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Assesment of Professıonal Ice Hockey Players’ Nutritional Status and Energy Balance During Competition Period

Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 3, 140 - 151, 12.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.769870

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine macro and micronutrients consumption of professional ice hockey players during the competition period, and to compare the energy intake and expenditure between training, competition and rest days. A total of 21 professional ice hockey athletes (11 women, 10 men) participated in the study. The athletes recorded a 4-day food and physical activity diary (2 training, 1 rest, 1 competition). Daily intake of macro and micronutrients, energy intake and expenditure levels, and energy balance were calculated. T test for independent samples and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyse data. Ice hockey players failed to meet their daily energy needs regardless of the day of training, competition or rest, and energy deficit in males (-1912 kcal) was higher than females (-1451kcal). Regardless of the day and gender, carbohydrate intake was insufficient (females: 2.5 g/kg/day; males: 2.24 g/kg/day), while protein intake was sufficient on all occasions (females: 1.54 g/kg/day; males: 1.50 g/kg/day). Calcium and potassium intakes were under the RDA recommendation (72% and 54%, respectively), while iron intake was insufficient only in women (75% RDA). In conclusion, professional female and male ice hockey players are in negative energy balance, and could not meet some of the macro and micronutrients daily during the competition period. On the long term this situation may adversely affect the health and performance of athletes, thus close monitoring of the nutritional requirements of the athletes and taking measures to maintain energy balance as well as sufficient macro and micronutrients are recommended.

