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Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending

Year 2024, Volume: 28 Issue: 3, 646 - 653, 30.06.2024
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976

Abstract

Sheet metal bending is one of the most commonly applied methods among sheet metal forming operations. In this study, the springback behavior of aluminum alloys of different thicknesses was examined by performing v-bending processes at different die angles and widths. The experiments were carried out on 1 and 1.5 mm thick plates at die angles of 140°, 150° and 160° and three different die widths: 10 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm. In this experimental study, it was observed that springback decreased as the die width increased. As the die angle increased, springback values also increased. It has been observed that sheet thickness has little effect on springback. As the sheet thickness increased, the amount of springback decreased. The lowest springback value of 0.1° was obtained in the 1.5 mm thick specimen with a die width of 10 mm and a die angle of 140°. The highest spring-go value of -2.7° was obtained in the 1 mm thick specimen with a die width of 20 mm and a die angle of 140°. As a result of the variance (ANOVA) analysis, it was seen that the die width had a more significant effect (78.42%) on springback than the die angle. The effect of die angle on springback is 10.73%. As a result of the experiments and statistical analysis, it was seen that the parameter that most affects springback is die width.

References

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  • [2] G. Wang, G. Zhu, T. Li, L. Kou, “Effect of heat treatment conditions on mechanical properties and springback of 6061 Aluminum alloy sheets,” IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng, vol. 788, no. 1, pp.1-9, 2020.
  • [3] C. Chen, C. Chen, “Experimental Study on Punch Radius and Grain Size Effects in V-Bending Process Experimental Study on Punch Radius and Grain Size Effects in V-Bending Process,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 461-465,2014.
  • [4] H. Seok, M. Koc, “Numerical investigations on springback characteristics of aluminum sheet metal alloys in warm forming conditions,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 204, no. 1-3, pp. 370–383, 2008.
  • [5] Y. Chen, X. Li, L. Lang, “Various elastic moduli of AA6016 and their application on accurate prediction of springback,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 319–326, 2019.
  • [6] K. Yilamu, R. Hino, H. Hamasaki, F. Yoshida, “Air bending and springback of stainless steel clad aluminum sheet,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 210, no. 2 pp. 272–278, 2010.
  • [7] Y. Zong, P. Liu, B. Guo, D. Shan, “Springback evaluation in hot v-bending of Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.76, pp. 577-585, 2015.
  • [8] X. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Wang, J. Bao, S. Li, “Effect of the material-hardening mode on the springback simulation accuracy of V-free bending,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 123, no. 2 pp. 209-211, 2002.
  • [9] Y. Umur, H. Aydin, K. Yigit, A. Bayram, “Springback/springforward behaviour of DP steels used in the automotive industry,” Tehnicki Vjesnik, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 243-250, 2020.
  • [10] D. Fei, P. Hodgson, “Experimental numerical studies of springback in air v-bending process for cold rolled TRIP steels,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 236, no. 18, pp. 1847-1851, 2006.
  • [11] D. Sargeant, Z. Sarkar, R. Sharma, M. Knezevic, D. T. Fullwood, M. P. Miles, “Effect of pre-strain on springback behavior after bending in AA 6016-T4: Experiments and crystal plasticity modeling,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 283, no. 9, p. 112485, 2023.
  • [12] A. R. Park, J. H. Nam, M. Kim, I. S. Jang, Y. K. Lee, “Evaluations of tensile properties as a function of austenitizing temperature and springback by V-bending testing in medium-Mn steels,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 787, no. 4, p. 139534, 2020.
  • [13] L. Wang, G. Huang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Yin, “Evolution of springback and neutral layer of AZ31B magnesium alloy V-bending under warm forming conditions,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 213, no. 6, pp. 844-850, 2013.
  • [14] N. Asnafi, “Springback and fracture in v-die air bending of thick stainless steel sheets,” Materials and Design, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 217-236, 2000.
  • [15] H. Xie, Q. Wang, K. Liu, F. Peng, X. Dong, J. Wang, “Investigation of influence of direct-current pulses on springback during V-bending of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 219, pp. 321-327, 2015.
  • [16] D. Lepadatu, R. Hambli, A. Kobi, A. Barreau, “Optimisation of springback in bending processes using FEM simulation and response surface method,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 40-47, 2005.
  • [17] G. Béres, Z. Lukács, M. Tisza, “ Springback evaluation of tailor welded blanks at V-die bending made of DP steels,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 47, pp. 1366-1373, 2020.
  • [18] Q. Meng, R. Zhai, Y. Zhang, P. Fu, J. Zhao, “Analysis of springback for multiple bending considering nonlinear unloading-reloading behavior, stress inheritance and Bauschinger effect,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 307, no. 6, p. 117657, 2022.
  • [19] P. Kumar Sharma, V. Gautam, A. Kumar Agrawal, “Investigations on effect of bending radius on springback behaviour of three-ply clad sheet,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 62, no. 3 pp. 1651-1657, 2022.
  • [20] A. Polat, M. Avsar, F. Ozturk, “Effects of the artificial-aging temperature and time on the mechanical properties and springback behavior of AA6061,” Materiali in Tehnologije, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 487-493, 2015.
  • [21] W. ping Ma, B. yu Wang, W. chao Xiao, X. ming Yang, Y. Kang, “Springback analysis of 6016 aluminum alloy sheet in hot V-shape stamping,” Journal of Central South University, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 524-535, 2019.
  • [22] W. Guan, L. Ting, K. Linyuan, Z. Guangxu, Z. Xuejun, S. Xin, L. Zhiwen, “Influence of artificial aging time on bending characteristics of 6061 aluminum sheet,” Materwiss Werksttech, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1533-1542, 2020.
  • [23] Y. Choi, J. Lee, S. S. Panicker, H. K. Jin, S. K. Panda, M. G. Lee, “Mechanical properties, springback, and formability of W-temper and peak aged 7075 aluminum alloy sheets: Experiments and modeling,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 170, no. 9, p. 105344, 2020.
  • [24] S. Thipprakmas, W. Phanitwong, “Process parameter design of spring-back and spring-go in V-bending process using Taguchi technique,” Materials and Design, vol. 32, pp. 4430-4436, 2011.
  • [25] M.L. Garcia-Romeu, J. Ciurana, I. Ferrer, “Springback determination of sheet metals in an air bending process based on an experimental work,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 191, pp. 174-177, 2007.
  • [26] Z. Tekiner, “An experimental study on the examination of springback of sheet metals with several thicknesses and properties in bending dies, ” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 145, pp. 109–117, 2004.
  • [27] L. Heng, S. Kai-peng, Y. He, T. Yu-li, “Springback law of thin-walled 6061-T4 Al-alloy tube upon bending,” Transactions of Nonferrous Meal Society of China, vol. 22, pp. 357−363, 2012.
  • [28] A. B. Abdullah, Z. Samad, “An experimental investigation of springback of AA6061 aluminum alloy strip via V- bending process,” 2013 IOP IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering Volume 50, Malaysia, 2013, pp. 513-518.
Year 2024, Volume: 28 Issue: 3, 646 - 653, 30.06.2024
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976

