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Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar

Year 2022, Volume 12, Issue 3, 438 - 449, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.1113921

Abstract

Amaç: Bu çalışmada, eski Mısır mitolojisinden günümüz tıbbına nelerin yansıdığının değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Yöntem: Mısır mitolojisi için 01.01-01.03.2022 literatür taraması; PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Library Genesis, Springer, Jstor Ebsco, ProQuest, Social Sciences Index Retrospective, National Geographic Magazine, medical and anatomical history books veri tabanlarından yapılmıştır. Ek olarak, Milli Kütüphane, HuthiTrust, Europeana Collections, Project Gutenberg, New York Kütüphanesi Dijital Koleksiyonları, Bibliotheques d’Orient dijital kütüphanelerinde de araştırma yapılmıştır.
Bulgular: Mısırlılarca Ra, bazı ilaçları yapan, Imhotep, tıbbın babası, Thoth, Corpus Hermeticum’u yazarı kabul edilmektedir. Mumyalama geleneği, Osiris ile bağlantılıdır. Horus'un Gözü’nde yapılan hesaplama ve sembolleştirmenin bugünkü verilerle uyuşması, nöroanatomi alanı için büyük bir başarıdır. Ayrıca, bu hiyerogliften, reçetelerde kullanılan “Rx” sembolünün türetilmesi, Horus’un anne karnında kalış süresinin 40 haftalık gebelik süresi ile örtüşmesi diğer bulgulardır. Heka’nın asasına dolanmış çift yılan, halen tıp mesleğinin sembolüdür. Günümüzde Ammon boynuzu adıyla anılan serebral hipokampüsün bu adı, Ammon’dan aldığı söylenmektedir.
Sonuç: Eski Mısır tıbbının, bir taraftan mitolojiyle iç içeyken diğer taraftan deneysel ve kanıta dayalı yönünün oldukça ileri olması önemli ve şaşırtıcıdır. Bu medeniyet, günümüze temel oluşturan zengin tıbbi mirasıyla halen ilgi uyandırmaktadır.

