortality with and without infection in utero, Journal of Dairy Science, 100 2.
  • Mee, J.F. (1994). Resuscitation of Newborn Calves- Materials and Methods, Cattle Practice, 2 2, 97- 206.
  • Mee, J.F. (1999). Stillbirths- What Can You Do?, Cattle Practice, 7 3 277.
  • Mee, J.F. (2008). Newborn Dairy Calf Management, Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 24 1 1-17.
  • Mee, J.F., Berry, D.P. & Cromie, A.R. (2011). Risk Factors for Calving Assistance and Dystocia in Pasture-based Holstein-Friesian Heifers and Cows in Ireland, The Veterinary Journal, Elsevier, 187 189-194.
  • Mee, J.F. (2011). Bovine Neonatal Survival- Is Improvement Possible, WCDS Advances in Dairy Technology, 23 161-174.
  • Mee, J.F. & Szenci, O. (2012). Selected pathological causes of bovine stillbirth illustrated with photographic images, Mag. Allat. Lapja, 134 718–725.
  • Mee, J.F. (2013a). Why Do So Many Calves Die on Modern Dairy Farms and What Can We Do About Calf Welfare in the Future?, Animals, 3 1037-1057.
  • Mee, J.F., Grant, J., Sanchez-Miguel, C. & Doherty, M. (2013b). Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality, Animals, volume 3, pp. 866-881.
  • Mee, J.F., Sanchez-Miguel, C. & Doherty, M. (2013a). An International Delphi Study of the Causes of Death and the Criteria Used to Assign Cause of Death in Bovine Perinatal Mortality, Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48 651-659.
  • Mee, J.F. (2013b). Impacts of Nutrition Pre-calving on Periparturient Dairy Cow Health and Neonatal Calf Health, 45th University of Nottingham Feed Conference, pp. 9-11.
  • Mee, J.F. (2014). Schmallenberg Virus as a Cause of Perinatal Mortality and Traumatic Dystocia in Dairy Herds, Cattle Practice, 22 2 290.
  • Mee, J.F., Sanchez-Miguel, C. & Doherty, M. (2014). Influence of Modifiable Risk Factors on the Incidence of Stillbirth/ Perinatal Mortality in Dairy Herds, The Veterinary Journal, Elsevier, 199 19-23.
  • Mee M. (2018). Perinatal Period Health: Part I. Calving Management. 1st International 5th Herd Health&Management Congress. Antalya /Turkey, 1-11.
  • Meijering, A. (1984). Dystocia and Stillbirth in Cattle- A Review of Causes, Relations and Implications, Livestock production Science, 11 2 143-177.
  • Meyer, C.L., Berger, P.J. & Koehler, K.J. (2000). Interactions among factors affecting stillbirths in Holstein cattle in the United States, J. Dairy Sci, 83 2657–2663.
  • Meyer, C.L., Berger, P.J., Koehler, K.J., Thompson, J.R. & Sattler, C.G. (2001). Phenotypic trends in incidence of stillbirth for Holsteins in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 84 515–523.
  • Norquay, R. (2017). Perinatal Losses in Beef Herds in Orkney: Assessing Incidence. Masters thesis.August, Glasgow.
  • Silva del Rio, N., Stewart, S., Rapnicki, P., Chang, Y.M. &Fricke, P.M. (2007). An observational analysis of twin births, calf sex ratio, and calf mortality in Holstein dairy cattle, Journal of Dairy Science, 90 1255–1264.
  • Steinbock, L., Nasholm, A., Berglund, B., Johansson, K. & Philipsson, J. (2003). Genetic effects on stillbirth and calving difficulty in Swedish Holsteins at first and second calving, J Dairy Sci. 86, 2228–35.
  • Svensson, C., Linder, A. & Olsson, S.O. (2006). Mortality in Swedish dairy calves and replacement heifers, Journal of Dairy Science, 89 4769–4777.
  • Sweetman, D., Armstrong, K., Murphy, J.F.A. & Molloy, E.J. (2012). Cardiac biomarkers in neonatal hypoxic ischaemia, Acta Paediatr, 101 338–343.
  • Szenci, O., Taverne, M.A.M. & Takács, E. (1989). A review of 126 Caesarean sections by blood gas and acid base status of the newborn calves, Theriogenology, 32 667–673.
  • Whitlock, B.K., Kaiser, L. & Maxwell, H. (2008). Heritable Bovine Fetal Abnormalities, Theriogenology, 70 3 535-549.
  • Waldner, C.L. & Blakley, B. (2014). Evaluating Micronutrient Concentrations in Liver Samples from Abortions, Stillbirths and Neonatal and Postnatal Losses in Beef Calves, Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Information, 26 3 376-389.
Primary Language en
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-2345-6789
Author: İsmail Şen (Primary Author)
Institution: KIRGIZİSTAN-TÜRKİYE MANAS ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-2344-6889
Author: Jhon Mee
Country: Ireland


Orcid: 0000-0002-7326-1768
Author: Abuzer Taş
Institution: KYRGYZ - TURKISH MANAS UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF VETERINARY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-3363-0941
Author: Ayperi Aytmirza kizi
Institution: KIRGIZİSTAN-TÜRKİYE MANAS ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ

Orcid: 0000-0001-6814-4842
Author: Nur Abdusalam uulu

Supporting Institution yok
Project Number yok
Thanks yok
Dates

Publication Date : October 14, 2019

Bibtex @review { mjavl620586, journal = {Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences}, issn = {1694-7932}, eissn = {1694-7932}, address = {Kyrgyz -Turkish Manas University Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Science 720044, Bishkek, KYRGYZSTAN Mira Avenue, 56}, publisher = {Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, pages = {35 - 41}, doi = {}, title = {Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare}, key = {cite}, author = {Şen, İsmail and Mee, Jhon and Taş, Abuzer and Aytmirza kizi, Ayperi and Abdusalam uulu, Nur} }
APA Şen, İ , Mee, J , Taş, A , Aytmirza kizi, A , Abdusalam uulu, N . (2019). Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences , 9 (1) , 35-41 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mjavl/issue/49456/620586
MLA Şen, İ , Mee, J , Taş, A , Aytmirza kizi, A , Abdusalam uulu, N . "Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare". Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 9 (2019 ): 35-41 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mjavl/issue/49456/620586>
Chicago Şen, İ , Mee, J , Taş, A , Aytmirza kizi, A , Abdusalam uulu, N . "Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare". Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 9 (2019 ): 35-41
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare AU - İsmail Şen , Jhon Mee , Abuzer Taş , Ayperi Aytmirza kizi , Nur Abdusalam uulu Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 35 EP - 41 VL - 9 IS - 1 SN - 1694-7932-1694-7932 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare %A İsmail Şen , Jhon Mee , Abuzer Taş , Ayperi Aytmirza kizi , Nur Abdusalam uulu %T Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare %D 2019 %J Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences %P 1694-7932-1694-7932 %V 9 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Şen, İsmail , Mee, Jhon , Taş, Abuzer , Aytmirza kizi, Ayperi , Abdusalam uulu, Nur . "Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare". Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 9 / 1 (October 2019): 35-41 .
AMA Şen İ , Mee J , Taş A , Aytmirza kizi A , Abdusalam uulu N . Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare. mjavl. 2019; 9(1): 35-41.
Vancouver Şen İ , Mee J , Taş A , Aytmirza kizi A , Abdusalam uulu N . Risk Factors For, And Causes Of, Perinatal Calf Mortality And Implications For Calf Welfare. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences. 2019; 9(1): 41-35.