Writing Rules

TARE Submission and Style Guide

Articles must be submitted in English or Turkish.

Complete articles (text, tables, figures, and bibliography) should be submitted electronically as email attachments or, in the case of large files, a WeTransfer download. Please send the text as a Microsoft Word document.

On receipt of submissions, authors will receive an email acknowledging receipt and outlining the review process. All submissions will undergo a blind review process.

Articles should be a maximum 5,000 words (not including the bibliography). Articles should include the following:

    • Title of article

    • Name(s) of author(s)

    • ORCID IDs

    • Academic affiliation(s) of author(s)

    • Abstract of 100–200 words

    • 5 Keywords

    • Text•Acknowledgements

    • Appendices

    • Bibliography

    • Figures and captions

    • Tables and captions


• English-language articles should follow American English.

• Follow spellings as they appear in Merriam-Webster Dictionary.


• Footnote markers are ideally at the end of sentences but may also be after other punctuation within a sentence. Only keep a footnote marker    elsewhere if really necessary.

• Captions are formatted in the following manner (please note the closed sentence inside the parentheses for photo credit):

            o    Fig. 1. Overglaze gilding and cloisonné colored glaze tiles, Green Mosque (Yeşil Camii), 1424–29, Bursa, Turkey. (Photo: Lucile Martinet.)

• The first paragraph of each section is justified on the left, the following paragraphs are indented.

• Use one space at the end of each sentence rather than two.

Transliteration, Proper Nouns, and Italics

• Place names should be given in English: Istanbul rather than İstanbul, Seville rather than Sevilla, Ephesus rather than Ephesos.

• All proper nouns coming from Turkish should keep all accents: Sultan Süleyman, FuatPaşa, Aşıklı Höyük.

• Proper nouns coming from Arabic, Farsi, and Ottoman should not include any diacritics other than markers for aiyn ⟨ʿ⟩in all instances and alef ⟨ʾ⟩when it occurs in the middle of the word (but not the beginning). For more information, see the IJMES transliteration guide.

• Foreign terms that do not appear in standard English dictionaries should be italicized.

• Terms (not proper nouns) coming from Arabic/Farsi/Ottoman should be transliterated with all diacritics. See the IJMES for more information.

• For terms set in italics (such as foreign words) and made plural, the final “s” is not italicized.

• Proper nouns from other languages (including monuments) are generally not italicized.

Hyphenation (for a comprehensive guide, see the Chicago Manual of Style§7.89)

• Compound adjectives are open, unless preceding a noun (“the site is well known”; “a well-known site”).

• Compounds ending with “ly” are left open.

• Compound directions are closed (northwest, southeast, etc.).

• Do not hyphenate words from other languages (the in situ votive deposit).

• Do not hyphenate words that modify colors (light, dark, pale, etc.) unless necessary for clarity
            o    “a pale yellow glaze” but a “pink-to-red colored glaze” and “Chinese blue-and-white ceramics”


• Words denoting political divisions are capitalized when they follow a name or are part of the generally accepted name:

        • the Republic of Turkey

        • Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, the empire, the Empire of Trebizond

• Periods are capitalized as follows:

        • Early, Middle, Late Byzantine period

        • Late Antiquity, Late Antique period

        • Neolithic period, Chalcolithic period

        • Hellenistic period

        • Roman era

        • Bronze Age

        • Archaic period

        • Late Antique period

        • The terms “classical” and “archaic” are capitalized only when used with “period” (e.g., Classical period) or with a specific division of a    cultural period (e.g., Late Classical literature) or when the meaning can be misconstrued:

                o    Late Archaic art

                o    Early Classical polis

                o    classical vase painting

                o    archaic Greek pottery

• Names of mountains, rivers, oceans, islands, and so forth are capitalized. The generic term (mountain etc.) is also capitalized when used as part of the name.

• The names of specific buildings, monuments, parts of sites, and artifact collections/groups are capitalized. The generic form is lowercased.