References

  • 1. Campbell J. İlkel mitoloji. Kudret Emiroğlu (Çev.)., Ankara: İmge Kitabevi. 1992.
  • 2. Bayat AH. Tıp Tarihi, Zeytinburnu Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul. 2010.
  • 3. Pinch G. Handbook of Egyptian mythology. Abc-Clio. 2002.
  • 4. Eltorai IM. A Spotlight on the History of Ancient Egyptian Medicine. CRC Press. 2019.
  • 5. İnan A. Eski Mısır Tarih ve Medeniyeti (2. Baskı). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. 1987.
  • 6. Candan E. Antik Mısır Sırları. İstanbul, 2009.
  • 7. Hooke SH. Ortadoğu Mitolojisi, Mezopotamya Mısır Filistin Hitit Musevi Hıristiyan Mitosları. (Çev.: Alâeddin Şenel), Ankara: İmge Kitabevi. 1993.
  • 8. ReFaey K, Quinones GC, et al. The Eye of Horus: The Connection Between Art, Medicine, and Mythology in Ancient Egypt. Cureus. 2019;11(5). doi: 10.7759/cureus.4731
  • 9. Narçın A. A’dan Z’ye Mısır. 1. Baskı. İstanbul: Ozan Yayıncılık. 2008.
  • 10. Adu-Gyamfi S. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review. Annals of Stefan Cel Mare” University of Suceava” Philosophy, Social and Human Discipline Series. 2015;2, pp:9-21.
  • 11. Goebs K, Baines J. Functions and uses of Egyptian myth. Revue de l’histoire des religions. 2018;4, pp:645-681.
  • 12. Kharoshah MAA, Zaki MK, et al. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt. Journal of forensic and legal medicine. 2011;18(1), pp:10-13.
  • 13. Caton R. The Harveian Oration on I.—I-EM-HOTEP, the Egyptian God of Medicine; Egyptian Views as to the Circulation. II.—Rest in Incipient Valvular Disease: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians of London on Tuesday, June 21st. British medical journal. 1904;1(2269), 1473. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.2269.1473
  • 14. Warren LB. Pharmacy and medicine in ancient Egypt. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1931;20(10), pp:1065-1076.
  • 15. Brandt-Rauf PW, Brandt-Rauf SI. History of occupational medicine: relevance of Imhotep and the Edwin Smith papyrus. British journal of industrial medicine. 1987;44(1), pp:68-70.
  • 16. Risse GB. Imhotep and medicine--a reevaluation. Western Journal of Medicine, 1986;144(5), pp:622-624.
  • 17. Fanous AA, Couldwell WT. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt: Historical vignette. Journal of neurosurgery. 2012;116(4), pp:743-748.
  • 18. Veiga, P. (2009). Health and Medicine in ancient Egypt; magic and science (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de Lisboa).
  • 19. Hirst K. "Biography of Imhotep, Ancient Egyptian Architect, Philosopher, God." ThoughtCo, Aug. 2, 2021, thoughtco.com/imhotep-4772346.
  • 20. Shehata M. The father of medicine: a historical reconsideration. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2004;12:171-176.
  • 21. Mercatante AS. The facts on file encyclopedia of world mythology and legend. Facts on file. 1988.
  • 22. Meehan Evan. “Thoth.” Mythopedia, November 19, 2021. https://mythopedia.com/topics/thoth.
  • 23. Sarı N, Altıntaş A ve ark. Tıp tarihi ve tıp etiği ders kitabı. İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbu: Basım ve Yayınevi Müdürlüğü. 2007.
  • 24. Shampo, M. A., & Kyle, R. A. (1991, July). Medical Mythology: Thoth. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 66, No. 7, p. 720). Elsevier.
  • 25. Konyar E. Eski Mısır tarihi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Açık ve Uzaktan Eğitim Fakültesi Ders Kitabı. 2010. http://auzefkitap.istanbul.edu.tr/kitap/tarih_ao/emisirtarihi.pdf.
  • 26. Zucconi LM. Medicine and religion in ancient Egypt. Religion Compass. 2007;1(1), pp:26-37.
  • 27. Benezet NT. The Pure Priest of Sekhmet, Between Health and. In Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Barcelona (2018). Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. 2021.p:116.
  • 28. Egyptian Medicine. World history encyclopedia. Available from: https://www.worldhistory.org/Egyptian_Medicine/ Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2022.
  • 29. King LW. Babylonian religion and mythology (Vol. 4). K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Company. New York. ANS Press. 1899.
  • 30. Paraskos JA. History of CPR and the role of the national conference. Annals of emergency medicine. 1993;22(2), pp:275-280.
  • 31. Filler AG. A historical hypothesis of the first recorded neurosurgical operation: Isis, Osiris, Thoth, and the origin of the djed cross. Neurosurgical Focus. 2007;23(1), pp:1-6.
  • 32. Hajar R. The air of history: early medicine to Galen (part I). Heart views: the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association. 2012;13(3), pp:120-128.
  • 33. Haimov-Kochman R, Sciaky-Tamir Y, Hurwitz A. Reproduction concepts and practices in ancient Egypt mirrored by modern medicine. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2005;123(1), pp:3-8.
  • 34. Mavrogenis AF, Markatos K, Nikolaou V, Gartziou-Tatti A, Soucacos PN. Congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity. International Orthopaedics. 2018;42(4), pp:957-965.
  • 35. Golding WRJ. Perceptions of the serpent in the Ancient Near East: its Bronze Age role in apotropaic magic, healing and protection (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa). 2013.
  • 36. Retief FP, Cilliers L. Snake and staff symbolism in healing. Acta Theologica. 2006;26(2), pp:189-199.
  • 37. Fredricksmeyer EA. Alexander, (1991). Alexander, Zeus Ammon, and the Conquest of Asia. Transactions of the American Philological Association. 1991;(121), pp:199-214.
  • 38. Olry R, Haines DE. Cerebral mythology: a skull stuffed with gods. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 1998;7(1), pp:82-83.
  • 39. Karenberg A. The world of gods and the body of man: mythological origins of modern anatomical terms. Anatomy. 2013;7(1), pp:7-22.
  • 40. Karagöz B. Likantropi: İnsanlık Tarihi Kadar Eski Bir Fenomen. Pivolka Yayın Süreci, 14. Wettstein, M. The historical Basis of Lycanthropism. 2011;6(20), pp:14-15.

Reflections from Gods to Medicine in Egyptian Mythology

Year 2022, Volume 12, Issue 3, 438 - 449, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.1113921

Abstract

Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate what is reflected from ancient Egyptian mythology to today's medicine.
Methods: 01.01-01.03.2022 literature review for Egyptian mythology; Made from databases of PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Library Genesis, Springer, Jstor Ebsco, ProQuest, Social Sciences Index Retrospective, National Geographic Magazine, medical and anatomical history books. In addition, research was conducted in the digital libraries of the National Library, HuthiTrust, Europeana Collections, Project Gutenberg, New York Library Digital Collections, Bibliotheques d'Orient.
Results: The Egyptians considered Ra, the maker of some medicines, Imhotep, the father of medicine, Thoth, the author of the Corpus Hermeticum. The mummification tradition is connected with Osiris. The fact that the calculation and symbolization done in the Eye of Horus agree with today's data is a great achievement for the field of neuroanatomy. In addition, the derivation of the “Rx” symbol used in prescriptions from this hieroglyph, and the fact that Horus' stay in the womb coincides with the 40-week gestation period are other findings. The double serpent entwined in Heka's staff is still a symbol of the medical profession. The cerebral hippocampus, now known as the horn of Ammon, is said to have derived its name from Ammon.
Conclusion: It is important and surprising that the experimental and evidence-based aspects of ancient Egyptian medicine, on the one hand, are intertwined with mythology, on the other hand, are quite advanced. This civilization still arouses interest with its rich medical heritage, which forms the basis of our day. 

