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İşletmelerde Yeniliklerin Kaynağı Olarak Paydaş Diyalogları: Seyahat Acentaları Üzerine Nitel Bir Araştırma

Year 2010, Volume , Issue 24, 189 - 202, 01.08.2010

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı, günümüzde oldukça önemli olan paydaşdiyaloglarıve yenilik kavramlarınıbir araya getirerek işletmelerin paydaşlarıile kurduklarıdiyalogların yenilik sürecine ne kadar adapte edildiği ile ilgili daha fazla bilgi edinilmesidir. Böylece paydaşdiyaloglarının yenilik sürecinde işletme ve sürdürülebilir yenilik için sağladığıyararlar belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla çalışmanın teorik kısmında öncelikle paydaşdiyaloglarıve yenilik kavramlarıüzerinde durularak bu iki kavram arasındaki ilişki ve yapılan çeşitli araştırmaların bulgularına değinilmiştir. Araştırmanın uygulama kısmında ise turizm sektörünün önemli paydaşlarından birisi olan seyahat acentalarının paydaşlarıile diyaloglarının örgütsel yenilik sürecine olan katkısınıortaya koymak için İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren 15 seyahat acentasıile nitel bir araştırma yürütülmüştür. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular bir yandan seyahat acentalarının paydaşlarıile diyaloglarının yapısınıortaya koyarken bir yandan da paydaşdiyaloglarının seyahat acentalarıiçin yeni fikir ve uygulamaların kaynağıolduğunu ortaya koymuştur.

