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SİNEMADA SOSYAL ETKİLEŞİM ARAYIŞLARI

Year 2013, Volume 4, Issue 1, 39 - 64, 20.04.2019

Abstract

Sinema seyircisinin film karşısındaki konumu sinema tarihinin ilk günlerinden beri tartışma konusudur. Farklı sanatsal, ideolojik ve ticari hedeflerle hareket eden yönetmenler seyircinin pasif bir alıcıdan daha fazlası olabileceği filmler üretmeye çalışmışlardır. Doğrudan seyirci müdahalesine açık yapımlar oluşturulması bu alanda önemli başlıklardan biridir. Bu çalışmalar geleneksel olarak dallanma veya prosedürel veri işleme yöntemleri ile seyirciye önceden sınırları çizilmiş etkileşim alanları sunmuşlardır. Ancak dolaylı da olsa kavramsal olarak Üçüncü Sinema ve hayran kültürü gibi kaynaklardan beslenen ve çağdaş sosyal medya kanallarını kullanan bir dizi güncel yapım seyirci etkinliğini farklı bir şekilde yorumlamaktadır. Bunlar filmleri bir tür sosyal etkileşim ve yaratıcı üretim kaynağı olarak konumlandırmayı amaçlamaktadırlar. Bu çalışma, sinemada sosyal anlamda aktif seyirci arayışları geleneğinin tarihsel dönüşümünü ve bugün geldiği noktayı inceleyecek, çağdaş medya ekolojisi içinde dijital teknoloji ve özellikle de sosyal medya uygulamaları ile desteklenen güncel yapımların geçmiş örneklerle ilişkisini tartışacaktır.

