Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Year 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, 106 - 132, 01.12.2014
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.14.14.1.2

Abstract

References

  • Aarhus Convention (1998). ‘On access to information. Public participation and access to justice in environmental matters’, Denmark,25June.http://aarhusclearinghouse.unece.org/resources.cfm?c=1000069
  • Akomfrah, J. (2013). ‘The Stuart Hall Project. Documentary’, produced by David Lawson & Lina Gopaul and directed by John Akomfrah.
  • Albert, S & Campbell (2008). ‘The Challenge of Participatory Technologies for Teaching and Learning at Ontario Universities’. In Jennie Piekos, Research Associate Council of Ontario Universities. Retrieved from www.cou.on.ca/.../the-challenge-of-participatory-technologies-for-t
  • Archibugi, D. (2008). ‘The architecture of cosmopolitan democracy’ in The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Towards Cosmopolitan Democracy. Princeton University Press.
  • Australian Public Service Commission (2007). ‘Tackling Wicked Problems: A Public Policy Perspective’. Australian Public Service, Canberra.
  • Barker, R. L. (2003). ‘The social work dictionary’, 5th Ed. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press
  • Bateson, G., (1972). ‘Steps to an Ecology of Mind’, Ballantine, New York.
  • Bausch, K. 2006, ‘Be your enemy: The Contributions of West Churchman to Doing Better Governance and International Relations’ In McIntyre-Mills, J. Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself: Critical and Systemic Implications for Democracy, C. West Churchman Series, Vol. 1, Springer, New York, Boston, London.
  • Beck, U. (2010). 'Climate for change, or how to create a green modernity'. Theory, Culture and Society. 27(2-3):254-266
  • Beck, U. and Sznaider, N. (2006). ‘Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: a research agenda’ The British Journal of Sociology 57.1-23.
  • Beer, S. (1974). ‘Designing Freedom’, Wiley, London.
  • Bereiter, C. (2002). ‘Education and mind in the knowledge age’. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Berlin, I. (1958). ‘Two Concepts of Liberty.’ In Isaiah Berlin (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Bird, J. and Clarke, S. (2000). ‘Racism, hatred and discrimination’. J. of Psycho-Analysis of Culture and Society. 4 (2): 332-335.
  • Blossfeld, H (1992). ‘Is the German dual system a model for a modern vocational training system? A cross-national comparison of how different systems of vocational training deal with the changing occupational structure’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology 23: 168 - 81.
  • Boettcher, J. V. (2007). ‘Ten Core Principles for Designing Effective Learning Environments: Insights from Brain Research and Pedagogical Theory’. Innovate: Journal of Online Education. Retrieved from www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=54
  • Bonanno, G. (2004). ‘Loss Trauma, and Human Resilience’. American Psychologist 59: (1) 20-28.
  • Borradori, G. (2003). ‘Philosophy in a time of terror. Dialogues with Habermas and Derrida’. Uni of Chicago Press.
  • Bostrom, N. (2011). ‘Existential risk prevention as the most important task for humanity’ Faculty of Philosophy & Oxford Martin School University of Oxford www.existential‐risk.org
  • Boulding, K. (1956). ‘General Systems Theory – the skeleton of Science’ Management Science. 2, 197-208.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1999). ‘The weight of the world. Social suffering in contemporary society’. Cambridge. Polity.
  • Brook Lyndhurst, (2004). ‘Liveability and sustainable development’. Final Report for ODPM, London.
  • Brundtland, G. 1987, http://www.worldinbalance.net/agreements/1987-brundtland.html The report “Our Common Future”.
  • Burns, D. (2007). ‘Systemic Action Research. A Strategy for whole system change’. Bristol. Policy Press.
  • Butler, J. with Taylor, S. (2009). ‘Interdependence’. In Taylor, A 2009. Examined Life: excursions with contemporary thinkers. The New Press. New York.
  • Capra, F. (1996). ‘The web of life: A new synthesis of mind and matter’, Harper Collins.
  • Carens, J. (1995). ‘Aliens and Citizens: the case for open borders’, In The rights of Minority cultures, Ed Kymlicka, W. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • Carspecken, P.F. (2014). ‘Critical Ethnography in Educational Research’. Routledge. New York
  • Christakis, A. (2006). ‘A retrospective Structural Inquiry into the predicament of Humankind: Prospectus of the Club of Rome’. In McIntyre-Mills, J. Ed. Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself. Critical and Systemic Implications of Democracy, Volume 1 of the ‘C. West Churchman and Related Works Series’, Van Gigch, J (series editor), Springer, London.
  • Christakis, A. and Flanagan, T. (2010). ‘The talking point: A collaboration project of 21st Century Agoras’. Information Age Publishing.
  • Churchman, C. West, (1982). ‘Thought and Wisdom’, Californian. Intersystems Publications.
  • Churchman, C. West., (1971). ‘The Design of Inquiring Systems’. New York. Basic Books.
  • Churchman, C. West., (1979). ‘The Systems Approach and its Enemies’. New York. Basic Books.
  • Clegg, Phil and Heap, J. (2006). ‘Facing the Challenge of E-Learning: Reflections on Teaching Evidence-Based Practice through Online Discussion Groups’. Innovate: Journal of Online Education. September 2006. www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=290
  • Cobbett, E. and Germain, R, (2012). ‘Occupy Wall Street’ and IPE: Insights and Implications Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies, Issue 5: 110-113.
  • Collins. R. (2010). ‘Geopolitical conditions of internationalism, human rights and world law’. Journal of Globalisation Studies. (1): 29-45.
  • Comaroff, J. (2011). ‘Theory from the South: or how Europe is evolving towards Africa’. Key note address at Knowledge and value in a Globalising world. Disentangling dichotomies, querying unities. University of Western Australia. Perth 5-5th July.