References

  • Abbey, James R. (1993). Hospitality Sales and Advertising, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data, USA, Second Edition, 1-664.
  • Akoğlan Kozak, M. and Güçlü, H. (2003). “Turizm İşletmelerinde Değişim Yönetimi Üzerine Kavramsal Bir İnceleme”, İş, Güç” Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 5 (1).
  • Arias-Aranda, D., Minguela-Rata, B. and RodriAguez Duarte, A. (2001). “Innovation and firm size: an empirical study for Spanish engineering consulting companies”, European Journal of Innovation Management, 4 (3):133-141.
  • Asselt Marjolein, B.A. and Rijkens-Klomp, N. (2002). “A look in the mirror: reflection on participation in integrated. Assesment from a methodological perspective”, Global Environemental Change, 12:167-184.
  • Barışık, S. (2001). “Yenilik, Yenilik Oluşumunda Devletin Rolü”, Verimlilik Dergisi, MPM Yayını.
  • Belisle, D. (2004). “Dialogue With Stakeholder”, International Trade Forum, 2, 23.
  • Bendell, J. (2000). “Talking for Change? Reflections on Effective Stakeholder Dialogue”, New Academy of Business, October, 1-20.
  • Brackenbury, M. (2003). “Has Innovation Become A Routine Practice That Enables Companies To Stay Ahead Of The Competition In The Travel Industry?”, Conference on Innovation and Growth in Tourism, 18-19 September, Lugano, Switzerland.
  • Burchell, J. and Cook, J. (2006). “Assessing the impact of stakeholder dialogue: changing relationships between NGOs and companies”, Journal of Public Affairs, 6: 210–227.
  • Collins, L. and Usher, S. (2004). “Project PASCALEA – public and stakeholder consultation in developing high- profi le corporate environmental strategy”, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 11(2): 95–102.
  • Flick, Deborah L. From Debate to Dialogue. Using the Understanding Process to Transform our Conversations. Orchid: Boulder, CO., 1998.
  • Freeman, R. Edward. Strategic Management, A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman, Boston, 46, 1984.
  • Friedman, S. D. (2008). “Stakeholder Dialogues Guide”, Total Leadership. February, 24: 1-26.
  • Hart, S. and Sharma, S. (2004). “Engaging Fringe Stakeholders For Competitive Imagination”, Academy of Management Review, 18 (1):7-18.
  • Harrison, J. S. and John, C. H. (1996). “Managing and Partnering with External Stakeholders”, The Academy of Management Executive, 10 (2):46-60.
  • Hitt, Michael A., Ireland, R. Duane, Camp, S. Michael and Sexton, Donald L. Strategic Entrepreneurship, Creating a New Mindset. Blackwell Pub., UK., 6, 2002.
  • Hjalager, A. M. (1997). “Innovation patterns in sustainable tourism. An analytical typology”, Tourism Management, 18: 35–41.
  • Isaacs, W. N. (1993). “Taking flight: dialogue, collective thinking, and organizational learning”, Organizational Dynamics, 22(2): 24–40.
  • Isaacs, William. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. Nicholas Brealey Publishing: London, 1994.
  • İçöz, Orhan. Seyahat Acentaları ve Tur Operatörlüğü Yönetimi. Ankara: Turhan Kitapevi, 51, 1996.
  • Jacob, M.., Tintoré, J., Aguiló, E., Bravo, A. and Mulet, J. (2003). “Innovation in the tourism sector: results from a pilot study in the Balearic Islands”, Tourism Economics, 9:279–295.
  • Karasar, Niyazi. Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi (10.Baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım, 2000.
  • Kazançoğlu, Y. & Savaşçı, İ. (2004). “Firmalarin Yenilik Yaratma Sürecinde Serbest Bölgelerin Rolü”. 3. Ulusal Bilgi, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Kongresi, Eskişehir, Kasım, 2004:517-526.
  • Lorca, P. and Garcia-Diez, J. (2004). “The Relation between Firm Survival and The Achievement of Balance Among Its Stakeholdes: An Analysis” International Journal of Management, 21 (1):93.
  • Mirchandani, D. and Ikerd, J. (2008). “Building and maintaining sustainable organizations”, Organization Management Journal, 5:40–51.
  • Naktiyok, A. (2007). “Yenilik Yönelimi ve Örgütsel Faktörler”, Atatürk Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 21(2):211-230.
  • Phillips, R. (2004). “Some Key Questions About Stakeholder Theory”, Ivey Management Services, March- April, 1-4.
  • Punch, Keith F. Sosyal Araştırmalara Giriş. Nicel ve Nitel Yaklaşımlar. (Çeviri:Zeliha Etöz). Ankara: Siyasal Kitapevi Yayınları, 2005.
  • Sautter, E. T. and Leisen, B. (1999). “Managing Stakeholders, A Tourism Planning Model”, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (2):312-328.
  • Seyahat Acentaları ve Seyahat Acentaları Birliği Kanunu, Resmi Gazete, 21.09.1972, Sayı:14320.
  • Starik, M., Throop, G., Doody, J. and Joyce, M. E. (1996). “Growing an Environmental Strategy”, Business Strategy and the Environment, 5, 12-21.
  • Stückelberger, C. (2009). “Dialogue Ethics: Ethical Criteria and Conditions for a Successful Dialogue Between Companies and Societal Actors”, Journal of Business Ethics, 84:329–339.
  • Sundbo, Jon. The Theory of Innovation. Entrepreneurs, Technology and Strategy. Edward Elgar Publish, 1998.
  • Taşkıran, Necati (2004). Yaratıcılık ve Yenilik Yönetimi (Ders Notları).
  • Ürper, Yılmaz.Girişimcilik. Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları, Eskişehir., 2004.
  • Van de Ven Andrew, Polley, Dougles, Garud, Raghu and Venkataraman, S.ankaran. The Innovation Journey, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Yıldırım, Ali ve Şimşek, Hasan. Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, (6. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayınevi, 2006.
  • Zoubi, Rania Al, Haddad, Fidaa, Alaween, Mufleh, Shraideh, Fadi and Phillipson, Bob (2006). Stakeholder dialogue and Participatory Strategy Development for Better Water Governance in Balqa Governorate, Symposium on Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation: Strengthening Capacity for Local Governance, 26-28 September, Delft, the Netherlands.
  • Waddock, Sandra. Integrity and mindfulness: foundations of corporate citizenship. In Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship, Andriof J, McIntosh M (eds). Greenleaf Publishing: Sheffield, 2001.
  • Wong, S. ve Pang, L. (2003). “Motivators to Creativity in the Hotel Industry Perspectives of Managers and Supervisors”, Tourism Management, 24:551-559.