Abstract

References

  • [1] H. Li, K. P. Shi, H. Yang, Y. L. Tian, “Springback law of thin-walled 6061-T4 Al-alloy tube upon bending,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 357–363, 2012.
  • [2] G. Wang, G. Zhu, T. Li, L. Kou, “Effect of heat treatment conditions on mechanical properties and springback of 6061 Aluminum alloy sheets,” IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng, vol. 788, no. 1, pp.1-9, 2020.
  • [3] C. Chen, C. Chen, “Experimental Study on Punch Radius and Grain Size Effects in V-Bending Process Experimental Study on Punch Radius and Grain Size Effects in V-Bending Process,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 461-465,2014.
  • [4] H. Seok, M. Koc, “Numerical investigations on springback characteristics of aluminum sheet metal alloys in warm forming conditions,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 204, no. 1-3, pp. 370–383, 2008.
  • [5] Y. Chen, X. Li, L. Lang, “Various elastic moduli of AA6016 and their application on accurate prediction of springback,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 319–326, 2019.
  • [6] K. Yilamu, R. Hino, H. Hamasaki, F. Yoshida, “Air bending and springback of stainless steel clad aluminum sheet,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 210, no. 2 pp. 272–278, 2010.
  • [7] Y. Zong, P. Liu, B. Guo, D. Shan, “Springback evaluation in hot v-bending of Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.76, pp. 577-585, 2015.
  • [8] X. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Wang, J. Bao, S. Li, “Effect of the material-hardening mode on the springback simulation accuracy of V-free bending,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 123, no. 2 pp. 209-211, 2002.
  • [9] Y. Umur, H. Aydin, K. Yigit, A. Bayram, “Springback/springforward behaviour of DP steels used in the automotive industry,” Tehnicki Vjesnik, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 243-250, 2020.
  • [10] D. Fei, P. Hodgson, “Experimental numerical studies of springback in air v-bending process for cold rolled TRIP steels,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 236, no. 18, pp. 1847-1851, 2006.
  • [11] D. Sargeant, Z. Sarkar, R. Sharma, M. Knezevic, D. T. Fullwood, M. P. Miles, “Effect of pre-strain on springback behavior after bending in AA 6016-T4: Experiments and crystal plasticity modeling,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 283, no. 9, p. 112485, 2023.
  • [12] A. R. Park, J. H. Nam, M. Kim, I. S. Jang, Y. K. Lee, “Evaluations of tensile properties as a function of austenitizing temperature and springback by V-bending testing in medium-Mn steels,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 787, no. 4, p. 139534, 2020.
  • [13] L. Wang, G. Huang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Yin, “Evolution of springback and neutral layer of AZ31B magnesium alloy V-bending under warm forming conditions,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 213, no. 6, pp. 844-850, 2013.
  • [14] N. Asnafi, “Springback and fracture in v-die air bending of thick stainless steel sheets,” Materials and Design, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 217-236, 2000.
  • [15] H. Xie, Q. Wang, K. Liu, F. Peng, X. Dong, J. Wang, “Investigation of influence of direct-current pulses on springback during V-bending of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 219, pp. 321-327, 2015.
  • [16] D. Lepadatu, R. Hambli, A. Kobi, A. Barreau, “Optimisation of springback in bending processes using FEM simulation and response surface method,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 40-47, 2005.
  • [17] G. Béres, Z. Lukács, M. Tisza, “ Springback evaluation of tailor welded blanks at V-die bending made of DP steels,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 47, pp. 1366-1373, 2020.
  • [18] Q. Meng, R. Zhai, Y. Zhang, P. Fu, J. Zhao, “Analysis of springback for multiple bending considering nonlinear unloading-reloading behavior, stress inheritance and Bauschinger effect,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 307, no. 6, p. 117657, 2022.
  • [19] P. Kumar Sharma, V. Gautam, A. Kumar Agrawal, “Investigations on effect of bending radius on springback behaviour of three-ply clad sheet,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 62, no. 3 pp. 1651-1657, 2022.