References

  • 1. Campbell J. İlkel mitoloji. Kudret Emiroğlu (Çev.)., Ankara: İmge Kitabevi. 1992.
  • 2. Bayat AH. Tıp Tarihi, Zeytinburnu Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul. 2010.
  • 3. Pinch G. Handbook of Egyptian mythology. Abc-Clio. 2002.
  • 4. Eltorai IM. A Spotlight on the History of Ancient Egyptian Medicine. CRC Press. 2019.
  • 5. İnan A. Eski Mısır Tarih ve Medeniyeti (2. Baskı). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. 1987.
  • 6. Candan E. Antik Mısır Sırları. İstanbul, 2009.
  • 7. Hooke SH. Ortadoğu Mitolojisi, Mezopotamya Mısır Filistin Hitit Musevi Hıristiyan Mitosları. (Çev.: Alâeddin Şenel), Ankara: İmge Kitabevi. 1993.
  • 8. ReFaey K, Quinones GC, et al. The Eye of Horus: The Connection Between Art, Medicine, and Mythology in Ancient Egypt. Cureus. 2019;11(5). doi: 10.7759/cureus.4731
  • 9. Narçın A. A’dan Z’ye Mısır. 1. Baskı. İstanbul: Ozan Yayıncılık. 2008.
  • 10. Adu-Gyamfi S. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review. Annals of Stefan Cel Mare” University of Suceava” Philosophy, Social and Human Discipline Series. 2015;2, pp:9-21.
  • 11. Goebs K, Baines J. Functions and uses of Egyptian myth. Revue de l’histoire des religions. 2018;4, pp:645-681.
  • 12. Kharoshah MAA, Zaki MK, et al. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt. Journal of forensic and legal medicine. 2011;18(1), pp:10-13.
  • 13. Caton R. The Harveian Oration on I.—I-EM-HOTEP, the Egyptian God of Medicine; Egyptian Views as to the Circulation. II.—Rest in Incipient Valvular Disease: Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians of London on Tuesday, June 21st. British medical journal. 1904;1(2269), 1473. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.2269.1473
  • 14. Warren LB. Pharmacy and medicine in ancient Egypt. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1931;20(10), pp:1065-1076.
  • 15. Brandt-Rauf PW, Brandt-Rauf SI. History of occupational medicine: relevance of Imhotep and the Edwin Smith papyrus. British journal of industrial medicine. 1987;44(1), pp:68-70.
  • 16. Risse GB. Imhotep and medicine--a reevaluation. Western Journal of Medicine, 1986;144(5), pp:622-624.
  • 17. Fanous AA, Couldwell WT. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt: Historical vignette. Journal of neurosurgery. 2012;116(4), pp:743-748.
  • 18. Veiga, P. (2009). Health and Medicine in ancient Egypt; magic and science (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de Lisboa).
  • 19. Hirst K. "Biography of Imhotep, Ancient Egyptian Architect, Philosopher, God." ThoughtCo, Aug. 2, 2021, thoughtco.com/imhotep-4772346.
  • 20. Shehata M. The father of medicine: a historical reconsideration. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2004;12:171-176.
  • 21. Mercatante AS. The facts on file encyclopedia of world mythology and legend. Facts on file. 1988.
  • 22. Meehan Evan. “Thoth.” Mythopedia, November 19, 2021. https://mythopedia.com/topics/thoth.
  • 23. Sarı N, Altıntaş A ve ark. Tıp tarihi ve tıp etiği ders kitabı. İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbu: Basım ve Yayınevi Müdürlüğü. 2007.
  • 24. Shampo, M. A., & Kyle, R. A. (1991, July). Medical Mythology: Thoth. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 66, No. 7, p. 720). Elsevier.
  • 25. Konyar E. Eski Mısır tarihi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Açık ve Uzaktan Eğitim Fakültesi Ders Kitabı. 2010. http://auzefkitap.istanbul.edu.tr/kitap/tarih_ao/emisirtarihi.pdf.
  • 26. Zucconi LM. Medicine and religion in ancient Egypt. Religion Compass. 2007;1(1), pp:26-37.
  • 27. Benezet NT. The Pure Priest of Sekhmet, Between Health and. In Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Barcelona (2018). Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. 2021.p:116.
  • 28. Egyptian Medicine. World history encyclopedia. Available from: https://www.worldhistory.org/Egyptian_Medicine/ Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2022.
  • 29. King LW. Babylonian religion and mythology (Vol. 4). K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Company. New York. ANS Press. 1899.
  • 30. Paraskos JA. History of CPR and the role of the national conference. Annals of emergency medicine. 1993;22(2), pp:275-280.
  • 31. Filler AG. A historical hypothesis of the first recorded neurosurgical operation: Isis, Osiris, Thoth, and the origin of the djed cross. Neurosurgical Focus. 2007;23(1), pp:1-6.
  • 32. Hajar R. The air of history: early medicine to Galen (part I). Heart views: the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association. 2012;13(3), pp:120-128.
  • 33. Haimov-Kochman R, Sciaky-Tamir Y, Hurwitz A. Reproduction concepts and practices in ancient Egypt mirrored by modern medicine. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2005;123(1), pp:3-8.
  • 34. Mavrogenis AF, Markatos K, Nikolaou V, Gartziou-Tatti A, Soucacos PN. Congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity. International Orthopaedics. 2018;42(4), pp:957-965.
  • 35. Golding WRJ. Perceptions of the serpent in the Ancient Near East: its Bronze Age role in apotropaic magic, healing and protection (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa). 2013.
  • 36. Retief FP, Cilliers L. Snake and staff symbolism in healing. Acta Theologica. 2006;26(2), pp:189-199.
  • 37. Fredricksmeyer EA. Alexander, (1991). Alexander, Zeus Ammon, and the Conquest of Asia. Transactions of the American Philological Association. 1991;(121), pp:199-214.
  • 38. Olry R, Haines DE. Cerebral mythology: a skull stuffed with gods. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 1998;7(1), pp:82-83.
  • 39. Karenberg A. The world of gods and the body of man: mythological origins of modern anatomical terms. Anatomy. 2013;7(1), pp:7-22.
  • 40. Karagöz B. Likantropi: İnsanlık Tarihi Kadar Eski Bir Fenomen. Pivolka Yayın Süreci, 14. Wettstein, M. The historical Basis of Lycanthropism. 2011;6(20), pp:14-15.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Monograph
Authors