References

  • 1. Akermark C, Jacobs I, Rasmusson M, Karlsson J. (1996). Diet and muscle glycogen concentration in relation to physical performance in Swedish elite ice hockey players. Int J Sport Nutr, 6(3), 272-284. doi:10.1123/ijsn.6.3.272
  • 2. Bettonviel AE, Brinkmans NY, Russcher K, Wardenaar FC, Witard OC. (2016). Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 26(3), 285-293. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0218
  • 3. Bigg JL, Gamble ASD, Vermeulen TF, Bigg LM, Spriet LL. (2020). Sweat Loss and Fluid Intake of Female Varsity Ice Hockey Players During On-Ice Practices and Games. J Strength Cond Res, 34(2), 389-395. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000003351
  • 4. Bigg JL, Gamble ASD, Vermeulen TF, Boville SM, Eskedjian GS, Palmer MS, Spriet LL. (2019). Sweat Loss and Hydration Habits of Female Olympic, Varsity and Recreational Ice Hockey Players. Int J Sports Med, 40(6), 416-422. doi:10.1055/a-0877-7028
  • 5. Briggs MA, Cockburn E, Rumbold PL, Rae G, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. (2015). Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week. Nutrients, 7(10), 8392-8401. doi:10.3390/nu7105400
  • 6. Brinkmans NYJ, Iedema N, Plasqui G, Wouters L, Saris WHM, van Loon LJC, van Dijk JW. (2019). Energy expenditure and dietary intake in professional football players in the Dutch Premier League: Implications for nutritional counselling. J Sports Sci, 37(24), 2759-2767. doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1576256
  • 7. Burkhart SJ, Pelly FE. (2016). Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition. Nutrients, 8(10). doi:10.3390/nu8100638
  • 8. Burr JF, Jamnik RK, Baker J, Macpherson A, Gledhill N, McGuire EJ. (2008). Relationship of physical fitness test results and hockey playing potential in elite-level ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res, 22(5), 1535-1543. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181ac20
  • 9. Burr JF, Jamni VK, Dogra S, Gledhill N. (2007). Evaluation of jump protocols to assess leg power and predict hockey playing potential. J Strength Cond Res, 21(4), 1139-1145. doi:10.1519/r-21496.1
  • 10. Capling L, Beck KL, Gifford JA, Slater G., Flood VM, O'Connor H. (2017). Validity of Dietary Assessment in Athletes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 9(12). doi:10.3390/nu9121313
  • 11. Carr A, McGawley K, Govus A, Andersson EP, Shannon OM, Mattsson S, Melin A. (2019). Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 29(3), 273-281. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0411
  • 12. Costello N, Deighton K, Preston T, Matu J, Rowe J, Jones B. (2019). Are professional young rugby league players eating enough? Energy intake, expenditure and balance during a pre-season. Eur J Sport Sci, 19(1), 123-132. doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.1527950
  • 13. Cox MH, Miles DS, Verde TJ, Rhodes EC. (1995). Applied physiology of ice hockey. Sports Med, 19(3), 184-201. doi:10.2165/00007256-199519030-00004
  • 14. Dæhlin TE, Haugen OC, Haugerud S, Hollan I, Raastad T, Rønnestad BR. (2017). Improvement of Ice Hockey Players' On-Ice Sprint With Combined Plyometric and Strength Training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(7), 893-900. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0262
  • 15. Diehl DM, Lohman TG, Smith SC, Kertzer R. (1986). Effects of physical training and competition on the iron status of female field hockey players. Int J Sports Med, 7(5), 264-270. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025772
  • 16. Ferraris C, Guglielmetti M, Trentani C, Tagliabue A. (2019). Assessment of Dietary Under-Reporting in Italian College Team Sport Athletes. Nutrients, 11(6). doi:10.3390/nu11061391
  • 17. Fitzgerald JS, Peterson BJ, Warpeha JM, Wilson PB, Rhodes GS, Ingraham SJ. (2014). Vitamin D status and VO2peak during a skate treadmill graded exercise test in competitive ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res, 28(11), 3200-3205. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000000523
  • 18. Fitzgerald JS, Peterson BJ, Wilson PB, Rhodes GS, Ingraham SJ. (2015). Vitamin D status is associated with adiposity in male ice hockey players., 47(3), 655-661. doi:10.1249/mss.0000000000000433
  • 19. Green HJ. (1978). Glycogen depletion patterns during continuous and intermittent ice skating. Med Sci Sports, 10(3), 183-187.
  • 20. Heydenreich J, Kayser B, Schutz Y, Melzer K. (2017). Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review. Sports Med Open, 3(1), 8. doi:10.1186/s40798-017-0076-1
  • 21. Houston ME. (1979). Nutrition and ice hockey performance. Can J Appl Sport Sci, 4(1), 98-99.
  • 22. Jager R., Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM ve diğ. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 14, 20. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8
  • 23. Jain R, Puri S, Saini N. (2008). Dietary profile of sportswomen participating in team games at state/national level. Indian J Public Health, 52(3), 153-155.
  • 24. Jenner SL, Buckley GL, Belski R, Devlin BL, Forsyth AK. (2019). Dietary Intakes of Professional and Semi-Professional Team Sport Athletes Do Not Meet Sport Nutrition Recommendations-A Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients, 11(5). doi:10.3390/nu11051160
  • 25. Jennings DH, Cormack SJ, Coutts AJ, Aughey RJ. (2012). International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level counterparts. J Strength Cond Res, 26(4), 947-952. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
  • 26. Kearney N. (2016). Relative Energy Deficiency in Female Collegiate Track and Field Athletes. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Georgia State University.
  • 27. Linseman ME, Palmer MS, Sprenger HM, Spriet LL. (2014). Maintaining hydration with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improves performance, thermoregulation, and fatigue during an ice hockey scrimmage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 39(11), 1214-1221. doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0091
  • 28. Lun V, Erdman KA, Reimer RA. (2009). Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes. Clin J Sport Med, 19(5), 405-411. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181b5413b
  • 29. McClure ST, Chang AR, Selvin E, Rebholz CM, Appel LJ. (2017). Dietary Sources of Phosphorus among Adults in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001-2014. Nutrients, 9(2). doi:10.3390/nu9020095
  • 30. Montgomery DL. (1988). Physiology of ice hockey. Sports Med, 5(2), 99-126. doi:10.2165/00007256-198805020-00003
  • 31. O'Brien L, Collins K, Doran D, Khaiyat O, Amirabdollahian F. (2019). Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure Assessed during a Pre-Season Period in Elite Gaelic Football Players. Sports (Basel), 7(3). doi:10.3390/sports7030062
  • 32. Orvanova E. (1987). Physical structure of winter sports athletes. J Sports Sci, 5(3), 197-248. doi:10.1080/02640418708729779
  • 33. Orysiak J, Mazur-Rozycka J, Fitzgerald J, Starczewski M, Malczewska-Lenczowska J, Busko K. (2018). Vitamin D status and its relation to exercise performance and iron status in young ice hockey players. PLoS One, 13(4), e0195284. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195284
  • 34. Palmer MS, Logan HM, Spriet LL. (2010). On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(3), 328-335. doi:10.1139/h10-027
  • 35. Prokop NW, Reid RE, Andersen RE. (2016). Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players. J Strength Cond Res, 30(3), 684-692. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001133
  • 36. Russell M, Pennock A. (2011). Dietary analysis of young professional soccer players for 1 week during the competitive season. J Strength Cond Res, 25(7), 1816-1823. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd
  • 37. Silva MG, Silva HH. (2017). Comparison of body composition and nutrients' deficiencies between Portuguese rink-hockey players. Eur J Pediatr, 176(1), 41-50. doi:10.1007/s00431-016-2803-x
  • 38. Tegelman R, Aberg T, Pousette A, Carlstrom, K. (1992). Effects of a diet regimen on pituitary and steroid hormones in male ice hockey players. Int J Sports Med, 13(5), 424-430. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021292
  • 39. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet, 116(3), 501-528. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006
  • 40. Trakman GL, Forsyth A, Devlin BL, Belski R. (2016). A Systematic Review of Athletes' and Coaches' Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures. Nutrients, 8(9). doi:10.3390/nu8090570
  • 41. Williams C, Rollo I. (2015). Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance. Sports Med, 45 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S13-22. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0399-3