  • [20] A. Polat, M. Avsar, F. Ozturk, “Effects of the artificial-aging temperature and time on the mechanical properties and springback behavior of AA6061,” Materiali in Tehnologije, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 487-493, 2015.
  • [21] W. ping Ma, B. yu Wang, W. chao Xiao, X. ming Yang, Y. Kang, “Springback analysis of 6016 aluminum alloy sheet in hot V-shape stamping,” Journal of Central South University, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 524-535, 2019.
  • [22] W. Guan, L. Ting, K. Linyuan, Z. Guangxu, Z. Xuejun, S. Xin, L. Zhiwen, “Influence of artificial aging time on bending characteristics of 6061 aluminum sheet,” Materwiss Werksttech, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1533-1542, 2020.
  • [23] Y. Choi, J. Lee, S. S. Panicker, H. K. Jin, S. K. Panda, M. G. Lee, “Mechanical properties, springback, and formability of W-temper and peak aged 7075 aluminum alloy sheets: Experiments and modeling,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 170, no. 9, p. 105344, 2020.
  • [24] S. Thipprakmas, W. Phanitwong, “Process parameter design of spring-back and spring-go in V-bending process using Taguchi technique,” Materials and Design, vol. 32, pp. 4430-4436, 2011.
  • [25] M.L. Garcia-Romeu, J. Ciurana, I. Ferrer, “Springback determination of sheet metals in an air bending process based on an experimental work,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 191, pp. 174-177, 2007.
  • [26] Z. Tekiner, “An experimental study on the examination of springback of sheet metals with several thicknesses and properties in bending dies, ” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 145, pp. 109–117, 2004.
  • [27] L. Heng, S. Kai-peng, Y. He, T. Yu-li, “Springback law of thin-walled 6061-T4 Al-alloy tube upon bending,” Transactions of Nonferrous Meal Society of China, vol. 22, pp. 357−363, 2012.
  • [28] A. B. Abdullah, Z. Samad, “An experimental investigation of springback of AA6061 aluminum alloy strip via V- bending process,” 2013 IOP IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering Volume 50, Malaysia, 2013, pp. 513-518.
There are 28 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Material Design and Behaviors
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ahmed Ozan Örnekci 0000-0001-5519-8673

Seçil Ekşi 0000-0002-1404-718X

Early Pub Date June 14, 2024
Publication Date June 30, 2024
Submission Date January 3, 2024
Acceptance Date February 28, 2024
Published in Issue Year 2024 Volume: 28 Issue: 3

Cite

APA Örnekci, A. O., & Ekşi, S. (2024). Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending. Sakarya University Journal of Science, 28(3), 646-653. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976
AMA Örnekci AO, Ekşi S. Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending. SAUJS. June 2024;28(3):646-653. doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976
Chicago Örnekci, Ahmed Ozan, and Seçil Ekşi. “Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 28, no. 3 (June 2024): 646-53. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976.
EndNote Örnekci AO, Ekşi S (June 1, 2024) Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending. Sakarya University Journal of Science 28 3 646–653.
IEEE A. O. Örnekci and S. Ekşi, “Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending”, SAUJS, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 646–653, 2024, doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976.
ISNAD Örnekci, Ahmed Ozan - Ekşi, Seçil. “Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 28/3 (June 2024), 646-653. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976.
JAMA Örnekci AO, Ekşi S. Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending. SAUJS. 2024;28:646–653.
MLA Örnekci, Ahmed Ozan and Seçil Ekşi. “Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending”. Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 28, no. 3, 2024, pp. 646-53, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1413976.
Vancouver Örnekci AO, Ekşi S. Experimental Study on Springback Properties of 6061 Aluminum in V-Bending. SAUJS. 2024;28(3):646-53.