  • Cooke, B. (2004). ‘Rules of thumb for participatory change agents Participation: From Tyranny to transformation?’ New York. Zed Books.
  • Crossen, T. and Niessen, V. (2007), NGO standing in the European Court of Justice - Does the Aarhus Regulation Open the Door? RECEIL 16 (3) 332-338. ISSN 09628797 at 332.
  • Crush, J. and Fayne, B. (2010). ‘Pathways to Insecurity: Urban Food Supply and Access in Southern African Cities’, Urban Food Supply and Access in Southern African Cities African Food Security Urban Network, 2010.
  • Cruz, I. Stahel, A. Max-Neef, M. (2009). ‘Towards a systemic development approach’ Ecological Economics, 68, 2021-2030
  • Davies, JB., and World Institute (2008). ‘Personal wealth’. Oxford University Press.
  • De Waal, F. 2009, ‘The Age of Empathy nature’s lessons for a kinder society’. Harmony.
  • Ehrlich, P and Ehrlich, A. (2013). ‘Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?’ Proc of the Royal Society of Biological Sci. Sep 22, 2013; 280(1767): 20131193.
  • Elliot, A. and Urry. J. (2010). ‘Mobile Lives'. Routledge, New York.
  • Faist, T. (2009). ‘The transnational social question’. International Sociology. 24: 17-36.
  • Fischer & Konomi, 2005 Fischer, G. & Konomi, S. (2005). ‚Innovative media in support of distributed intelligence and lifelong learning’. In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (3-10). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.
  • Flanagan, T. and Bausch, K. (2011). ‘A democratic approach to sustainable futures. A workbook for addressing the global problematique’. Ongoing Emergence Press. Riverdale.
  • Flannery, T, (2012). ‘After the Future: Australia’s New Extinction Crisis’. Quarterly Essay Issue 48.
  • Flannery, T. (2005). ‘The weather makers. The history and future impact of climate change’. Text Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Flannery, T. (2010). ‘Here on earth. An argument for hope’. Text Publishing. Melbourne
  • Flood, R. & Carson, E. (1993). ‘Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and application of Systems Science’, 2nd. ed., Plenum, London.
  • Flood, R. & Romm, N. (1996). ‘Diversity management: triple loop learning’, Wiley, Chichester.
  • Florini, A., (2003). ‘The Coming Democracy’. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Folke, C. (2006). ‘Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses’. Global Environmental Change 16 253-267.
  • Follesdal, A. (2006). 'Subsidiarity, democracy and human rights in Europe'. J of Social Philosophy.37 (1):61-80.
  • Foucault, M. and Gordon, C.(1980).Eds, ‘Power/Knowledge’. Harvester.Brighton.
  • Fourade, M. And Savelsburg, J. (2006). ‘Global Processes, National Institutions, Local Bricolage: shaping law in an era of globalisation’. Law and Social Inquiry. 31(3):515-519.
  • Freire, P. (1970). ‘Adult Literacy Process as Cultural Action for Freedom’. 1970. Harvard Educational Review. 40(2), Summer 1970 http://hepg.metapress.com/content/121179/?p=a88f9f08136c4c20b50fbc74adcd18c7&pi=0
  • Freire, P. (1982). “Creating alternative research methods. Learning to do it by doing it", in Hall, B., Gillette, A. and R. Tandon (eds.) Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly. Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi, pp. 29–37.
  • Freire, P. (2007). ‘Pedagogy of the oppressed’. New York: Continuum.
  • Friere, P. (1985). ‘The politics of education’, Begin and Garvey, Inc. Westport, CT 06881
  • Gardner, H. (2008). ‘Multiple intelligences: new horizons in theory and practice’. New York Basic Books
  • Gadamar, H.G. (2001). ‘Education is self-education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education. Vol. 35 No 4.
  • Gallhofer, S. & Chew, A. (2000). ‘Introduction: accounting and indigenous peoples’, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 13(3):256-267.
  • Galtung, J. (1990). ‘Cultural Violence’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27. No 3. 291-305. Sage.
  • Gamble, A. (2000). ‘Economic Governance’ In Pierre, J. Ed. ‘Debating governance: authority, steering and democracy’. 1st edition Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gandhi, L. (1966). Affective communities: anti-colonial thought, fin-de-siècle radicalism and the politics of friendship, Duke University Press.
  • Gaventa, J. (2001). ‘Global Citizen Action: Lessons and Challenges’ In Edwards, M. and Gaventa, J. eds. Global Citizen Action. Lynne Rienner.Boulder.
  • Getano Lui, (1993). ‘Voices from the Land’. Boyer lecture Series.
  • Gibbons, M. Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & Trow, M. (1994). ‘The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies’, London. Sage.
  • Giddens, A. (2009). ‘The politics of climate change’. Polity. Cambridge
  • Goldsmith, J. and Posner, E. (2005). ‘The limits of International Law’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gould, C. (2007). ‘Transnational Solidarities’ Journal of Social Philosophy, 38(1), 148-164.
  • Gouldner, A.W. (1971). ‘The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology’. London. Heinemann.
  • Graham, C. (2011). ‘The pursuit of happiness: an economy of well-being’. Brookings Institution Press. Washington.
  • Greenberg, G. & Tobach. (1987), ‘Cognition, language and consciousness: integrative levels’, Vol. 2. Hillsdale New Jersey.
  • Greenfield, S. (2000). The private life of the brain: emotions, consciousness and the secret of the self. Wiley. New York
  • Greenfield, (2003). Tomorrow’s People How 21st Century Technology is changing the way we think and feel. Penguin
  • Greenfield, S. (2008). ID: The quest for meaning in the 21st century. Sceptre, Hodder and Stoughton, London.
  • Gunaratne, S.A. (2009). ‘Globalization: a Non Western perspective: the bias of social science/communication oligopoly’. Communication, Culture and Critique (2) 60-82.
  • Habermas, J. Derrida, J and Borradori, G. (2003). ‘Philosophy in a time of terror Dialogues with Jurgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida’. University of Chicago Press.
  • Habermas, J., (1984). ‘The theory of communicative action’. Beacon: Boston.