Stakeholder Dialogues As Source For Innovation in Businesses: A Quantitative Research on Travel Agencies

Year 2010, Volume , Issue 24, 189 - 202, 01.08.2010

Abstract

Companies are today faced with increasing demand for detailed information regarding the social and environmental impacts of their business activities. In seeking to improve the level of public trust and understanding of corporate activity, many organizations have participated in stakeholder dialogue Burchell and Cook, 2006 . Dialogue with stakeholders has been studied most prominently from the stakeholder theory approach. However, as Hart and Sharma 2004 recently pointed out, current approaches do not consider ‘‘the potential for engaging stakeholders to understand ‘future change’ or to resolve the radical uncertainty of constantly evolving knowledge. Businesses obtain information they need through stakeholder dialogues. Different actors lead to different kinds of dialogue such as an investor’s dialogue, a consumer’s dialogue or a multi-stakeholder dialogue. Different objectives and strategies lead to different forms of dialogue such as explorative dialogue, learning dialogue, confrontational dialogue or a dialogue which aims at common action. Stückelberger, 2009 . The first step in achieving an effective stakeholder dialogue is to determine who are the stakeholders that their business Starik vd., 1996 . The call for stakeholder communication is nothing new. The bestseller In Search of Excellence, by Tom Peters and Bob Waterman, popularized "management by walking around" as early as 1988, and management approaches too numerous to list have promoted this theme . Literature about stakeholder dialogue has emphasized the value creation of dialogue with stakeholders. A proactive dialogue will provide creativity and innovation in business Flick, 1998; Isaacs, 1993 . In addition dialogue provide information about market conditions and business environment. Dialogue is not in their business but also provides access to information. Later sustainable business policies and activities of this information will be used as input Collins ve Usher, 2004 . Through a participatory approach and stakeholder dialogue barriers to innovation of enterprises will be eliminated. Accordingly, stakeholder dialogue is seen as an opportunity for businesses in their innovation process Zoubi vd., 2006 . Innovation are also important in the tourism sector. Innovation is required to ensure sustainability in the tourism sector Hjalager, 1997 . One of the companies need to innovation is travel agencies. Travel agents have one of the basic product: information. Today, travel agents sell their customers something more than a travel or holiday. Travel agencies sell information and receive feedback about their service Abbey, 1993:545 . Because of their work with the travel agencies are in need of information from stakeholders. Travel agents contribute to their development process new products and services with the information they obtained from stakeholders. Based on these literature, the purpose of this paper was to shed some light on the under-researched issue of linking stakeholder dialogue and innovation in businesses. The review of the literature showed that there is a need for theoretical and empirical research on this important issue. Stakeholder theory proposes a perspective of the firm that essentially incorporates the wider environment, i.e. the firm must learn to understand the needs, expectations and values of groups previously perceived to be external to the company: stakeholders. Within the scope of the work, qualitative research method has been used in collecting the data from travel agents . Therefore, questions draft has been prepared in conformity with the objectives of the work and taking into consideration the respective literature and previous works on this subject. Later, it is requested from the two managers of travel agents to share their opinions regarding the questions. So, at the end of the process, some questions and explanations were rearranged and the questionnaire was finalized. We selected 15 travel agents which has been in İstanbul. The data were collected between 1st February and 30th May 2010 in-depth semi-structured interviews with relevant managers in their office. While the questions were left as open as possible, the interviewees were asked about how the taravel agent was managing the dialogues with stakeholders generally, and in the case of employees, customers, hotels specifically, and how stakeholder dialogues adapt to organizational innovation processes. The findings of this study are as follows: Participants have generally stated stakeholders which directly affect their activities as employees, customers, business hotels and tour operators. Through the findings, travel agents are largely establishing a dialogue at the local level with employees, a dialogue at the all level with hotel business and customers. All travel agencies stated that they had established dialogue with employees frequently. travel agents have expressed rarely or not at all dialogue with tour operators.While travel agents have informal dialogues with employees, tour operator, hotel businesses, airline companies, competitors and non-governmental organizations and associations, they have formal dialogues with customers, universities car rental companies, restaurants, bus companies, embassies and public authorities. Method of establishing a dialogue with employees are regular meetings and a direct dialogue; with hotel businesses, airline companies and restaurants are a direct dialogue, e-mail and web site; with tour operators, competitors and non-governmental organizations and associations are a direct dialogue; with customer are a direct dialogue, e-mail, web site, customer survey. Travel agents stated that they had benefited from the dialogues of employees, customers, hotel businesses and competitors about topics of quality, customer satisfaction, technology, human resources, innovation, leadership. According to the results of the study it appears that stakeholder dialogue is nothing new to the tourism industry, hotel businesses, travel agents and etc. Stakeholder dialogue involves all stakeholder with a oncern in a two-way communication and all types of stakeholders in decision making and implementation efforts in travel agents. Travel agents must understant like any other businesses stakeholder dialogue is generative-discourages blaming for the past and creates a shared future. Because active and constructive dialogue with stakeholders improves how the travel agents formulate and implement their business strategy. This study doesn’t represent all travel agents in Turkey. This study was based on a small sample- 15 travel agents in İstanbul. But, it can serve a path to the potential researchers to test the theoretical approach of this study with qualitative studies in different service and product industries. On the other hand further research should be performed to determine the underlying reasons for many of results of this study