• The following elements are capitalized in archaeological contexts when referring to a specific feature: walls, tombs, rooms, groups

         o    Wall 4, Tomb C, Room E, Group 7

• General excavation terms are lowercased: stratum 6, level 2, trench X, locus 55

• Capitals are not used for seasons or points of the compass (southern Italy, the south of Gaul) except when they indicate an official name or specific concept:

         o    in spring 349, southwestern Italy, northern France

         o    South America, the West

• Capitals are used for titles when these appear in full or immediately preceding a personal name. Capitals are not used when the title as an appositive:

         o    Sultan Mehmet II; the patriarch Sergios; Darius, emperor of Persia


• Please use BCE/CE

• For calendar dates, use the format “1 January 173” rather than “January 1, 173”

• Date ranges should always be given in full: e.g., 1500–1544

• Centuries should always be spelled out in full: e.g., in the second century; a seventeenth-century letter; a second-century BCE votive deposit


• Abbreviations for distance, volume, etc.: “m” for meter, “cm” for centimeter, “mm” for millimeter, “km” for kilometer, “ha” for hectare, “l” for liter, “lb” for pound

         o    There should be no dot after an abbreviation


• Spell out whole numbers from 0 to 10, plus multiples of 100 and 1000 and approximations; always spell out numbers at the start of a sentence.

• In technical and statistical contexts, all numbers should be written with numerals.

• Ordinals are written as normal text: 122nd and 123rd.

• 4-digit numbers (other than years) use a comma: They found 5,426 pieces of ceramics.

• Arabic numbers should be used for chapter numbers, journal numbers, figures, plates etc.: e.g., Chapter 1; Fig. 2.4; Journal of Ancient History 25

• Simple fractions are spelled out and hyphenated:

         o    They excavated three-fourths of the site

• Number ranges are styled as follows:

         o    3–10

         o    71–72

         o    101–8

         o    808–33

         o    1103–4

         o    321–28

         o    498–532

         o    1087–89

• “circa” is abbreviated “ca.”

Abbreviations and Initialisms

• Saint abbreviated “St.” unless part of a proper noun that requires it to be written out (such as the town of Saint-Josse in France).

• Initials of names have a space between: R. Q. Davis.

Punctuation and Other Style Points

• Limit i.e. and e.g. to parentheses and notes; replace item in text with “that is” and “for example,” respectively.

• Use the serial (Oxford) comma for lists: He went to the store, the mall, the cinema, and the park.

• Em dashes (—) should not be surrounded with spaces: “When the drawings were finally ready⁠—nearly three months late⁠—the article text still needed to be edited.”

• An en dash (–) is normally used to be mean “up to” “including” and “through” between numbers; it can also be used to signify “to” between words.

        • The years 1993–2000 were heady ones for the computer literate.

        • For source citations and indexing, see chapters 14–16.

        • The London–Paris train leaves at two o’clock.

Citations and Bibliography: The Chicago Manual of Style

The following is a short guide for formatting footnotes and the bibliography. For sources not covered in the examples below, please follow the guidelines provided in chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style. Each example below gives the format for the first citation in the footnotes, a shortened version for any later occurrences, and the full form for the bibliography.

Book with one author

1. Gülru Necipoğlu, The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire (London: Reaktion Books, 2007), 77.

2. Necipoğlu, The Age of Sinan, 45–46.

Necipoğlu, Gülru. The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books, 2007.

Book with editor in place of author

1. Regina Krahl, ed., China without Dragons: Rare Pieces from Oriental Ceramic Society Members (Cambridge, UK: Oriental Ceramic Society, 2018), 168–71.

2. Krahl, China, 134–35.

Krahl, Regina, ed. China without Dragons: Rare Pieces from Oriental Ceramic Society Members. Cambridge, UK: Oriental Ceramic Society, 2018.

Books with two authors

1. Lisa Golombek and Donald Newton Wilber, The Timurid Architecture of Iran and Turan, Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology 4 (Princeton: Princeton University Press 1988), 233–52.

2. Golombek and Wilber, Timurid Architecture, 235.

Golombek, Lisa, and Donald Newton Wilber. The Timurid Architecture of Iran and Turan. Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology 4. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Books with three authors

1. Lisa Golombek, Robert B. Mason, and Gauvin A. Bailey, Tamerlane’s Tableware: A New Approach to the Chinoiserie Ceramics of Fifteenth-and Sixteenth-Century Iran (Costa Meza: Mazda Publishers, 1996), 32–36.

2. Golombek, Mason, and Bailey, Tamerlane’s Tableware, 115.

Golombek, Lisa, Robert B. Mason, and Gauvin A. Bailey. Tamerlane’s Tableware: A New Approach to the Chinoiserie Ceramics of Fifteenth-and Sixteenth-Century Iran. Costa Meza: Mazda Publishers, 1996.

For a book with four or more authors, list all the authors in the bibliography but use the first full name and “et al.”

Book with editor or translator

1. Anna Komnena, The Alexiad, trans. E. R. A. Sewter (London: Penguin, 2003), 349.

2. Komnena, Alexiad, 100.

Komnena, Anna. The Alexiad. Translated by E. R. A. Sewter. London: Penguin, 2003.