  • Hall, B and Tandon, R (2014). ‘No more enclosures: knowledge democracy and social transformation’ Open Democracy https://www.opendemocracy.net/author/rajesh-tandon, Open Democracy 20 August 2014
  • Hardin, G. (1968). ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’, Science, 162:1243-1248.
  • Harris, L.D. and Wasilewski, J. 2004, ‘Indigenous Wisdom of the People’s Forum’, Systems Research and Behavioural Science, Vol. 21:505-514.
  • Harrison, K. (2002). ‘Policy perspectives: Social Capital’. In Parnell, S. Swilling, M and Wooldridge, D. Democratising local government. The South African experiment. University of Cape Town Press. Landsdowne.
  • Hayden, P. (2010). ‘The environment, global justice and world environmental citizenship’. In Brown, G.W. and Held, D. Cosmopolitanism, Polity Cambridge
  • Held, D. et al. (2005). ‘Debating Globalization’. Polity Cambridge.
  • Held, D.(2004). ‘Global covenant: The social democratic alternative to the Washington Consensus’. Polity.
  • Heller, P. (2001). ‘Moving the state: the politics of democratic decentralisation in Kerela, South Africa, and Porto Alegra’. Politics and Society, Vol. 29 No 1 131-163
  • Heycox, J., Meadows, P. and Vernon, B. (1997). ‘Measuring environmental expenditures and revenues in Local Government’, Environment and Energy Statistics Section Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Centre for Regional & Local Government Studies Working Paper No 2. University of Canberra
  • Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (Eds) (2004). ‘Participation: From tyranny to transformation?' Zed Books. New York.
  • Hil, R.(2013). ‘Beyond the cyber cell’ In Advocate, Vol. 20, No 3. Pp28-29
  • Hill Collins, P. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the politics of Empowerment. Routledge. New York.
  • Hulme, M. (2010). ‘Cosmopolitan Climates. Hybridity, Foresight and meaning’. Theory, Culture and Society. Vol. 27 (2-3): 267-276.
  • Hulme, M. (2011). ‘Climate Change and four narratives of growth’. AHTC Workshop. University of Cambridge. http://climatehistories.innerasiaresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Mike-Hulme.pdf. Accessed 8 Feb 2011.
  • Human Sciences Research Council, (2013). ‘South African national health and nutrition examination survey’ ( SANHANES-1) Published by HSRC Press, Private Bag X9182, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa,www.hsrcpress.ac.za,First published: Launch edition 2013,Second edition published 2014
  • International Commission on the Future of Food and Agriculture (2007). ‘Manifesto on the future of seeds’ www.future-food.org
  • International Institute for Environment and Development (2005).Participatory Learning and Action. Retrieved December 4, 2007 from www.iied.org/NR/agbioliv/pla_notes/about.html#b
  • Irvin, R.Stansbury, J.(2002). Citizen participation in decision making. Public Administrative Review.64:1:55-65.
  • Jasonoff, S. (2003). ‘Technologies of humility: citizen participation’ in governing science. Minerva. 41:223-44.
  • Jessop, S. (2009). ‘Children’s participation: an Arendtian criticism’. Educational Philosophy and Theory. Vol. 43. No 9 Article first published online: 8 NOV 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2009.00560.x.
  • Keane, J. (2009). The life and death of democracy. Simon and Schuster. London.
  • Kirby, M. (2013). What would Ghandi do? Penguin: New York
  • Knowles, M. (1978). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species 2nd ed. Houston. Gulf Publishing Company.
  • Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). ‘Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation’. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
  • Levin, S. (2006). ‘Learning to live in a global commons: socioeconomic challenges for a sustainable environment’. Ecological Research 21:328-333.
  • Lovelock, J. (2009). The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Allen Lane.
  • Maloney, W. Jordan, G. and McLaughlin, A. (1994). 'Interest Groups and Public Policy' J of Public Policy, 14: 17-38
  • Mangcu, X (2014). ‘The arrogance of power: South Africa’s leadership meltdown’. Tafelburg. Cape Town
  • Marr, B. 2005.Perspectives on Intellectual Capital. Multidisciplinary insights into management, measurement and reporting. Elsevier,
  • Max-Neef, M. 1991.Human Scale Development. Apex. London.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J. (2006b). ‘Systemic Governance and Accountability: working and re-working the conceptual and spatial boundaries of international relations and governance’. Volume 3 of the ‘C. West Churchman and Related Works Series’, Springer, London.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J (2010). ‘Wellbeing, mindfulness and the global commons’. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 17, (7–8) 44–72.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J (2014). ‘Systemic ethics and non-anthropocentric stewardship: Implications for transdisciplinarity and cosmopolitan politics Springer, New York .
  • McIntyre-Mills, J with Devries, D and Binchai, N. (2014). ‘Wall Street to Wellbeing: Joining up the dots through participatory democracy and governance to mitigate the causes and adapt to the effects of climate change:’ Springer, New York.
  • McKay, V. and Romm, N. (1992). People’s Education in Theoretical Perspective. Mascew Miller. Cape Town.
  • McLoughlin, C. & Lee, M.J.W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. In Proceedings ascilite, Singapore pp 664-675. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/mcloughlin.pdf
  • Midgley, G. (2000). Systemic Intervention: Philosophy, Methodology, and Practice. Kluwer. New York.
  • Mishra & Jain (2002) . Designing an Online Learning Environment for Participatory Management of Displacement, Resettlement and Rehabilitation. Retrieved from www.col.org/pcf2/papers/mishra.pdf
  • Murray, J. Dey, C. and Lenzen, M. (2007). ‘Systems for Social Sustainability: Global Connectedness and the Tuvalu Test’. Cybernetics and Human Knowing. 14 (1): 87-105.
  • Nazarea, V. (2006). ‘Local knowledge and memory in biodiversity conservation’, Annual Review of Anthropology. 36.pp 317-335.
  • Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Nussbaum, M. & Glover, J. (1995). Women, Culture and Development: A study of Human Capabilities. Oxford. Clarendon Press
  • Nussbaum, M., (2006). ‘Frontiers of justice’, London. Harvard University
  • Oliver, R. (1999) Exploring strategies for online teaching and learning, Distance Education, 20 (2): 240-254.
  • Paavola, S. &Hakkarainen, K. (2005).’The knowledge creation metaphor – An emergent epistemological approach to learning’. Science and Education, 14(6), 535-557.
  • Parker, J. (2012). ‘Transdisciplinary systems approach to paradigm change in sustainable economy’ In The Systemist, 34 (3)  Winter 2012, 138-149
  • Pretty, J. (2013). ‘The consumption of a Finite Planet: Well-being, Convergence, Divergence and the Nascent Green Economy’. Environmental and Resource Economics. DOI 10.1007/s10640-013-9680-9
  • Quan-Baffour, K P (2012). ‘The Liberative Power of Education: Adult Basic Education as Empowerment Tool for Rural Women’ In Studies of Tribes and Tribals 10(2) 91-97.
  • Republic of South Africa. Department of Higher Education and Training. (2014). White paper on Post-Schooling Education and Training. Pretoria
  • Republic of South Africa. Department of Education. ( 2000). Policy 52 of 2000 on Adult Basic Education and Training. Pretoria
  • Republic of South Africa. (1998). Skills Development Act 97 of 1998. Pretoria
  • Ritchey, T. (2011). Wicked Problems – Social Messes Risk, Governance and Society, 17, 2011, 1-6
  • Rittel, H. and Webber, M. (1984). Planning problems are wicked problems Developments in Design Methodology. New York: Wiley.
  • Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K. (2009). ‘A safe operating space for humanity’ Nature 461: 472-475
  • Rogers, J. (2007). Adults Learning 4th ed., United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  • Romm, N. (2001). ‘Accountability in Social Research: issues and debates’. Kluwer. London.
  • Romm, N. (2002). ‘A trusting constructivist view of Systems Thinking in a Knowledge Age’. In Systems Theory and Practice in a Knowledge Age. In Ragsdell et al .New York. Plenum.
  • Romm, N. (2010). The New Racism. Springer. London.
  • Rose, D.B.(2004). Reports form a wild country. University of New South Wales Press. Sydney.
  • Rose, D.B. (2005). ‘Dislocating the Frontier’ http://epress.anu.edu.au/dtf/html/frames.php see http://epress.anu.edu.au
  • Schumacher, F.F. (1973). Small is beautiful. Economics as if people mattered. Harper and Row. New York.
  • Senge, P et al (1994). ‘The fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies and tools for building a learning organisation’
  • Senge, P. ,Kleiner, A. Roberts, C , Ross, R., Roth, G. and Smith, B (1999). ‘The dance of change: the challenges of maintaining momentum in learning organisations’, New York Double Day.
  • Shiva, V (2002). ‘Water wars: privatization, pollution and profit’, London, Pluto Press.
  • Shiva, V. (2011). ‘Earth Democracy’, Portland University, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOfM7QD7-kk/
  • Singer, P., (2002). ‘One World: The Ethics of Globalisation’, Text Publishers, Melbourne.
  • Stern, N, (2007). ‘The Economics of Climate Change’. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press
  • Stiglitz, J. Sen, A. And Fitoussi, J.P. (2010). ‘Mis-measuring our lives: why the GDP doesn’t add up’. The New Press. New York,
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2012). The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future. WW Norton.
  • Tutu, D (2013). www,thinkexist.com/quotes/bishop_desmond_tutu/ 5 June 2014
  • Treaty of Maastricht (1992). Article 5 on Subsidiarity.
  • Ulrich, W. (1983). Critical heuristics of social planning: a new approach to practical philosophy. Wiley. New York.
  • UNESCO, (2007). ‘Biosphere Reserves: Dialogue in biosphere reserves’. References, Practices and Experiences. ISSN 2071-1468. Paris. UNESCO
  • United Nations Climate Change Summit, Cancun (2010). United Nations Climate Change Summit https://unfccc.int/meetings/cancun_nov_2010/meeting/6266.php
  • United Nations Climate Change Summit, Durban (2011). United Nations Climate Change Summit https://unfccc.int/meetings/durban_nov_2011/meeting/6245.php
  • United Nations Economic and Social Development Local Agenda 21 (1992).
  • United Nations Human Development Index (2003). A compact among nations to end poverty. UNDP. New York. Oxford University Press.
  • United Nations. (2011). ‘The Millennium Goals Report’ http://www.aidsdatahub.org/en/whats-new/287-all-data-alerts/728-the-millennium-development-goals-report-2011-united-nations-2011 Accessed July 19th, 2011.
  • United Nations.(1993). ‘Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: Handbook of National Accounting: Studies in Methods’, Series F. No 61, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, United Nations, New York.
  • Urry, J. (2010). ‘Consuming the planet to excess’. Theory, Culture and Society.. 27 191-212
  • Veletsianos, G. and Kimmons, R. (2011). ‘Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent techno-cultural pressures toward open and digital scholarship in online networks’ In Computers & Education Elservier 58. 766-774.
  • Vickers, G., (1983). ‘Human Systems are Different’, Harper and Row, London.
  • Villalba, C. and Romiszowski, A.J. (2001). ‘Current and ideal practice in designing, developing and delivering web-based training’, In Khan, B.H. (ed) Web-based Training, Englewood Cliff, NJ: ETP, p. 325-342
  • Wadsworth, Y. (2010). ‘Building in Research and Evaluation.Human Inquiry for living systems’. Allen and Unwin. Sydney
  • Wenger, E, White, N. and Smith, J. (2009). ‘Digital Habitats: stewarding technology for communities’. CP Square, Portland.
  • Wenger, E., (1998). ‘Communities of Practice’.Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2009). ‘The Spirit Level’. London. Allen Lane
  • Young, I.M. (2000). ‘Inclusion and democracy’. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Participatory Approach to Education: an Action Learning Approach at the University of South Africa