References

  • Aguilar, L. (2011). ADME Campaign Episode: "Inside" A Social Film Experience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW9REmyxXVU
  • Andersen, M. (2011). 2011 Year in Review: The Year in Three Quarters, N i c k e l s , a n d D i m e s . h t t p : / / w w w . a r g n . c o m / 2011/10/2011_year_in_review_the_year_in_three_quarters_nickels_and_ dimes/
  • Andrew, J. D. (2000). Sinema Kuramları (İ. Şener, Çev.). İstanbul: İzdüşüm.
  • Atkinson, S. (2012). Inside The Inside: An Anatomy and Audience Study of a Social Film Experience. Contemporary Screen Narratives Conference: University of Nottingham.
  • Bazin, A. (1995). Çağdaş Sinemanın Sorunları (N. Özön, Çev.). Ankara: Bilgi.
  • Bielicky, M. (2003). Prague – A Place of Illusions. J. Shaw & P. Weibel (Ed.), Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary After Film (96-101). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Bordwell, D. & Thompson, K. (2008). Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Büker, S. (1991). Sinemada Anlam Yaratma. Ankara: İmge.
  • Carriere, J.C. (1995). Sinemanın Gizli Dili (S. Gündeş, Çev.). İstanbul: Der.
  • Casey, B. & Casey, N. (2002). Television Studies: The Key Concepts, London: Routledge.
  • Courchesne, L. (2010). Hall of Shadows. http://vimeo.com/5979120
  • Eco, U. (1986). Travels in Hyper Reality: Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Erdem, T. (2004). Matrix Üçlemesi Üzerine. Sinema Dergisi, Ocak, 92-95.
  • Espinosa, J. G. (1997). For an Imperfect Cinema. Martin, M.T. (Ed.), New Latin American Cinema, Theory, Practices, and Transcontinental Articulations, Volume One (s. 71-82). Detroit: Wayne State University.
  • Fiske, J. (1992). The Cultural Economy of Fandom. L.A. Lewis (Ed.), The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media (30-49). Londra: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (1998). An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)Credulous Spectator. L. Baudy & M. Cohen (Ed.), Film Theory and Criticism (s. 818-832). New York: Oxford University.
  • Gündeş, S. (2003). Film Olgusu: Kuram ve Uygulayım Yaklaşımları. İstanbul: İnkılap.
  • Inside-The Campain (2011). http://showcase.noagencyname.com/ INSIDE/media/
  • Inside Experience Guide (2011). http://wonderweasels.org/insideexp/ Inside Experience - a social film Project (2011). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fc3FdxYW328
  • Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge.
  • Jenkins, H. (2006a). Star Trek Rerun, Reread, Rewritten. H. Jenkins (Ed.), Fans, Bloggers and Gamers (s. 37-60). New York: NYU.
  • Jenkins, H. (2006b). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU.
  • Joyce, M. (2004). The Soviet Montage Cinema of the 1920s. J. Nelmes (Ed.), An Introduction to Film Studies (s. 329-365). London: Routledge.
  • Kony 2012, Invisible Children (2012). http://www.kony2012.com/
  • Kony 2012, Cover The Night (2012). http://ctn.kony2012.com/
  • Lucas, G. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1977). Yıldız Savaşları [Film]. ABD: 20th Century Fox.
  • Hershman, L. (2003). The Fantasy Beyond Control. N. Wardrip-Fruin &
  • N. Montfort (Ed.), The New Media Reader (s. 643-647). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Hills, M. (2002). Fan Cultures, Londra: Routledge.
  • Him, Her and Them (2011). http://www.himherandthemfilm.com Lindsay, V. (1915). The Art of Moving Picture. http://ia700204.us.archive.org/14/items/artofmovingpictu00lind/ artofmovingpictu00lind.pdf
  • Lindsay, V. (1922). The Art of Moving Picture. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13029/13029-h/13029-h.htm
  • Marinetti, F.T., Corra B., Settimelli E., Ginna A., Balla G. & Chiti R. (2001). The Futurist Cinema. R. Packer, K. Jordan (Ed.), Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality (11-15) New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
  • Monaco, J. (2001). Bir Film Nasıl Okunur? Sinema Dili, Tarihi ve Kuramı: Sinema, Medya ve Multimedya Dünyası (E. Yılmaz, Çev.). İstanbul: Oğlak.
  • Montfort, N. (2000). Cybertext Killed the Hypertext Star. http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/cyberdebates
  • Murray, J.H. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Nelson, T.H. (2003). A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate. N. Wardrip-Fruin & N. Montfort (Ed.), The New Media Reader (134–146). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Phillips, P. (2004). Spectator, Audience and Response. J. Nelmes (Ed.), An Introduction to Film Studies (143-171). Londra: Routledge.
  • Pudovkin, V. (1966). Sinemanın Temel İlkeleri (N. Özön, Çev.). Ankara: Bilgi.
  • Rose, F. (2011). The Art of Immersion. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Rothenberg, J. (T.Y.). Grahame Weinbren and Roberta Friedman, The Erl King, 1982–85. http://www.variablemedia.net/pdf/Erl_king.pdf
  • Ryan, M.L. (2001). Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University.
  • Ryan, M.L. (2006). Avatars of Story. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  • Sezen, D. (2011). Bu Bir Oyun Değil mi? Alternatif Gerçeklik Oyunlarına Giriş. G.T. Ünal & U. Batı (Ed.), Dijital Oyunlar (s. 219-246). İstanbul: Derin.
  • Solanas, F. & Getino O. (1969). Towards a Third Cinema. http://www.documentaryisneverneutral.com/words/camasgun.html
  • Solanas, F.E. & Getino, O. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1968). Kızgın Fırınlar Saati [Film]. Arjantin: Tricontinental.
  • Spielberg, S. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (2001). Yapay Zekâ [Film]. ABD: Warner.
  • Stam, R. (1990). The Hour of Furnaces and The Two Avant-gardes. J. Burton (Ed.), The Social Documentary in Latin America (s. 251-266). Pitsburg: University of Pitsburg.
  • Standring. L. (2011). Inside Minor Assignment Blog. http:// lstandring155.blogspot.com/
  • The Beauty Inside (2012). http://www.facebook.com/thebeautyinsidefilm
  • Tsivian, Y. (1998). Early Cinema in Russia and Its Cultural Reception. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  • Ulanoff, L. (2012). Documentarians: KONY 2012 reached Its Goal. http://mashable.com/2012/03/10/kony-2012-sxsw/
  • Vaz, M.C. (1996). The Secrets of Star Wars Shadows of the Empire. New York: Ballantine.
  • Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1999). Matrix [Film]. ABD: Warner.
  • Wayne, M. (2001). Political Film: The Dialectics of Third Cinema. London: Pluto.
  • Wookieepedia, The Star Wars Wiki (2005). starwars.wikia.com
  • Wheeler, D. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1997). Tender Lovin Care [Film]. ABD: Aftermath.