References

  • Abbey, James R. (1993). Hospitality Sales and Advertising, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data, USA, Second Edition, 1-664.
  • Akoğlan Kozak, M. and Güçlü, H. (2003). “Turizm İşletmelerinde Değişim Yönetimi Üzerine Kavramsal Bir İnceleme”, İş, Güç” Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 5 (1).
  • Arias-Aranda, D., Minguela-Rata, B. and RodriAguez Duarte, A. (2001). “Innovation and firm size: an empirical study for Spanish engineering consulting companies”, European Journal of Innovation Management, 4 (3):133-141.
  • Asselt Marjolein, B.A. and Rijkens-Klomp, N. (2002). “A look in the mirror: reflection on participation in integrated. Assesment from a methodological perspective”, Global Environemental Change, 12:167-184.
  • Barışık, S. (2001). “Yenilik, Yenilik Oluşumunda Devletin Rolü”, Verimlilik Dergisi, MPM Yayını.
  • Belisle, D. (2004). “Dialogue With Stakeholder”, International Trade Forum, 2, 23.
  • Bendell, J. (2000). “Talking for Change? Reflections on Effective Stakeholder Dialogue”, New Academy of Business, October, 1-20.
  • Brackenbury, M. (2003). “Has Innovation Become A Routine Practice That Enables Companies To Stay Ahead Of The Competition In The Travel Industry?”, Conference on Innovation and Growth in Tourism, 18-19 September, Lugano, Switzerland.
  • Burchell, J. and Cook, J. (2006). “Assessing the impact of stakeholder dialogue: changing relationships between NGOs and companies”, Journal of Public Affairs, 6: 210–227.
  • Collins, L. and Usher, S. (2004). “Project PASCALEA – public and stakeholder consultation in developing high- profi le corporate environmental strategy”, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 11(2): 95–102.
  • Flick, Deborah L. From Debate to Dialogue. Using the Understanding Process to Transform our Conversations. Orchid: Boulder, CO., 1998.
  • Freeman, R. Edward. Strategic Management, A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman, Boston, 46, 1984.
  • Friedman, S. D. (2008). “Stakeholder Dialogues Guide”, Total Leadership. February, 24: 1-26.
  • Hart, S. and Sharma, S. (2004). “Engaging Fringe Stakeholders For Competitive Imagination”, Academy of Management Review, 18 (1):7-18.
  • Harrison, J. S. and John, C. H. (1996). “Managing and Partnering with External Stakeholders”, The Academy of Management Executive, 10 (2):46-60.
  • Hitt, Michael A., Ireland, R. Duane, Camp, S. Michael and Sexton, Donald L. Strategic Entrepreneurship, Creating a New Mindset. Blackwell Pub., UK., 6, 2002.
  • Hjalager, A. M. (1997). “Innovation patterns in sustainable tourism. An analytical typology”, Tourism Management, 18: 35–41.
  • Isaacs, W. N. (1993). “Taking flight: dialogue, collective thinking, and organizational learning”, Organizational Dynamics, 22(2): 24–40.
  • Isaacs, William. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. Nicholas Brealey Publishing: London, 1994.
  • İçöz, Orhan. Seyahat Acentaları ve Tur Operatörlüğü Yönetimi. Ankara: Turhan Kitapevi, 51, 1996.
  • Jacob, M.., Tintoré, J., Aguiló, E., Bravo, A. and Mulet, J. (2003). “Innovation in the tourism sector: results from a pilot study in the Balearic Islands”, Tourism Economics, 9:279–295.
  • Karasar, Niyazi. Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi (10.Baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım, 2000.