Year 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, 106 - 132, 01.12.2014
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.14.14.1.2

Abstract

The paper discusses a critical systemic thinking and practice approach to building capacity, enhancing development and addressing public policy and governance concerns through holding in mind many variables and considering the areas of concern of the facilitator and  the  participants. Inspiration for the approach to learning drew on a range of sources including Bateson on ‘the ecology of mind’ (1972), Paulo Freire (1982, 2007) on action learning and Checkland and Scholes (1990) for soft systems mapping to address an area of concern with a small group of researchers who are dedicated to working outside the boundaries of a contained discipline or organization in the service of a broad learning community. The participants raised the following as research concerns:  unemployment, recognition of prior learning and the need to enhance pathways for adults and young people in learning organisations and learning communities that are responsive to the complex needs of South Africans and those within the wider region.  An open approach to education and respecting diverse ways of knowing is a starting point for people’s education and community development. The struggle in South Africa for transformation was typified by student protests during Apartheid for the right to a free and equal education system.  At UNISA we are reminded of the need to use education as a means to empower and this means beginning with the lived experiences of people.

References

  • Aarhus Convention (1998). ‘On access to information. Public participation and access to justice in environmental matters’, Denmark,25June.http://aarhusclearinghouse.unece.org/resources.cfm?c=1000069
  • Akomfrah, J. (2013). ‘The Stuart Hall Project. Documentary’, produced by David Lawson & Lina Gopaul and directed by John Akomfrah.
  • Albert, S & Campbell (2008). ‘The Challenge of Participatory Technologies for Teaching and Learning at Ontario Universities’. In Jennie Piekos, Research Associate Council of Ontario Universities. Retrieved from www.cou.on.ca/.../the-challenge-of-participatory-technologies-for-t
  • Archibugi, D. (2008). ‘The architecture of cosmopolitan democracy’ in The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Towards Cosmopolitan Democracy. Princeton University Press.
  • Australian Public Service Commission (2007). ‘Tackling Wicked Problems: A Public Policy Perspective’. Australian Public Service, Canberra.
  • Barker, R. L. (2003). ‘The social work dictionary’, 5th Ed. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press
  • Bateson, G., (1972). ‘Steps to an Ecology of Mind’, Ballantine, New York.
  • Bausch, K. 2006, ‘Be your enemy: The Contributions of West Churchman to Doing Better Governance and International Relations’ In McIntyre-Mills, J. Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself: Critical and Systemic Implications for Democracy, C. West Churchman Series, Vol. 1, Springer, New York, Boston, London.
  • Beck, U. (2010). 'Climate for change, or how to create a green modernity'. Theory, Culture and Society. 27(2-3):254-266
  • Beck, U. and Sznaider, N. (2006). ‘Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: a research agenda’ The British Journal of Sociology 57.1-23.
  • Beer, S. (1974). ‘Designing Freedom’, Wiley, London.
  • Bereiter, C. (2002). ‘Education and mind in the knowledge age’. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Berlin, I. (1958). ‘Two Concepts of Liberty.’ In Isaiah Berlin (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Bird, J. and Clarke, S. (2000). ‘Racism, hatred and discrimination’. J. of Psycho-Analysis of Culture and Society. 4 (2): 332-335.
  • Blossfeld, H (1992). ‘Is the German dual system a model for a modern vocational training system? A cross-national comparison of how different systems of vocational training deal with the changing occupational structure’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology 23: 168 - 81.
  • Boettcher, J. V. (2007). ‘Ten Core Principles for Designing Effective Learning Environments: Insights from Brain Research and Pedagogical Theory’. Innovate: Journal of Online Education. Retrieved from www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=54
  • Bonanno, G. (2004). ‘Loss Trauma, and Human Resilience’. American Psychologist 59: (1) 20-28.
  • Borradori, G. (2003). ‘Philosophy in a time of terror. Dialogues with Habermas and Derrida’. Uni of Chicago Press.
  • Bostrom, N. (2011). ‘Existential risk prevention as the most important task for humanity’ Faculty of Philosophy & Oxford Martin School University of Oxford www.existential‐risk.org
  • Boulding, K. (1956). ‘General Systems Theory – the skeleton of Science’ Management Science. 2, 197-208.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1999). ‘The weight of the world. Social suffering in contemporary society’. Cambridge. Polity.
  • Brook Lyndhurst, (2004). ‘Liveability and sustainable development’. Final Report for ODPM, London.
  • Brundtland, G. 1987, http://www.worldinbalance.net/agreements/1987-brundtland.html The report “Our Common Future”.
  • Burns, D. (2007). ‘Systemic Action Research. A Strategy for whole system change’. Bristol. Policy Press.
  • Butler, J. with Taylor, S. (2009). ‘Interdependence’. In Taylor, A 2009. Examined Life: excursions with contemporary thinkers. The New Press. New York.
  • Capra, F. (1996). ‘The web of life: A new synthesis of mind and matter’, Harper Collins.
  • Carens, J. (1995). ‘Aliens and Citizens: the case for open borders’, In The rights of Minority cultures, Ed Kymlicka, W. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • Carspecken, P.F. (2014). ‘Critical Ethnography in Educational Research’. Routledge. New York
  • Christakis, A. (2006). ‘A retrospective Structural Inquiry into the predicament of Humankind: Prospectus of the Club of Rome’. In McIntyre-Mills, J. Ed. Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself. Critical and Systemic Implications of Democracy, Volume 1 of the ‘C. West Churchman and Related Works Series’, Van Gigch, J (series editor), Springer, London.
  • Christakis, A. and Flanagan, T. (2010). ‘The talking point: A collaboration project of 21st Century Agoras’. Information Age Publishing.
  • Churchman, C. West, (1982). ‘Thought and Wisdom’, Californian. Intersystems Publications.
  • Churchman, C. West., (1971). ‘The Design of Inquiring Systems’. New York. Basic Books.
  • Churchman, C. West., (1979). ‘The Systems Approach and its Enemies’. New York. Basic Books.