Social Interaction in Film

Year 2013, Volume 4, Issue 1, 39 - 64, 20.04.2019

Abstract

Since the early days of film history, the relation of the audience to the film has been a topic of both discussion and experimentation. Directors with different artistic, ideological and commercial motivations have tried to make films where the audiences can be more than passive observers. One of the major trends in this field is the production of films open to direct audience manipulation. Traditionally, such films offer audiences interactive experiences based on branching or procedural data processing. Recent productions, however, drawing on sources like Third Cinema and fan culture, and utilizing contemporary social media channels, interpret audience activity differently. These productions seek to position movies as a source for social interaction and creative production. This article studies the historical development and current state of the socially active audience tradition and discusses the relationship between past examples and the recent productions that are supported by digital technology, with special focus on social media applications as part of contemporary media ecology.

References

  • Aguilar, L. (2011). ADME Campaign Episode: "Inside" A Social Film Experience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW9REmyxXVU
  • Andersen, M. (2011). 2011 Year in Review: The Year in Three Quarters, N i c k e l s , a n d D i m e s . h t t p : / / w w w . a r g n . c o m / 2011/10/2011_year_in_review_the_year_in_three_quarters_nickels_and_ dimes/
  • Andrew, J. D. (2000). Sinema Kuramları (İ. Şener, Çev.). İstanbul: İzdüşüm.
  • Atkinson, S. (2012). Inside The Inside: An Anatomy and Audience Study of a Social Film Experience. Contemporary Screen Narratives Conference: University of Nottingham.
  • Bazin, A. (1995). Çağdaş Sinemanın Sorunları (N. Özön, Çev.). Ankara: Bilgi.
  • Bielicky, M. (2003). Prague – A Place of Illusions. J. Shaw & P. Weibel (Ed.), Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary After Film (96-101). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Bordwell, D. & Thompson, K. (2008). Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Büker, S. (1991). Sinemada Anlam Yaratma. Ankara: İmge.
  • Carriere, J.C. (1995). Sinemanın Gizli Dili (S. Gündeş, Çev.). İstanbul: Der.
  • Casey, B. & Casey, N. (2002). Television Studies: The Key Concepts, London: Routledge.
  • Courchesne, L. (2010). Hall of Shadows. http://vimeo.com/5979120
  • Eco, U. (1986). Travels in Hyper Reality: Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Erdem, T. (2004). Matrix Üçlemesi Üzerine. Sinema Dergisi, Ocak, 92-95.
  • Espinosa, J. G. (1997). For an Imperfect Cinema. Martin, M.T. (Ed.), New Latin American Cinema, Theory, Practices, and Transcontinental Articulations, Volume One (s. 71-82). Detroit: Wayne State University.
  • Fiske, J. (1992). The Cultural Economy of Fandom. L.A. Lewis (Ed.), The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media (30-49). Londra: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (1998). An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)Credulous Spectator. L. Baudy & M. Cohen (Ed.), Film Theory and Criticism (s. 818-832). New York: Oxford University.
  • Gündeş, S. (2003). Film Olgusu: Kuram ve Uygulayım Yaklaşımları. İstanbul: İnkılap.
  • Inside-The Campain (2011). http://showcase.noagencyname.com/ INSIDE/media/
  • Inside Experience Guide (2011). http://wonderweasels.org/insideexp/ Inside Experience - a social film Project (2011). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fc3FdxYW328
  • Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge.
  • Jenkins, H. (2006a). Star Trek Rerun, Reread, Rewritten. H. Jenkins (Ed.), Fans, Bloggers and Gamers (s. 37-60). New York: NYU.
  • Jenkins, H. (2006b). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU.
  • Joyce, M. (2004). The Soviet Montage Cinema of the 1920s. J. Nelmes (Ed.), An Introduction to Film Studies (s. 329-365). London: Routledge.
  • Kony 2012, Invisible Children (2012). http://www.kony2012.com/
  • Kony 2012, Cover The Night (2012). http://ctn.kony2012.com/
