Research Article
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The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems

Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6, 1274 - 1287, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548

Abstract

In this study, the properties of dry clotted creams produced in different drying systems (vacuum and tray drying systems) and traditional methods have been determined. Physico-chemical, color, textural, microbiological, and sensory analysis as well as fatty acid composition analysis and appearance analysis of dry clotted creams were carried out during storage. During the storage, it was observed that pH and titration acidity values of samples increased. The hardness levels of the clotted cream produced with the tray dryer were found to be higher than the vacuum and traditional methods. The highest ratio of saturated fatty acids was observed in the samples produced with a vacuum dryer. As a result, it was faund that a product similar to traditional dry cream could be produced in industrial tray drying systems. When vacuum drying was applied, more successful results were obtained against oxidation than other drying techniques. However, it was determined that some of its features were also lost. It was also determined that in this system, the dry cream production time may be shortened by at least 50 % compared to the traditional production.

References

  • [1] İ. Doymaz, C. Aktaş “Patlıcan Dilimlerinin Kurutma ve Rehidrasyon Karakteristiklerinin Belirlenmesi” Journal of The Faculty Engineering and Architecture of Gazi Unıversıty, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 833–841, 2018. https://doi:10.17341/gazimmfd.416386
  • [2] T. Kovacı, E. Dikmen, Ş. A. Şencan “Kurutma Sistemleri , Enerji Tüketimleri ve Ürün Kalitesine Etkileri ve Örnek Sistem Tasarımı” Teknik Bilimler Dergisi, vol.8, no.2, pp.25–39, 2018.
  • [3] A. D. Yazıcı, M. Daş “Güneş Enerjisi Destekli Kurutma Sistemi İle Elma Ürününün Kurutulması ve Kurutma Değerlerinin Yapay Sinir Ağı İle Modellenmesi” Intenational Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp 8–13, 2018. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijmsit/issue/37871/425731
  • [4] E. Ozen, F. Kar “Farklı Teknikler Kullanılarak Domatesin Kurutulması” Fırat Üniv.Müh.Bil.Dergisi, vol. 30, no.1, pp. 47–57, 2018.
  • [5] M. Ayaz, E. Dikmen, A. Ş. Şahin “Isı Pompalı Vakumlu Kurutma Fırınında Tibbi Bi̇tki̇leri̇n Kurutulması ve Kurutma Parametreleri̇ni̇n Araştırılması” SDU Teknik Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 6, no.1, pp. 1–11, 2016. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/196161
  • [6] A. Emirmustafaoğlu, H. Coşkun “Kızartmalık Keş Üretim Teknolojisinin Optimizasyonu” YYÜ Tar.Bil. Derg., vol. 27, no.3, pp. 357–369, 2017.
  • [7] G. Ergene, S. Aslan “Chemical and sensory characteristics of dried Çökelek cheeses at different temperatures” J. of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1-8, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13985
  • [8] G. Kizilalp, İ. Polat, M. Urgu, N. Koca “Evaluation of Izmir Tulum cheese pieces by drying with tray drier at different air flow rates and temperatures”. En IDS 2018. 21st International Drying Symposium Proceedings. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. 1679-1685, 2018. https://doi.org/10.4995/IDS2018.2018.7672
  • [9] E. A. Anli “Possibilities for using microwave-vacuum drying in Lor cheese production“ International Dairy Journal, vol. 102, 104618, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104618
  • [10] S. Chudy, A. Makowska, M. Piatec, M. Krzywdzińska-Bartkowiak “Application of microwave vacuum drying for snack production: Characteristics of pure cheese puffs” International J of Dairy Technology, vol. 72, no.1, pp.82-88, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12562
  • [11] I. S. Hwang, K. B. Lee, Y. K. Shin, M. Y. Baik, B. Y. Kim, “Effect of drying and storage on the rheological characteristics of Mozzarella cheese” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2041–204, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0271-0
  • [12] F. Tosun “Ekzopolisakkarit Üreten Laktik Kültürlerin Tereyağı, Yayık Tereyağı ve Kaymağın Kalite Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi” Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, pp. 194, Kayseri, 2016.