  • Clegg, Phil and Heap, J. (2006). ‘Facing the Challenge of E-Learning: Reflections on Teaching Evidence-Based Practice through Online Discussion Groups’. Innovate: Journal of Online Education. September 2006. www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=290
  • Cobbett, E. and Germain, R, (2012). ‘Occupy Wall Street’ and IPE: Insights and Implications Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies, Issue 5: 110-113.
  • Collins. R. (2010). ‘Geopolitical conditions of internationalism, human rights and world law’. Journal of Globalisation Studies. (1): 29-45.
  • Comaroff, J. (2011). ‘Theory from the South: or how Europe is evolving towards Africa’. Key note address at Knowledge and value in a Globalising world. Disentangling dichotomies, querying unities. University of Western Australia. Perth 5-5th July.
  • Cooke, B. (2004). ‘Rules of thumb for participatory change agents Participation: From Tyranny to transformation?’ New York. Zed Books.
  • Crossen, T. and Niessen, V. (2007), NGO standing in the European Court of Justice - Does the Aarhus Regulation Open the Door? RECEIL 16 (3) 332-338. ISSN 09628797 at 332.
  • Crush, J. and Fayne, B. (2010). ‘Pathways to Insecurity: Urban Food Supply and Access in Southern African Cities’, Urban Food Supply and Access in Southern African Cities African Food Security Urban Network, 2010.
  • Cruz, I. Stahel, A. Max-Neef, M. (2009). ‘Towards a systemic development approach’ Ecological Economics, 68, 2021-2030
  • Davies, JB., and World Institute (2008). ‘Personal wealth’. Oxford University Press.
  • De Waal, F. 2009, ‘The Age of Empathy nature’s lessons for a kinder society’. Harmony.
  • Ehrlich, P and Ehrlich, A. (2013). ‘Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?’ Proc of the Royal Society of Biological Sci. Sep 22, 2013; 280(1767): 20131193.
  • Elliot, A. and Urry. J. (2010). ‘Mobile Lives'. Routledge, New York.
  • Faist, T. (2009). ‘The transnational social question’. International Sociology. 24: 17-36.
  • Fischer & Konomi, 2005 Fischer, G. & Konomi, S. (2005). ‚Innovative media in support of distributed intelligence and lifelong learning’. In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (3-10). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.
  • Flanagan, T. and Bausch, K. (2011). ‘A democratic approach to sustainable futures. A workbook for addressing the global problematique’. Ongoing Emergence Press. Riverdale.
  • Flannery, T, (2012). ‘After the Future: Australia’s New Extinction Crisis’. Quarterly Essay Issue 48.
  • Flannery, T. (2005). ‘The weather makers. The history and future impact of climate change’. Text Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Flannery, T. (2010). ‘Here on earth. An argument for hope’. Text Publishing. Melbourne
  • Flood, R. & Carson, E. (1993). ‘Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and application of Systems Science’, 2nd. ed., Plenum, London.
  • Flood, R. & Romm, N. (1996). ‘Diversity management: triple loop learning’, Wiley, Chichester.
  • Florini, A., (2003). ‘The Coming Democracy’. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Folke, C. (2006). ‘Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses’. Global Environmental Change 16 253-267.
  • Follesdal, A. (2006). 'Subsidiarity, democracy and human rights in Europe'. J of Social Philosophy.37 (1):61-80.
  • Foucault, M. and Gordon, C.(1980).Eds, ‘Power/Knowledge’. Harvester.Brighton.
  • Fourade, M. And Savelsburg, J. (2006). ‘Global Processes, National Institutions, Local Bricolage: shaping law in an era of globalisation’. Law and Social Inquiry. 31(3):515-519.
  • Freire, P. (1970). ‘Adult Literacy Process as Cultural Action for Freedom’. 1970. Harvard Educational Review. 40(2), Summer 1970 http://hepg.metapress.com/content/121179/?p=a88f9f08136c4c20b50fbc74adcd18c7&pi=0
  • Freire, P. (1982). “Creating alternative research methods. Learning to do it by doing it", in Hall, B., Gillette, A. and R. Tandon (eds.) Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly. Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi, pp. 29–37.
  • Freire, P. (2007). ‘Pedagogy of the oppressed’. New York: Continuum.
  • Friere, P. (1985). ‘The politics of education’, Begin and Garvey, Inc. Westport, CT 06881
  • Gardner, H. (2008). ‘Multiple intelligences: new horizons in theory and practice’. New York Basic Books
  • Gadamar, H.G. (2001). ‘Education is self-education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education. Vol. 35 No 4.
  • Gallhofer, S. & Chew, A. (2000). ‘Introduction: accounting and indigenous peoples’, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 13(3):256-267.
  • Galtung, J. (1990). ‘Cultural Violence’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27. No 3. 291-305. Sage.
  • Gamble, A. (2000). ‘Economic Governance’ In Pierre, J. Ed. ‘Debating governance: authority, steering and democracy’. 1st edition Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gandhi, L. (1966). Affective communities: anti-colonial thought, fin-de-siècle radicalism and the politics of friendship, Duke University Press.
  • Gaventa, J. (2001). ‘Global Citizen Action: Lessons and Challenges’ In Edwards, M. and Gaventa, J. eds. Global Citizen Action. Lynne Rienner.Boulder.
  • Getano Lui, (1993). ‘Voices from the Land’. Boyer lecture Series.
  • Gibbons, M. Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & Trow, M. (1994). ‘The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies’, London. Sage.
  • Giddens, A. (2009). ‘The politics of climate change’. Polity. Cambridge
  • Goldsmith, J. and Posner, E. (2005). ‘The limits of International Law’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gould, C. (2007). ‘Transnational Solidarities’ Journal of Social Philosophy, 38(1), 148-164.
  • Gouldner, A.W. (1971). ‘The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology’. London. Heinemann.
  • Graham, C. (2011). ‘The pursuit of happiness: an economy of well-being’. Brookings Institution Press. Washington.
  • Greenberg, G. & Tobach. (1987), ‘Cognition, language and consciousness: integrative levels’, Vol. 2. Hillsdale New Jersey.
  • Greenfield, S. (2000). The private life of the brain: emotions, consciousness and the secret of the self. Wiley. New York
  • Greenfield, (2003). Tomorrow’s People How 21st Century Technology is changing the way we think and feel. Penguin
  • Greenfield, S. (2008). ID: The quest for meaning in the 21st century. Sceptre, Hodder and Stoughton, London.
  • Gunaratne, S.A. (2009). ‘Globalization: a Non Western perspective: the bias of social science/communication oligopoly’. Communication, Culture and Critique (2) 60-82.