Profesyonel Buz Hokeycilerin Müsabaka Dönemindeki Beslenme Durumlarının ve Enerji Dengelerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 3, 140 - 151, 12.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.769870

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı; profesyonel buz hokeycilerin müsabaka dönemindeki beslenme durumlarının saptanması, antrenman, maç ve dinlenme günlerindeki enerji alımı, harcaması ve dengesinin değerlendirilmesidir. Çalışmaya en az 5 yıldır aktif buz hokeyi oynayan 21 profesyonel buz hokeyi sporcusu (11 kadın, 10 erkek) katılmıştır. Sporcular 2 antrenman, 1 dinlenme ve 1 müsabaka gününde olmak üzere toplam 4 gün boyunca besin tüketim kaydı ve fiziksel aktivite kaydı tutmuşlardır. Sporcuların makro ve mikro besin ögelerini tüketim düzeyleri, antrenman, maç ve dinlenme günlerine göre enerji alım ve harcama düzeyleri belirlenmiş ve enerji dengeleri hesaplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Bağımsız Gruplarda T Test ve Tekrarlayan Ölçümlerde İki Yönlü Varyans Analizi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulguları, buz hokeycilerin müsabaka döneminde antrenman, maç ve dinlenme günü fark etmeksizin günlük enerji gereksinimlerini karşılayamadığını ve erkeklerde (-1912 kkal) kadınlara (-1451 kkal) kıyasla daha fazla enerji açığı oluştuğunu göstermiştir. Karbonhidrat alımı, incelenen gün (antrenman, maç, dinlenme) ve cinsiyetten bağımsız olarak yetersiz bulunmuştur (kadın: 2,5 g/kg/gün; erkek: 2,24 g/kg/gün). Günlük protein gereksinmesinin her koşulda karşılandığı (kadın: 1,54 g/kg/gün; erkek: 1,50 g/kg/gün) ancak dinlenme gününde protein alımının azaldığı (1.2 g/kg/gün) saptanmıştır. Kalsiyum ve potasyum alımının RDA önerisini dahi karşılayamadığı (kalsiyum: %72; potasyum: %54), demir alımının ise sadece kadınlarda yetersiz kaldığı (%75) bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak, profesyonel kadın ve erkek buz hokeycilerin müsabaka dönemlerinde yetersiz beslendikleri, günlük makro ve mikro besin ögelerinin bir kısmını karşılayamadıkları belirlenmiştir. Bu durumun devam etmesinin sporcuların sağlığını ve performansını olumsuz etkileyebileceği dikkate alındığında, sporcuların enerji gereksinimlerindeki değişimlerin sezon boyunca yakından takip edilerek enerji dengesinin korunmasına, makro ve mikro besin ögelerinin karşılanmasına yönelik önlemlerin alınması önerilmektedir.