Chapter in an edited volume

1. Paul Arthur, “Pots and Boundaries on Cultural and Economic Areas between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages,” in LRCW2: Late Roman Coarse Wares, Cooking Wares and Amphorae in the Mediterranean; Archaeology and Archaeometry, eds. Michel Bonifay and Jean-Christophe Tréglia, Bar International Series 2616 (Oxford: BAR Publishers, 2007), 15–16, fig. 1.

2. Arthur, “Pots,” 15.

Arthur, Paul. “Pots and Boundaries on Cultural and Economic Areas between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.” In LRCW2: Late Roman Coarse Wares, Cooking Wares and Amphorae in the Mediterranean; Archaeology and Archaeometry, edited by Michel Bonifay and Jean-Christophe Tréglia, 15–27. Bar International Series 2616. Oxford: BAR Publishers, 2007.

Journal article

1. Semih Gönen et al., “Archaeology and Conservation of the Middle Phrygian Gate Complex at Gordion, Turkey,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 379 (May 2018): 55–85, https://doi.org/10.5615/bullamerschoorie.379.0055.

2. Gönen et al., “Archaeology,” 67.

Gönen, Semih, Richard F. Liebhart, Naomi F. Miller, and Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre. “Archaeology and Conservation of the Middle Phrygian Gate Complex at Gordion, Turkey.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 379 (May 2018): 55–85. https://doi.org/10.5615/bullamerschoorie.379.0055.

Citing a particular volume

1. Howard G. Crane, “Art and Architecture, 1300–1453,” in The Cambridge History of Turkey: Byzantium to Turkey 1071–1453, ed. Kate Fleet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 1:266–352.

2. Crane, “Art,” 1:288.

Crane, Howard G. “Art and Architecture, 1300–1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey: Byzantium to Turkey 1071–1453, vol. 1, edited byKate Fleet, 266–352. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

1. İlkay İvgin, “Trakya İlk Tunç Çağı kronolojik sistemlerinin karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmesi” (master’s thesis, Trakya University, 2010), 75.

2. İvgin, “Trakya,” 110–15.

İvgin, İlkay. “Trakya İlk Tunç Çağı kronolojik sistemlerinin karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmesi.” Master’s thesis, Trakya University, 2010.

1. Aysel Yıldız, “Vaka-yı Selimiyye or the Selimiyye Incident: A Study of The May 1807 Rebellion,” (PhD diss., Sabancı University, 2008), 119.

2. Yıldız, “Vaka-yı Selimiyye,” 120.

Yıldız, Aysel. “Vaka-yı Selimiyye or the Selimiyye Incident: A Study of The May 1807 Rebellion.” PhD diss., Sabancı University, 2008.

Ancient Sources

These references only need to appear in the notes unless you are citing information provided by the edited/commentator/translator.

1. Herodotus, Histories 2.73.

2. Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXVI:27.

If you use information provided by the editor or other commentator, format the reference like a normal edited and translated volume:

Theon of Smyrna. Expositio rerum mathematicarum ad legendum Platonem utilium. Edited by Eduard Hiller. Leipzig: Teubner, 1878.


Electronic resources follow the same rules as other citations. The basic bibliographic form is the following:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Name of Website. Publishing organization, publication or revision date if available. Access date if no other date is available. URL.

Provide as much of the information as possible. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab has excellent examples for how to style a variety of web sources.

Titles in other languages

English titles are in headline capitalization; other languages are in sentence style (meaning only capitalize words that would normally be capitalized in those languages).

Böhlendorf-Arslan, Beate. “Die Beziehungen zwischen byzantinischer und emiratszeitlicher Keramik.” In Ortaçağ’da Anadolu, edited by Nermin Şaman Doğan, 135–56. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sanat Tarihi Bölümü, 2002.

———. Glasierte byzantinische Keramik aus der Türkei. Istanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2004.

———. “Keramikproduktion im byzantinischen und türkischen Milet.” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 58 (2008): 371–407.

Burlot, Jacques. “Premières productions de céramiques turques en Anatolie occidentale: contextualisation et études techniques.” PhD diss., University of Lyon 2, 2017.

Order of entries in the bibliography

A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same name.

If there are multiple entries that begin with the same name but have different co-authors, the entries are listed alphabetically according to the second co-author’s last name.

Entries with the same single author are listed alphabetically by the title (ignoring a/a/the). Use a 3-em dash rather than repeating the author’s name for each entry.