  • Habermas, J. Derrida, J and Borradori, G. (2003). ‘Philosophy in a time of terror Dialogues with Jurgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida’. University of Chicago Press.
  • Habermas, J., (1984). ‘The theory of communicative action’. Beacon: Boston.
  • Hall, B and Tandon, R (2014). ‘No more enclosures: knowledge democracy and social transformation’ Open Democracy https://www.opendemocracy.net/author/rajesh-tandon, Open Democracy 20 August 2014
  • Hardin, G. (1968). ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’, Science, 162:1243-1248.
  • Harris, L.D. and Wasilewski, J. 2004, ‘Indigenous Wisdom of the People’s Forum’, Systems Research and Behavioural Science, Vol. 21:505-514.
  • Harrison, K. (2002). ‘Policy perspectives: Social Capital’. In Parnell, S. Swilling, M and Wooldridge, D. Democratising local government. The South African experiment. University of Cape Town Press. Landsdowne.
  • Hayden, P. (2010). ‘The environment, global justice and world environmental citizenship’. In Brown, G.W. and Held, D. Cosmopolitanism, Polity Cambridge
  • Held, D. et al. (2005). ‘Debating Globalization’. Polity Cambridge.
  • Held, D.(2004). ‘Global covenant: The social democratic alternative to the Washington Consensus’. Polity.
  • Heller, P. (2001). ‘Moving the state: the politics of democratic decentralisation in Kerela, South Africa, and Porto Alegra’. Politics and Society, Vol. 29 No 1 131-163
  • Heycox, J., Meadows, P. and Vernon, B. (1997). ‘Measuring environmental expenditures and revenues in Local Government’, Environment and Energy Statistics Section Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Centre for Regional & Local Government Studies Working Paper No 2. University of Canberra
  • Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (Eds) (2004). ‘Participation: From tyranny to transformation?' Zed Books. New York.
  • Hil, R.(2013). ‘Beyond the cyber cell’ In Advocate, Vol. 20, No 3. Pp28-29
  • Hill Collins, P. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the politics of Empowerment. Routledge. New York.
  • Hulme, M. (2010). ‘Cosmopolitan Climates. Hybridity, Foresight and meaning’. Theory, Culture and Society. Vol. 27 (2-3): 267-276.
  • Hulme, M. (2011). ‘Climate Change and four narratives of growth’. AHTC Workshop. University of Cambridge. http://climatehistories.innerasiaresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Mike-Hulme.pdf. Accessed 8 Feb 2011.
  • Human Sciences Research Council, (2013). ‘South African national health and nutrition examination survey’ ( SANHANES-1) Published by HSRC Press, Private Bag X9182, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa,www.hsrcpress.ac.za,First published: Launch edition 2013,Second edition published 2014
  • International Commission on the Future of Food and Agriculture (2007). ‘Manifesto on the future of seeds’ www.future-food.org
  • International Institute for Environment and Development (2005).Participatory Learning and Action. Retrieved December 4, 2007 from www.iied.org/NR/agbioliv/pla_notes/about.html#b
  • Irvin, R.Stansbury, J.(2002). Citizen participation in decision making. Public Administrative Review.64:1:55-65.
  • Jasonoff, S. (2003). ‘Technologies of humility: citizen participation’ in governing science. Minerva. 41:223-44.
  • Jessop, S. (2009). ‘Children’s participation: an Arendtian criticism’. Educational Philosophy and Theory. Vol. 43. No 9 Article first published online: 8 NOV 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2009.00560.x.
  • Keane, J. (2009). The life and death of democracy. Simon and Schuster. London.
  • Kirby, M. (2013). What would Ghandi do? Penguin: New York
  • Knowles, M. (1978). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species 2nd ed. Houston. Gulf Publishing Company.
  • Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). ‘Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation’. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
  • Levin, S. (2006). ‘Learning to live in a global commons: socioeconomic challenges for a sustainable environment’. Ecological Research 21:328-333.
  • Lovelock, J. (2009). The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Allen Lane.
  • Maloney, W. Jordan, G. and McLaughlin, A. (1994). 'Interest Groups and Public Policy' J of Public Policy, 14: 17-38
  • Mangcu, X (2014). ‘The arrogance of power: South Africa’s leadership meltdown’. Tafelburg. Cape Town
  • Marr, B. 2005.Perspectives on Intellectual Capital. Multidisciplinary insights into management, measurement and reporting. Elsevier,
  • Max-Neef, M. 1991.Human Scale Development. Apex. London.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J. (2006b). ‘Systemic Governance and Accountability: working and re-working the conceptual and spatial boundaries of international relations and governance’. Volume 3 of the ‘C. West Churchman and Related Works Series’, Springer, London.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J (2010). ‘Wellbeing, mindfulness and the global commons’. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 17, (7–8) 44–72.
  • McIntyre-Mills, J (2014). ‘Systemic ethics and non-anthropocentric stewardship: Implications for transdisciplinarity and cosmopolitan politics Springer, New York .
  • McIntyre-Mills, J with Devries, D and Binchai, N. (2014). ‘Wall Street to Wellbeing: Joining up the dots through participatory democracy and governance to mitigate the causes and adapt to the effects of climate change:’ Springer, New York.
  • McKay, V. and Romm, N. (1992). People’s Education in Theoretical Perspective. Mascew Miller. Cape Town.
  • McLoughlin, C. & Lee, M.J.W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. In Proceedings ascilite, Singapore pp 664-675. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/mcloughlin.pdf
  • Midgley, G. (2000). Systemic Intervention: Philosophy, Methodology, and Practice. Kluwer. New York.
  • Mishra & Jain (2002) . Designing an Online Learning Environment for Participatory Management of Displacement, Resettlement and Rehabilitation. Retrieved from www.col.org/pcf2/papers/mishra.pdf
  • Murray, J. Dey, C. and Lenzen, M. (2007). ‘Systems for Social Sustainability: Global Connectedness and the Tuvalu Test’. Cybernetics and Human Knowing. 14 (1): 87-105.
  • Nazarea, V. (2006). ‘Local knowledge and memory in biodiversity conservation’, Annual Review of Anthropology. 36.pp 317-335.
  • Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Nussbaum, M. & Glover, J. (1995). Women, Culture and Development: A study of Human Capabilities. Oxford. Clarendon Press