  • Lucas, G. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1977). Yıldız Savaşları [Film]. ABD: 20th Century Fox.
  • Hershman, L. (2003). The Fantasy Beyond Control. N. Wardrip-Fruin &
  • N. Montfort (Ed.), The New Media Reader (s. 643-647). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Hills, M. (2002). Fan Cultures, Londra: Routledge.
  • Him, Her and Them (2011). http://www.himherandthemfilm.com Lindsay, V. (1915). The Art of Moving Picture. http://ia700204.us.archive.org/14/items/artofmovingpictu00lind/ artofmovingpictu00lind.pdf
  • Lindsay, V. (1922). The Art of Moving Picture. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13029/13029-h/13029-h.htm
  • Marinetti, F.T., Corra B., Settimelli E., Ginna A., Balla G. & Chiti R. (2001). The Futurist Cinema. R. Packer, K. Jordan (Ed.), Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality (11-15) New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
  • Monaco, J. (2001). Bir Film Nasıl Okunur? Sinema Dili, Tarihi ve Kuramı: Sinema, Medya ve Multimedya Dünyası (E. Yılmaz, Çev.). İstanbul: Oğlak.
  • Montfort, N. (2000). Cybertext Killed the Hypertext Star. http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/cyberdebates
  • Murray, J.H. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Nelson, T.H. (2003). A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate. N. Wardrip-Fruin & N. Montfort (Ed.), The New Media Reader (134–146). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Phillips, P. (2004). Spectator, Audience and Response. J. Nelmes (Ed.), An Introduction to Film Studies (143-171). Londra: Routledge.
  • Pudovkin, V. (1966). Sinemanın Temel İlkeleri (N. Özön, Çev.). Ankara: Bilgi.
  • Rose, F. (2011). The Art of Immersion. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Rothenberg, J. (T.Y.). Grahame Weinbren and Roberta Friedman, The Erl King, 1982–85. http://www.variablemedia.net/pdf/Erl_king.pdf
  • Ryan, M.L. (2001). Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University.
  • Ryan, M.L. (2006). Avatars of Story. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  • Sezen, D. (2011). Bu Bir Oyun Değil mi? Alternatif Gerçeklik Oyunlarına Giriş. G.T. Ünal & U. Batı (Ed.), Dijital Oyunlar (s. 219-246). İstanbul: Derin.
  • Solanas, F. & Getino O. (1969). Towards a Third Cinema. http://www.documentaryisneverneutral.com/words/camasgun.html
  • Solanas, F.E. & Getino, O. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1968). Kızgın Fırınlar Saati [Film]. Arjantin: Tricontinental.
  • Spielberg, S. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (2001). Yapay Zekâ [Film]. ABD: Warner.
  • Stam, R. (1990). The Hour of Furnaces and The Two Avant-gardes. J. Burton (Ed.), The Social Documentary in Latin America (s. 251-266). Pitsburg: University of Pitsburg.
  • Standring. L. (2011). Inside Minor Assignment Blog. http:// lstandring155.blogspot.com/
  • The Beauty Inside (2012). http://www.facebook.com/thebeautyinsidefilm
  • Tsivian, Y. (1998). Early Cinema in Russia and Its Cultural Reception. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  • Ulanoff, L. (2012). Documentarians: KONY 2012 reached Its Goal. http://mashable.com/2012/03/10/kony-2012-sxsw/
  • Vaz, M.C. (1996). The Secrets of Star Wars Shadows of the Empire. New York: Ballantine.
  • Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1999). Matrix [Film]. ABD: Warner.
  • Wayne, M. (2001). Political Film: The Dialectics of Third Cinema. London: Pluto.
  • Wookieepedia, The Star Wars Wiki (2005). starwars.wikia.com
  • Wheeler, D. (Yönetmen/Senarist). (1997). Tender Lovin Care [Film]. ABD: Aftermath.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Art
Journal Section Features
Authors

Tonguç İbrahim SEZEN This is me (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLETİŞİM FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date April 20, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2013, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Sezen, T. İ. (2019). SİNEMADA SOSYAL ETKİLEŞİM ARAYIŞLARI . sinecine: Sinema Araştırmaları Dergisi , 4 (1) , 39-64 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sinecine/issue/44722/555526

sinecine TR DİZİN ve FIAF tarafından taranmaktadır.