  • [13] S. Cakmakci, A. Hayaloğlu, "Evaluation of the Chemical , Microbiological and Volatile Aroma Characteristics of Ispir Kaymak , A Traditional Turkish Dairy Product" International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol.64, no.3, pp.444–450, 2011. https://doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2011.00687.x
  • [14] M. Atamer M "Tereyağı Teknolojisi" Sidaş Medya Ltd. Şti, pp. 169, Ankara, 2016.
  • [15] Ş. Pamuk "Geleneksel Afyon Kaymağı Üretimi" Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, vol.12, no.1, pp. 84–84, 2017. https://doi:10.17094/ataunivbd.309780
  • [16] Anonymous "Ankara İl Kontrol Laboratuvar Müdürlüğü, Ham protein tayini Döküman Kodu: Yem" MT.004/P13, 2003.
  • [17] AOAC "In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International" (Vol. 17). Washington DC:Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.
  • [18] A. Jha, A. Kumar, P. Jain, A. Kumar Gautam, P. Rasane, "Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging On The Shelf Life of Lal Peda" Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp.1068-1074, 2015. https://doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1064-1
  • [19] AOAC, "AOAC Official Method 996.06", revised 2001. In: (eds) Official methods of analysis (18th edn.). AOAC International,Gaithersburg, MD, 2005
  • [20] P. Karatepe, B. Patır "Eugenol ve Thymol’ün Pastörize Tereyağının Kimyasal , Mikrobiyolojik ve Duyusal Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi" F.Ü.Sağ.Bil.Vet.Derg., vol. 26, no.1, pp. 35–46, 2012.
  • [21] K. A. Halkman K A, Merck Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları. Basak Matbaacılık Ltd. Şti, pp. 1-10, Ankara, 2005.
  • [22] H. T. Lawless, H. Heymann "Sensory Evaluation of Food Principles and Practices", 2nd Edition, XXIII, ISBN 978-1-4419-6488-5, 2010.
  • [23] G. Dos Reis, B. Stroustrup, "A Principled, Complete, and Efficient Representation of C++". Math. Comput. Sci. vol.5, pp.335–356, 2011. https://doi:10.1007/s11786-011-0094-1
  • [24] Z. Albay, B. Şimşek "Tarçın ve Tarçın Uçucu Yağı ile Üretilen Kaymakların Bazı Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi" In Ö. D. Gürcü (Ed.), Young Scholars Union Congress Proceeding and Abstarcts Book, pp. 191–203 Prauge, 2019.
  • [25] K. Kocaturk, Ö. Gökçe, F. Ergin, A. Küçükçetin, O. Gürsoy, "Geleneksel Yöntemlerle Üretilen ve Manda Kaymağı Olarak Pazarlanan Ürünlerin Bazı Özellikleri ile Konjuge Linoleik Asit İçerikleri" Akademik Gıda, vol.17, No.4, pp.476–484, 2019. https://doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667260
  • [26] D. T. Kahyaoğlu, "İnek,Koyun ve Keçi Sütlerinden Üretilen Tereyağlarında Depolama Süresince Uçucu Bileşikler, Oksidasyon Stabilitesi ve Diğer Bazı Kalite Kriterlerinin Belirlenmesi", Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, pp.191, Erzurum, 2014
  • [27] Anonymous, "Türk Gıda Kodeksi Yönetmeliği, Krema ve Kaymak Tebliği", Resmi Gazete,27.09.2003, 2003.
  • [28] M. Atamer, E. Senel, A. A. Hayaloğlu, B. Özer, "Kuru Kaymağın Tekstürel Yapısı", Akademik Gıda, vol.14, no.2, pp.189–195, 2016. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1186249
  • [29] M. Atamer, E. Sezgin, "Tereyağlarında Lipolitik ve Oksidatif Bozulmaların Saptanmasında Yararlanılan Asit ve Peroksit Değerler ile Aroma Arasındaki İlişki" Gıda, vol. 6, pp.329-334, 1984.
  • [30] W. K. Downey, "Butter Quality", Published by An Foras Taluntais 19 Sadyamount Avenue Dublin4, Dairy Research and Review Series no. 7, pp.142, 1975.
  • [31] D. Pearson, "The assessment of rancidity of oils on a common cholorfm extract with special reference to TBA values" J. of the Ass. of Public Analyts, vol.12, pp.73-76, 1974.
  • [32] X. Zhou, H. E. J. Gao, M. Wang, S. Wang, "Comparative Analyses of Three Dehydration Methods on Drying Characteristics and Oil Quality of In-shell Walnuts" Drying Technology, vol.36, no.1, pp.477-490, 2018. https://doi: 10.1080/07373937.2017.1351452
  • [33] K. Yıldırım, Z. Albay, E. Capa, B. Simşek, "Determination of the Chemical, Microbiological and Textural Properties of Kuru Kaymak (Dry Clotted Cream)" In Ö. D. Gürcü (Ed.), Young Scholars Union Congress Proceeding and Abstarcts Book . pp. 292. Prauge, 2019.
  • [34] P. F. Silva, R. G. Moreira "Vacuum frying of high-quality fruit and vegetable-based snacks " LWT – Food Science and Technology vol.41, pp.1758-1767, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.016
  • [35] E. Senel, "Some Carbonyl Compounds and Free Fatty Acid Composition of Afyon Kaymagi (clotted cream) and Their Effects on Aroma and Flavor" Grasas y Aceites, vol.62, no.4, pp. 418–427, 2011. https://doi: 10.3989/gya.011611

Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6, 1274 - 1287, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548

Abstract

References

  • [1] İ. Doymaz, C. Aktaş “Patlıcan Dilimlerinin Kurutma ve Rehidrasyon Karakteristiklerinin Belirlenmesi” Journal of The Faculty Engineering and Architecture of Gazi Unıversıty, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 833–841, 2018. https://doi:10.17341/gazimmfd.416386
  • [2] T. Kovacı, E. Dikmen, Ş. A. Şencan “Kurutma Sistemleri , Enerji Tüketimleri ve Ürün Kalitesine Etkileri ve Örnek Sistem Tasarımı” Teknik Bilimler Dergisi, vol.8, no.2, pp.25–39, 2018.
  • [3] A. D. Yazıcı, M. Daş “Güneş Enerjisi Destekli Kurutma Sistemi İle Elma Ürününün Kurutulması ve Kurutma Değerlerinin Yapay Sinir Ağı İle Modellenmesi” Intenational Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp 8–13, 2018. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijmsit/issue/37871/425731
  • [4] E. Ozen, F. Kar “Farklı Teknikler Kullanılarak Domatesin Kurutulması” Fırat Üniv.Müh.Bil.Dergisi, vol. 30, no.1, pp. 47–57, 2018.
  • [5] M. Ayaz, E. Dikmen, A. Ş. Şahin “Isı Pompalı Vakumlu Kurutma Fırınında Tibbi Bi̇tki̇leri̇n Kurutulması ve Kurutma Parametreleri̇ni̇n Araştırılması” SDU Teknik Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 6, no.1, pp. 1–11, 2016. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/196161
  • [6] A. Emirmustafaoğlu, H. Coşkun “Kızartmalık Keş Üretim Teknolojisinin Optimizasyonu” YYÜ Tar.Bil. Derg., vol. 27, no.3, pp. 357–369, 2017.
  • [7] G. Ergene, S. Aslan “Chemical and sensory characteristics of dried Çökelek cheeses at different temperatures” J. of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1-8, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13985
  • [8] G. Kizilalp, İ. Polat, M. Urgu, N. Koca “Evaluation of Izmir Tulum cheese pieces by drying with tray drier at different air flow rates and temperatures”. En IDS 2018. 21st International Drying Symposium Proceedings. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. 1679-1685, 2018. https://doi.org/10.4995/IDS2018.2018.7672
  • [9] E. A. Anli “Possibilities for using microwave-vacuum drying in Lor cheese production“ International Dairy Journal, vol. 102, 104618, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104618
  • [10] S. Chudy, A. Makowska, M. Piatec, M. Krzywdzińska-Bartkowiak “Application of microwave vacuum drying for snack production: Characteristics of pure cheese puffs” International J of Dairy Technology, vol. 72, no.1, pp.82-88, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12562
  • [11] I. S. Hwang, K. B. Lee, Y. K. Shin, M. Y. Baik, B. Y. Kim, “Effect of drying and storage on the rheological characteristics of Mozzarella cheese” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2041–204, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0271-0
  • [12] F. Tosun “Ekzopolisakkarit Üreten Laktik Kültürlerin Tereyağı, Yayık Tereyağı ve Kaymağın Kalite Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi” Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, pp. 194, Kayseri, 2016.
  • [13] S. Cakmakci, A. Hayaloğlu, "Evaluation of the Chemical , Microbiological and Volatile Aroma Characteristics of Ispir Kaymak , A Traditional Turkish Dairy Product" International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol.64, no.3, pp.444–450, 2011. https://doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2011.00687.x
  • [14] M. Atamer M "Tereyağı Teknolojisi" Sidaş Medya Ltd. Şti, pp. 169, Ankara, 2016.
  • [15] Ş. Pamuk "Geleneksel Afyon Kaymağı Üretimi" Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, vol.12, no.1, pp. 84–84, 2017. https://doi:10.17094/ataunivbd.309780
  • [16] Anonymous "Ankara İl Kontrol Laboratuvar Müdürlüğü, Ham protein tayini Döküman Kodu: Yem" MT.004/P13, 2003.