  • Nussbaum, M., (2006). ‘Frontiers of justice’, London. Harvard University
  • Oliver, R. (1999) Exploring strategies for online teaching and learning, Distance Education, 20 (2): 240-254.
  • Paavola, S. &Hakkarainen, K. (2005).’The knowledge creation metaphor – An emergent epistemological approach to learning’. Science and Education, 14(6), 535-557.
  • Parker, J. (2012). ‘Transdisciplinary systems approach to paradigm change in sustainable economy’ In The Systemist, 34 (3)  Winter 2012, 138-149
  • Pretty, J. (2013). ‘The consumption of a Finite Planet: Well-being, Convergence, Divergence and the Nascent Green Economy’. Environmental and Resource Economics. DOI 10.1007/s10640-013-9680-9
  • Quan-Baffour, K P (2012). ‘The Liberative Power of Education: Adult Basic Education as Empowerment Tool for Rural Women’ In Studies of Tribes and Tribals 10(2) 91-97.
  • Republic of South Africa. Department of Higher Education and Training. (2014). White paper on Post-Schooling Education and Training. Pretoria
  • Republic of South Africa. Department of Education. ( 2000). Policy 52 of 2000 on Adult Basic Education and Training. Pretoria
  • Republic of South Africa. (1998). Skills Development Act 97 of 1998. Pretoria
  • Ritchey, T. (2011). Wicked Problems – Social Messes Risk, Governance and Society, 17, 2011, 1-6
  • Rittel, H. and Webber, M. (1984). Planning problems are wicked problems Developments in Design Methodology. New York: Wiley.
  • Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K. (2009). ‘A safe operating space for humanity’ Nature 461: 472-475
  • Rogers, J. (2007). Adults Learning 4th ed., United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  • Romm, N. (2001). ‘Accountability in Social Research: issues and debates’. Kluwer. London.
  • Romm, N. (2002). ‘A trusting constructivist view of Systems Thinking in a Knowledge Age’. In Systems Theory and Practice in a Knowledge Age. In Ragsdell et al .New York. Plenum.
  • Romm, N. (2010). The New Racism. Springer. London.
  • Rose, D.B.(2004). Reports form a wild country. University of New South Wales Press. Sydney.
  • Rose, D.B. (2005). ‘Dislocating the Frontier’ http://epress.anu.edu.au/dtf/html/frames.php see http://epress.anu.edu.au
  • Schumacher, F.F. (1973). Small is beautiful. Economics as if people mattered. Harper and Row. New York.
  • Senge, P et al (1994). ‘The fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies and tools for building a learning organisation’
  • Senge, P. ,Kleiner, A. Roberts, C , Ross, R., Roth, G. and Smith, B (1999). ‘The dance of change: the challenges of maintaining momentum in learning organisations’, New York Double Day.
  • Shiva, V (2002). ‘Water wars: privatization, pollution and profit’, London, Pluto Press.
  • Shiva, V. (2011). ‘Earth Democracy’, Portland University, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOfM7QD7-kk/
  • Singer, P., (2002). ‘One World: The Ethics of Globalisation’, Text Publishers, Melbourne.
  • Stern, N, (2007). ‘The Economics of Climate Change’. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press
  • Stiglitz, J. Sen, A. And Fitoussi, J.P. (2010). ‘Mis-measuring our lives: why the GDP doesn’t add up’. The New Press. New York,
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2012). The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future. WW Norton.
  • Tutu, D (2013). www,thinkexist.com/quotes/bishop_desmond_tutu/ 5 June 2014
  • Treaty of Maastricht (1992). Article 5 on Subsidiarity.
  • Ulrich, W. (1983). Critical heuristics of social planning: a new approach to practical philosophy. Wiley. New York.
  • UNESCO, (2007). ‘Biosphere Reserves: Dialogue in biosphere reserves’. References, Practices and Experiences. ISSN 2071-1468. Paris. UNESCO
  • United Nations Climate Change Summit, Cancun (2010). United Nations Climate Change Summit https://unfccc.int/meetings/cancun_nov_2010/meeting/6266.php
  • United Nations Climate Change Summit, Durban (2011). United Nations Climate Change Summit https://unfccc.int/meetings/durban_nov_2011/meeting/6245.php
  • United Nations Economic and Social Development Local Agenda 21 (1992).
  • United Nations Human Development Index (2003). A compact among nations to end poverty. UNDP. New York. Oxford University Press.
  • United Nations. (2011). ‘The Millennium Goals Report’ http://www.aidsdatahub.org/en/whats-new/287-all-data-alerts/728-the-millennium-development-goals-report-2011-united-nations-2011 Accessed July 19th, 2011.
  • United Nations.(1993). ‘Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: Handbook of National Accounting: Studies in Methods’, Series F. No 61, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, United Nations, New York.
  • Urry, J. (2010). ‘Consuming the planet to excess’. Theory, Culture and Society.. 27 191-212
  • Veletsianos, G. and Kimmons, R. (2011). ‘Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent techno-cultural pressures toward open and digital scholarship in online networks’ In Computers & Education Elservier 58. 766-774.
  • Vickers, G., (1983). ‘Human Systems are Different’, Harper and Row, London.
  • Villalba, C. and Romiszowski, A.J. (2001). ‘Current and ideal practice in designing, developing and delivering web-based training’, In Khan, B.H. (ed) Web-based Training, Englewood Cliff, NJ: ETP, p. 325-342
  • Wadsworth, Y. (2010). ‘Building in Research and Evaluation.Human Inquiry for living systems’. Allen and Unwin. Sydney
  • Wenger, E, White, N. and Smith, J. (2009). ‘Digital Habitats: stewarding technology for communities’. CP Square, Portland.
  • Wenger, E., (1998). ‘Communities of Practice’.Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2009). ‘The Spirit Level’. London. Allen Lane
  • Young, I.M. (2000). ‘Inclusion and democracy’. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Janet MCINTYRE-MİLLS This is me (Primary Author)
University of Indonesia
Indonesia


Gladys Mokwena KEDİBONE This is me
University of South Africa
South Africa


Akwasi ARKO-ACHEMFUOR This is me
University of South Africa
South Africa


Pinkie MABUNDA This is me
University of South Africa
South Africa


Esther NJİRO This is me
University of South Africa
South Africa

Publication Date December 1, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2

Cite

APA Mcıntyre-mills, J. , Kedibone, G. M. , Arko-achemfuor, A. , Mabunda, P. & Njiro, E. (2014). Participatory Approach to Education: an Action Learning Approach at the University of South Africa . Participatory Educational Research , 1 (2) , 106-132 . DOI: 10.17275/per.14.14.1.2