References

  • 1. Akermark C, Jacobs I, Rasmusson M, Karlsson J. (1996). Diet and muscle glycogen concentration in relation to physical performance in Swedish elite ice hockey players. Int J Sport Nutr, 6(3), 272-284. doi:10.1123/ijsn.6.3.272
  • 2. Bettonviel AE, Brinkmans NY, Russcher K, Wardenaar FC, Witard OC. (2016). Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 26(3), 285-293. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0218
  • 3. Bigg JL, Gamble ASD, Vermeulen TF, Bigg LM, Spriet LL. (2020). Sweat Loss and Fluid Intake of Female Varsity Ice Hockey Players During On-Ice Practices and Games. J Strength Cond Res, 34(2), 389-395. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000003351
  • 4. Bigg JL, Gamble ASD, Vermeulen TF, Boville SM, Eskedjian GS, Palmer MS, Spriet LL. (2019). Sweat Loss and Hydration Habits of Female Olympic, Varsity and Recreational Ice Hockey Players. Int J Sports Med, 40(6), 416-422. doi:10.1055/a-0877-7028
  • 5. Briggs MA, Cockburn E, Rumbold PL, Rae G, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. (2015). Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week. Nutrients, 7(10), 8392-8401. doi:10.3390/nu7105400
  • 6. Brinkmans NYJ, Iedema N, Plasqui G, Wouters L, Saris WHM, van Loon LJC, van Dijk JW. (2019). Energy expenditure and dietary intake in professional football players in the Dutch Premier League: Implications for nutritional counselling. J Sports Sci, 37(24), 2759-2767. doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1576256
  • 7. Burkhart SJ, Pelly FE. (2016). Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition. Nutrients, 8(10). doi:10.3390/nu8100638
  • 8. Burr JF, Jamnik RK, Baker J, Macpherson A, Gledhill N, McGuire EJ. (2008). Relationship of physical fitness test results and hockey playing potential in elite-level ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res, 22(5), 1535-1543. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181ac20
  • 9. Burr JF, Jamni VK, Dogra S, Gledhill N. (2007). Evaluation of jump protocols to assess leg power and predict hockey playing potential. J Strength Cond Res, 21(4), 1139-1145. doi:10.1519/r-21496.1
  • 10. Capling L, Beck KL, Gifford JA, Slater G., Flood VM, O'Connor H. (2017). Validity of Dietary Assessment in Athletes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 9(12). doi:10.3390/nu9121313
  • 11. Carr A, McGawley K, Govus A, Andersson EP, Shannon OM, Mattsson S, Melin A. (2019). Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 29(3), 273-281. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0411
  • 12. Costello N, Deighton K, Preston T, Matu J, Rowe J, Jones B. (2019). Are professional young rugby league players eating enough? Energy intake, expenditure and balance during a pre-season. Eur J Sport Sci, 19(1), 123-132. doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.1527950
  • 13. Cox MH, Miles DS, Verde TJ, Rhodes EC. (1995). Applied physiology of ice hockey. Sports Med, 19(3), 184-201. doi:10.2165/00007256-199519030-00004
  • 14. Dæhlin TE, Haugen OC, Haugerud S, Hollan I, Raastad T, Rønnestad BR. (2017). Improvement of Ice Hockey Players' On-Ice Sprint With Combined Plyometric and Strength Training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(7), 893-900. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0262
  • 15. Diehl DM, Lohman TG, Smith SC, Kertzer R. (1986). Effects of physical training and competition on the iron status of female field hockey players. Int J Sports Med, 7(5), 264-270. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025772
  • 16. Ferraris C, Guglielmetti M, Trentani C, Tagliabue A. (2019). Assessment of Dietary Under-Reporting in Italian College Team Sport Athletes. Nutrients, 11(6). doi:10.3390/nu11061391
  • 17. Fitzgerald JS, Peterson BJ, Warpeha JM, Wilson PB, Rhodes GS, Ingraham SJ. (2014). Vitamin D status and VO2peak during a skate treadmill graded exercise test in competitive ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res, 28(11), 3200-3205. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000000523
  • 18. Fitzgerald JS, Peterson BJ, Wilson PB, Rhodes GS, Ingraham SJ. (2015). Vitamin D status is associated with adiposity in male ice hockey players., 47(3), 655-661. doi:10.1249/mss.0000000000000433
  • 19. Green HJ. (1978). Glycogen depletion patterns during continuous and intermittent ice skating. Med Sci Sports, 10(3), 183-187.
  • 20. Heydenreich J, Kayser B, Schutz Y, Melzer K. (2017). Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review. Sports Med Open, 3(1), 8. doi:10.1186/s40798-017-0076-1
  • 21. Houston ME. (1979). Nutrition and ice hockey performance. Can J Appl Sport Sci, 4(1), 98-99.
  • 22. Jager R., Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM ve diğ. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 14, 20. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8