  • Kazançoğlu, Y. & Savaşçı, İ. (2004). “Firmalarin Yenilik Yaratma Sürecinde Serbest Bölgelerin Rolü”. 3. Ulusal Bilgi, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Kongresi, Eskişehir, Kasım, 2004:517-526.
  • Lorca, P. and Garcia-Diez, J. (2004). “The Relation between Firm Survival and The Achievement of Balance Among Its Stakeholdes: An Analysis” International Journal of Management, 21 (1):93.
  • Mirchandani, D. and Ikerd, J. (2008). “Building and maintaining sustainable organizations”, Organization Management Journal, 5:40–51.
  • Naktiyok, A. (2007). “Yenilik Yönelimi ve Örgütsel Faktörler”, Atatürk Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 21(2):211-230.
  • Phillips, R. (2004). “Some Key Questions About Stakeholder Theory”, Ivey Management Services, March- April, 1-4.
  • Punch, Keith F. Sosyal Araştırmalara Giriş. Nicel ve Nitel Yaklaşımlar. (Çeviri:Zeliha Etöz). Ankara: Siyasal Kitapevi Yayınları, 2005.
  • Sautter, E. T. and Leisen, B. (1999). “Managing Stakeholders, A Tourism Planning Model”, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (2):312-328.
  • Seyahat Acentaları ve Seyahat Acentaları Birliği Kanunu, Resmi Gazete, 21.09.1972, Sayı:14320.
  • Starik, M., Throop, G., Doody, J. and Joyce, M. E. (1996). “Growing an Environmental Strategy”, Business Strategy and the Environment, 5, 12-21.
  • Stückelberger, C. (2009). “Dialogue Ethics: Ethical Criteria and Conditions for a Successful Dialogue Between Companies and Societal Actors”, Journal of Business Ethics, 84:329–339.
  • Sundbo, Jon. The Theory of Innovation. Entrepreneurs, Technology and Strategy. Edward Elgar Publish, 1998.
  • Taşkıran, Necati (2004). Yaratıcılık ve Yenilik Yönetimi (Ders Notları).
  • Ürper, Yılmaz.Girişimcilik. Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları, Eskişehir., 2004.
  • Van de Ven Andrew, Polley, Dougles, Garud, Raghu and Venkataraman, S.ankaran. The Innovation Journey, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Yıldırım, Ali ve Şimşek, Hasan. Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, (6. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayınevi, 2006.
  • Zoubi, Rania Al, Haddad, Fidaa, Alaween, Mufleh, Shraideh, Fadi and Phillipson, Bob (2006). Stakeholder dialogue and Participatory Strategy Development for Better Water Governance in Balqa Governorate, Symposium on Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation: Strengthening Capacity for Local Governance, 26-28 September, Delft, the Netherlands.
  • Waddock, Sandra. Integrity and mindfulness: foundations of corporate citizenship. In Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship, Andriof J, McIntosh M (eds). Greenleaf Publishing: Sheffield, 2001.
  • Wong, S. ve Pang, L. (2003). “Motivators to Creativity in the Hotel Industry Perspectives of Managers and Supervisors”, Tourism Management, 24:551-559.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Dilek DÖNMEZ This is me
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi


İlknur ÇEVİK This is me

Publication Date August 1, 2010
Application Date October 20, 2021
Acceptance Date October 20, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2010, Volume , Issue 24

Cite

APA Dönmez, D. & Çevik, İ. (2010). İşletmelerde Yeniliklerin Kaynağı Olarak Paydaş Diyalogları: Seyahat Acentaları Üzerine Nitel Bir Araştırma . Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , (24) , 189-202 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/susbed/issue/61801/924522