Selda YILDIZ> (Primary Author)
Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi
0000-0002-3650-0539
Türkiye


Vahide KORKMAZ>
Afyonkarahisar Emirdağ Devlet Hastanesi
0000-0002-4058-1589
Türkiye

Publication Date September 30, 2022
Application Date June 1, 2022
Acceptance Date September 2, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 12, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @monograph { mutftd1113921, journal = {Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi}, eissn = {1309-8004}, address = {lokman@mersin.edu.tr}, publisher = {Mersin University}, year = {2022}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {438 - 449}, doi = {10.31020/mutftd.1113921}, title = {Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldız, Selda and Korkmaz, Vahide} }
APA Yıldız, S. & Korkmaz, V. (2022). Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar . Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi , 12 (3) , 438-449 . DOI: 10.31020/mutftd.1113921
MLA Yıldız, S. , Korkmaz, V. "Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar" . Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 12 (2022 ): 438-449 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mutftd/issue/72580/1113921>
Chicago Yıldız, S. , Korkmaz, V. "Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar". Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 12 (2022 ): 438-449
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Reflections from Gods to Medicine in Egyptian Mythology AU - SeldaYıldız, VahideKorkmaz Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.31020/mutftd.1113921 DO - 10.31020/mutftd.1113921 T2 - Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 438 EP - 449 VL - 12 IS - 3 SN - -1309-8004 M3 - doi: 10.31020/mutftd.1113921 UR - https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.1113921 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Mersin University School of Medicine Lokman Hekim Journal of History of Medicine and Folk Medicine Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar %A Selda Yıldız , Vahide Korkmaz %T Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar %D 2022 %J Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi %P -1309-8004 %V 12 %N 3 %R doi: 10.31020/mutftd.1113921 %U 10.31020/mutftd.1113921
ISNAD Yıldız, Selda , Korkmaz, Vahide . "Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar". Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 12 / 3 (September 2022): 438-449 . https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.1113921
AMA Yıldız S. , Korkmaz V. Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar. Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 12(3): 438-449.
Vancouver Yıldız S. , Korkmaz V. Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar. Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 12(3): 438-449.
IEEE S. Yıldız and V. Korkmaz , "Mısır Mitolojisinde Tanrılardan Tıbba Yansıyanlar", Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 438-449, Sep. 2022, doi:10.31020/mutftd.1113921

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