This systematic review investigates two foci: identifying the ongoing status of smart personal digital assistants in educational contexts and the possible relationship between smart personal digital assistants and gamification elements. This relationship is expressed in almost two new figurative terms, namely, robo-sapiens and robo-ludens and the present study lays on the foundations of these terms. Therefore, this paper presents a holistic approach for the review and synthesis of the previous literature. The data of the study were gathered based on the findings reported in the related research articles, conference papers, dissertations, book chapters and project reports by focusing on 9 sets of generic keywords. As a part of this study, smart personal digital assistants in learning processes were scanned purposively in the lens of gamification. To this end, a two step inclusion criteria was implemented to review the studies of the research scope. Content analysis was the main method used for data analysis. The research findings revealed the most significant fields for the use of smart personal digital assistants are dominantly e-learning and special education. The research also discusses game-related components in smart personal digital assistant use in edu-centric purposes.
Smart personal digital assistants, robo sapiens, robo ludens, play behaviour, digital playmates