  • 23. Jain R, Puri S, Saini N. (2008). Dietary profile of sportswomen participating in team games at state/national level. Indian J Public Health, 52(3), 153-155.
  • 24. Jenner SL, Buckley GL, Belski R, Devlin BL, Forsyth AK. (2019). Dietary Intakes of Professional and Semi-Professional Team Sport Athletes Do Not Meet Sport Nutrition Recommendations-A Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients, 11(5). doi:10.3390/nu11051160
  • 25. Jennings DH, Cormack SJ, Coutts AJ, Aughey RJ. (2012). International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level counterparts. J Strength Cond Res, 26(4), 947-952. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
  • 26. Kearney N. (2016). Relative Energy Deficiency in Female Collegiate Track and Field Athletes. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Georgia State University.
  • 27. Linseman ME, Palmer MS, Sprenger HM, Spriet LL. (2014). Maintaining hydration with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improves performance, thermoregulation, and fatigue during an ice hockey scrimmage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 39(11), 1214-1221. doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0091
  • 28. Lun V, Erdman KA, Reimer RA. (2009). Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes. Clin J Sport Med, 19(5), 405-411. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181b5413b
  • 29. McClure ST, Chang AR, Selvin E, Rebholz CM, Appel LJ. (2017). Dietary Sources of Phosphorus among Adults in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001-2014. Nutrients, 9(2). doi:10.3390/nu9020095
  • 30. Montgomery DL. (1988). Physiology of ice hockey. Sports Med, 5(2), 99-126. doi:10.2165/00007256-198805020-00003
  • 31. O'Brien L, Collins K, Doran D, Khaiyat O, Amirabdollahian F. (2019). Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure Assessed during a Pre-Season Period in Elite Gaelic Football Players. Sports (Basel), 7(3). doi:10.3390/sports7030062
  • 32. Orvanova E. (1987). Physical structure of winter sports athletes. J Sports Sci, 5(3), 197-248. doi:10.1080/02640418708729779
  • 33. Orysiak J, Mazur-Rozycka J, Fitzgerald J, Starczewski M, Malczewska-Lenczowska J, Busko K. (2018). Vitamin D status and its relation to exercise performance and iron status in young ice hockey players. PLoS One, 13(4), e0195284. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195284
  • 34. Palmer MS, Logan HM, Spriet LL. (2010). On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(3), 328-335. doi:10.1139/h10-027
  • 35. Prokop NW, Reid RE, Andersen RE. (2016). Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players. J Strength Cond Res, 30(3), 684-692. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001133
  • 36. Russell M, Pennock A. (2011). Dietary analysis of young professional soccer players for 1 week during the competitive season. J Strength Cond Res, 25(7), 1816-1823. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd
  • 37. Silva MG, Silva HH. (2017). Comparison of body composition and nutrients' deficiencies between Portuguese rink-hockey players. Eur J Pediatr, 176(1), 41-50. doi:10.1007/s00431-016-2803-x
  • 38. Tegelman R, Aberg T, Pousette A, Carlstrom, K. (1992). Effects of a diet regimen on pituitary and steroid hormones in male ice hockey players. Int J Sports Med, 13(5), 424-430. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021292
  • 39. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet, 116(3), 501-528. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006
  • 40. Trakman GL, Forsyth A, Devlin BL, Belski R. (2016). A Systematic Review of Athletes' and Coaches' Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures. Nutrients, 8(9). doi:10.3390/nu8090570
  • 41. Williams C, Rollo I. (2015). Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance. Sports Med, 45 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S13-22. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0399-3

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Başak LÖKBAŞ This is me
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-7360-4345
Türkiye


Selin AKTİTİZ
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-6781-8681
Türkiye


Nazan KOŞAR This is me
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-4235-8364
Türkiye


Hüsrev TURNAGÖL (Primary Author)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-6547-8839
Türkiye

Publication Date November 12, 2020
Application Date July 17, 2020
Acceptance Date November 3, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 3

Cite

APA Lökbaş, B. , Aktitiz, S. , Koşar, N. & Turnagöl, H. (2020). Profesyonel Buz Hokeycilerin Müsabaka Dönemindeki Beslenme Durumlarının ve Enerji Dengelerinin Değerlendirilmesi . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 31 (3) , 140-151 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.769870