Year 2019, Volume 3 , Issue 6, Pages 425 - 438 2019-09-15

TÜRK TİPİ LİDERLİK: SABRİ ÜLKER ÖRNEĞİ
TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE

Elif BAYKAL [1]


Paternalist liderlik, Katı otoriter bir liderlik tavrını, babacanlık ve yardımseverlik ile birleştiren, insan odaklılık ve otoriterlik arasında mükemmel bir denge yaratan eşsiz bir liderlik yaklaşımıdır. Aslında, paternalist liderlik aynı anda iki tartışmalı liderlik tutumunu içerir. Yani, paternalist bir lider hem şefkatli hem de otoriter lider olmayı tercih eder. Mevcut literatüre göre, babalık ve babalık liderliği kültürel olarak sınırlandırılmış yaklaşımlardır ve kollektivist kültürler, babalık yapmayı zorunlu kılmaktadır.

Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'nin en başarılı aile şirketlerinden birinin kurucusu olan Sabri Ülker, Türk kültüründe T-tipi liderlik olarak da bilinen paternalist liderliğin bir örneği olarak ele alınacaktır. Hofstede’nin kültürel paradigması, Türk iş atmosferini ve hayırsever paternalist liderliğin eşdeğeri olan T-tipi liderliği anlamada kullanılacaktır.

Paternalistic leadership is a unique leadership approach that creates a perfect balance between people orientedness and authoritativeness. It combines a strict authority with a fatherly benevolence. In fact, paternalism encompasses two controversial leadership attitudes simultaneously. Namely, a paternalistic leader prefers to be both a caring and authoritative leader. According to the extant literature, paternalism and paternalistic leadership are culturally bounded approaches and collectivist cultures are more prone to necessiate paternalism. 

In this study, Sabri Ülker, founder of one of the most successful family owned businesses in Turkey will be taken under spotlight as an example of paternalistic leadership in Turkish culture, which is also known as T-type leadership. This work will try to explain paternalist leadership in Turkish business culture through Sabri Ülker's example. And Hofstede’s cultural paradigm will be used in understanding Turkish business atmosphere, and the so called T-type leadership which is the equavalent of benevolent paternalistic leadership.