  • [17] AOAC "In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International" (Vol. 17). Washington DC:Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.
  • [18] A. Jha, A. Kumar, P. Jain, A. Kumar Gautam, P. Rasane, "Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging On The Shelf Life of Lal Peda" Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp.1068-1074, 2015. https://doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1064-1
  • [19] AOAC, "AOAC Official Method 996.06", revised 2001. In: (eds) Official methods of analysis (18th edn.). AOAC International,Gaithersburg, MD, 2005
  • [20] P. Karatepe, B. Patır "Eugenol ve Thymol’ün Pastörize Tereyağının Kimyasal , Mikrobiyolojik ve Duyusal Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi" F.Ü.Sağ.Bil.Vet.Derg., vol. 26, no.1, pp. 35–46, 2012.
  • [21] K. A. Halkman K A, Merck Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları. Basak Matbaacılık Ltd. Şti, pp. 1-10, Ankara, 2005.
  • [22] H. T. Lawless, H. Heymann "Sensory Evaluation of Food Principles and Practices", 2nd Edition, XXIII, ISBN 978-1-4419-6488-5, 2010.
  • [23] G. Dos Reis, B. Stroustrup, "A Principled, Complete, and Efficient Representation of C++". Math. Comput. Sci. vol.5, pp.335–356, 2011. https://doi:10.1007/s11786-011-0094-1
  • [24] Z. Albay, B. Şimşek "Tarçın ve Tarçın Uçucu Yağı ile Üretilen Kaymakların Bazı Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi" In Ö. D. Gürcü (Ed.), Young Scholars Union Congress Proceeding and Abstarcts Book, pp. 191–203 Prauge, 2019.
  • [25] K. Kocaturk, Ö. Gökçe, F. Ergin, A. Küçükçetin, O. Gürsoy, "Geleneksel Yöntemlerle Üretilen ve Manda Kaymağı Olarak Pazarlanan Ürünlerin Bazı Özellikleri ile Konjuge Linoleik Asit İçerikleri" Akademik Gıda, vol.17, No.4, pp.476–484, 2019. https://doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667260
  • [26] D. T. Kahyaoğlu, "İnek,Koyun ve Keçi Sütlerinden Üretilen Tereyağlarında Depolama Süresince Uçucu Bileşikler, Oksidasyon Stabilitesi ve Diğer Bazı Kalite Kriterlerinin Belirlenmesi", Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, pp.191, Erzurum, 2014
  • [27] Anonymous, "Türk Gıda Kodeksi Yönetmeliği, Krema ve Kaymak Tebliği", Resmi Gazete,27.09.2003, 2003.
  • [28] M. Atamer, E. Senel, A. A. Hayaloğlu, B. Özer, "Kuru Kaymağın Tekstürel Yapısı", Akademik Gıda, vol.14, no.2, pp.189–195, 2016. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1186249
  • [29] M. Atamer, E. Sezgin, "Tereyağlarında Lipolitik ve Oksidatif Bozulmaların Saptanmasında Yararlanılan Asit ve Peroksit Değerler ile Aroma Arasındaki İlişki" Gıda, vol. 6, pp.329-334, 1984.
  • [30] W. K. Downey, "Butter Quality", Published by An Foras Taluntais 19 Sadyamount Avenue Dublin4, Dairy Research and Review Series no. 7, pp.142, 1975.
  • [31] D. Pearson, "The assessment of rancidity of oils on a common cholorfm extract with special reference to TBA values" J. of the Ass. of Public Analyts, vol.12, pp.73-76, 1974.
  • [32] X. Zhou, H. E. J. Gao, M. Wang, S. Wang, "Comparative Analyses of Three Dehydration Methods on Drying Characteristics and Oil Quality of In-shell Walnuts" Drying Technology, vol.36, no.1, pp.477-490, 2018. https://doi: 10.1080/07373937.2017.1351452
  • [33] K. Yıldırım, Z. Albay, E. Capa, B. Simşek, "Determination of the Chemical, Microbiological and Textural Properties of Kuru Kaymak (Dry Clotted Cream)" In Ö. D. Gürcü (Ed.), Young Scholars Union Congress Proceeding and Abstarcts Book . pp. 292. Prauge, 2019.
  • [34] P. F. Silva, R. G. Moreira "Vacuum frying of high-quality fruit and vegetable-based snacks " LWT – Food Science and Technology vol.41, pp.1758-1767, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.016
  • [35] E. Senel, "Some Carbonyl Compounds and Free Fatty Acid Composition of Afyon Kaymagi (clotted cream) and Their Effects on Aroma and Flavor" Grasas y Aceites, vol.62, no.4, pp. 418–427, 2011. https://doi: 10.3989/gya.011611