  • Aycan, Z. (2001). Human resource management in Turkey-Current issues and future challenges. International Journal of Manpower, 22(3), 252-260.
  • Aycan, Z. (2006). Paternalism: Towards conceptual refinement and operationalization. In K. S. Yang, K. K. Hwang, & U. Kim (Eds.), Scientific advances in indigenous psychologies: Empirical, philosophical, and cultural con- tributions: 445-466. London: Sage Ltd.
  • Aycan, Z. ve Kanungo, R., N. (2000). “Toplumsal Kültürün Kurumsal Kültür ve İnsan Kaynakları Uygulamaları Üzerine Etkileri”, (Ed.: Zeynep Aycan), Akademisyenler ve Profesyoneller Bakış Açısıyla Türkiye’de Yönetim, Liderlik ve İnsan Kaynakları Uygulamaları, Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları: 25-53.
  • Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R. N., Mendonca, M., Yu, K., Deller, J., Stahl, G., et al. (2000). Impact of culture on human resource management practices: A 10-country comparison. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49: 192-221.
  • Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R., Mendonca, M., Yu, K., Deller, J., Stahl, G., & Kurshid, A. (2000). Impact of culture on human resource management practices: A 10‐country comparison. Applied Psychology, 49(1), 192-221.
  • Baykal, E., (2019a). Sürüdürlebilir Aile İşletmeleri. Elif Baykal (Ed.), Aile İşletmelerinde Devir Süreci ve Sürdürülebilirlik: Pozitif Liderlik Tarzlarının Etkisi (pp. 83-122). Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  • Baykal, E., (2019b). Family Firms and the Effects of Organizational Culture on Their Innovation. In Family Firms and the Effects of Organizational Culture on Their Innovation (pp. 207-226). IGI Global.
  • Chen, X. P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T. J., Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2014). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 796-819.
  • Cheng, B. S., Chou, L. F., Wu, T. Y., Huang, M. P., & Farh, J. L. (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: Establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7(1), 89-117.
  • Dyer, W. G. (1986). Cultural change in family firms. Jossey-Bass.
  • Erben, G. S., & Güneşer, A. B. (2008). The relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment: Investigating the role of climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(4), 955-968.
  • Erben, G., S. (2004). “Toplumsal Kültür Aile Kültürü Etkileşimi Bağlamında Paternalizm Boyutuyla İşletme Kültürü: Türkiye Örneği”, 1. Aile İşletmeleri Kongresi Bildirileri, 17-18 Nisan 2004, (Ed.: Koçel, T.), İstanbul: İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Yayınları: 345-356.
  • Fairhurst, G. T., & Grant, D. (2010). The social construction of leadership: A sailing guide. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 171-210.
  • Farh, J. L., Cheng, B. S., Chou, L. F., & Chu, X. P. (2006). Authority and benevolence: Employees’ responses to pater- nalistic leadership in China. In A. S. Tsui, Y. Bian, & L. Cheng (Eds.), China’s domestic private firms: Multidisciplinary perspectives on management and performance: 230-260. New York: Sharpe.
  • Farh, J., L. ve Cheng, B., S. (2000). “A Cultural Analysis of Paternalist Leadership in Chinese Organizations”, (Ed.: J., T., Li; A., S., Tsui ve E., Weldon), Management and Organizations in the Chinese Context, London: Macmillan: 84-127.
  • Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58: 479-514.
  • Giritli, H., & Oraz, G. T. (2004). Leadership styles: some evidence from the Turkish construction industry. Construction Management and Economics, 22(3), 253-262.
  • Hayek, M.; Novicevic, M., M.; Humphreys, J., H. ve Jones, N. (2010). “Ending the Denial of Slavery in Management History: Paternalist Leadership of Joseph Emory Davis”, Journal of Management History, 16/3: 367-379.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad?. Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.
  • Hofstede, G. (1992). Cultural dimensions in people management: The socialization perspective. Globalizing Management–Creating and Leading the Competitive Organization, Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
  • Hofstede, G. (1994). Management scientists are human. Management Science, 40(1), 4-13.
  • Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). h p://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014
  • Hofstede, G. and Hofstede, G.J. (2005), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (revised and expanded, 2nd ed.)James, K., Chen, D. L., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Culture and leadership among Taiwanese and U.S. workers: Do values influence leadership ideals? In M. N. Ruderman,
  • M. W. Hughes-James, & S. E. Jackson (Eds.), Selected research on work team diversity: 33-52. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Kabasakal, H. and M. Bodur: 2003. ‘Leadership and Culture in Turkey: A Multi-Faceted Phenomenon’, in C. J. Brodbeck (in progress), Managerial Cultures of the World: A Globe Report of In-Depth Studies of the Cultures of 25 Countries (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA).
  • Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 36(4), 403-422.
  • Kim, U. M.: 1994, ‘Significance of Paternalism and Communalism in the Occupational Welfare System of Korean Firms: A National Survey’, in U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi and G. Yoon (eds.), Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Applications (Sage Publications, London), pp. 251–266.
  • Lu, L., Li, F., Leung, K., Savani, K., & Morris, M. W. (2018). When can culturally diverse teams be more creative? The role of leaders' benevolent paternalism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(4), 402-415.
  • Migliore, L. A. (2011). Relation between big five personality traits and Hofstede's cultural dimensions: Samples from the USA and India. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(1), 38-54.
  • Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2006). Leader-member exchange (LMX), paternalism and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(2): 264-279.
  • Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34(3), 566-593.
  • Sargut, S. (2001). Kulturler arasi farklilasma ve yonetim. Ankara: Verso Yayincilik.
  • Shahin, A. I., & Wright, P. L. (2004). Leadership in the context of culture: An Egyptian perspective. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(6), 499-511.Sorenson, M. D., & Franzosa, E. A. (1999). TreeRot, version 2. Boston University, Boston, MA.
  • Sullivan, D., Mitchell, M., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2003). The new conduct of business: How LMX can help capitalize on cultural diversity. In G. Graen (Ed.), Dealing with diversity: 183-218. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  • Turgut, H. (2014), Sabri Ülker’in Anıları, Doğan Kitap, İstanbul.
  • Uhl-Bien, M., & Maslyn, M. (2005). Paternalism as a form of leadership: Differentiating paternalism from leader- member exchange. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Weber, M. (1968). The types of legitimate domination. In G. Roth & C. Wittich (Eds.), Economy and society (Vol. 3): 212-216. New York: Bedminster.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-4966-8074
Author: Elif BAYKAL
Institution: İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : September 15, 2019

Bibtex @research article { tjsosci590000, journal = {The Journal of Social Science}, issn = {}, eissn = {2587-0807}, address = {thejournalofsocialscience@gmail.com}, publisher = {Cenk AKSOY}, year = {2019}, volume = {3}, pages = {425 - 438}, doi = {10.30520/tjsosci.590000}, title = {TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE}, key = {cite}, author = {BAYKAL, Elif} }
APA BAYKAL, E . (2019). TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE. The Journal of Social Science , 3 (6) , 425-438 . DOI: 10.30520/tjsosci.590000
MLA BAYKAL, E . "TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE". The Journal of Social Science 3 (2019 ): 425-438 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjsosci/issue/48639/590000>
Chicago BAYKAL, E . "TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE". The Journal of Social Science 3 (2019 ): 425-438
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE AU - Elif BAYKAL Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.30520/tjsosci.590000 DO - 10.30520/tjsosci.590000 T2 - The Journal of Social Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 425 EP - 438 VL - 3 IS - 6 SN - -2587-0807 M3 - doi: 10.30520/tjsosci.590000 UR - https://doi.org/10.30520/tjsosci.590000 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Social Science TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE %A Elif BAYKAL %T TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE %D 2019 %J The Journal of Social Science %P -2587-0807 %V 3 %N 6 %R doi: 10.30520/tjsosci.590000 %U 10.30520/tjsosci.590000
ISNAD BAYKAL, Elif . "TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE". The Journal of Social Science 3 / 6 (September 2019): 425-438 . https://doi.org/10.30520/tjsosci.590000
AMA BAYKAL E . TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE. TJSS. 2019; 3(6): 425-438.
Vancouver BAYKAL E . TURKISH TYPE LEADERSHIP: SABRI ULKER EXAMPLE. The Journal of Social Science. 2019; 3(6): 438-425.