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Esma ÇAPA This is me
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-9608-9710
Türkiye


Bedia ŞİMŞEK> (Primary Author)
Süleyman Demirel Universitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi
0000-0002-7497-1542
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Süleyman Demirel University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit
Project Number FYL-2019-6928
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Submission Date June 7, 2022
Acceptance Date October 26, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6

Cite

Bibtex @research article { saufenbilder1127548, journal = {Sakarya University Journal of Science}, eissn = {2147-835X}, address = {}, publisher = {Sakarya University}, year = {2022}, volume = {26}, number = {6}, pages = {1274 - 1287}, doi = {10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548}, title = {The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems}, key = {cite}, author = {Çapa, Esma and Şimşek, Bedia} }
APA Çapa, E. & Şimşek, B. (2022). The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems . Sakarya University Journal of Science , 26 (6) , 1274-1287 . DOI: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548
MLA Çapa, E. , Şimşek, B. "The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems" . Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 (2022 ): 1274-1287 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/saufenbilder/issue/74051/1127548>
Chicago Çapa, E. , Şimşek, B. "The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems". Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 (2022 ): 1274-1287
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems AU - EsmaÇapa, BediaŞimşek Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548 DO - 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548 T2 - Sakarya University Journal of Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1274 EP - 1287 VL - 26 IS - 6 SN - -2147-835X M3 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548 UR - https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Sakarya University Journal of Science The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems %A Esma Çapa , Bedia Şimşek %T The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems %D 2022 %J Sakarya University Journal of Science %P -2147-835X %V 26 %N 6 %R doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548 %U 10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548
ISNAD Çapa, Esma , Şimşek, Bedia . "The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems". Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 / 6 (December 2022): 1274-1287 . https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548
AMA Çapa E. , Şimşek B. The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems. SAUJS. 2022; 26(6): 1274-1287.
Vancouver Çapa E. , Şimşek B. The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems. Sakarya University Journal of Science. 2022; 26(6): 1274-1287.
IEEE E. Çapa and B. Şimşek , "The Fatty Acid Compositions and Textural Properties of Dry Clotted Creams Produced in Different Drying Systems", Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1274-1287, Dec. 2022, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1127548

Sakarya University Journal of Science (SAUJS)