Year 2020, Volume 21 , Issue 4, Pages 14 - 30 2020-10-01

THE EFFECT OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS ON L2 LEARNERS’ DEVELOPMENT AND RETENTION OF GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE

Ahmad NOROOZI [1] , Ehsan REZVANI [2] , Ahmad AMERI-GOLESTAN [3]


The present study was conducted within the framework of sociocultural theory to examine the effect of flipped instruction on Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ development of conditional sentences. The study benefited from quantitative methodology within which 60 intermediate Iranian male EFL learners who were checked for their language proficiency by an Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) to meet the homogeneity assumption were selected and given a pre- and post-test as well as a delayed post-test on conditional sentences. Half of the learners formed the experimental group and the remaining participants were assigned to the control group. The flipped instruction occurred through WhatsApp and was amplified by face to face discussions on the linguistic materials. Online learning environment armed the learners with the formal instruction of conditional sentences while the in-class time was devoted to tap into meaningful interaction for internalizing the previously-uploaded audio and video grammar tasks. The learners in the control group were provided with direct instruction by using traditional whiteboards. Results revealed that the experimental group, receiving flipped teaching, outperformed the control group that received conventional type of grammar instruction. Moreover, the use of flipped model resulted in significant improvement in learning and retention of conditional sentences. Findings also demonstrated that learners benefited from flipped-taught grammar augmented through feedback in the face-to-face classroom, which acts as the mediator between the teacher and the learners. It can be strongly recommended that teachers can take advantage of flipped instruction in providing effective instruction of language skills and sub-skills and facilitate the learning process for the learners as well.
English Language Teaching, Flipped instruction, grammar learning, sociocultural theory
  • Allen, D. (1992). Oxford placement test 2 (New edition). Oxford University Press.
  • Bauer‐Ramazani, C., Graney, J. M., Marshall, H. W., & Sabieh, C. (2016). Flipped learning in TESOL: Definitions, approaches, and implementation. TESOL Journal, 7(2), 429-437.
  • Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2009). Remixing chemistry class: Two colorado teachers make vodcasts of their lectures to free up class time for hands-on activities. Learning & Leading with Technology, 36 (4), 22-27.
  • Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Talk to Every Student in Every Class Every Day. USA: International Society for Technology in Education.
  • Bergmann, J., Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International Society for Technology in Education.
  • Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2014). Flipped learning. London: Washington & Eurospan.
  • Berman, R. (2015). His students were struggling, so he ‘flipped’ his classroom. XQ: The Super School Project.
  • Retrieved online November 05, 2015, from http://www.upworthy.com/his-students-werestruggling- so-he-flipped-his-classroom
  • Berrett, D. (2012). How ‘flipping’ the classroom can improve the traditional lecture. Education Digest, 78(1), 36-41.
  • Blake, R. J. (2008). Brave new digital classroom: technology and foreign language learning. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
  • Bishop, J., Dr. Verleger, M. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research. American Society for Engineering Education. June 23-26, 2013.
  • Bligh, D. A. (1998). What’s the Use of Lectures? London: Jossey-Bass.
  • Burgan, M. (2006). In defense of lecturing. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 38(6), 30-34.
  • Chambers, A. (2010). Computer-assisted language learning: mapping the territory. Language Teaching, 43(1), 113-122.
  • Ekmekci, E. (2017). The flipped writing clkassroom in Turkish EFL context: A coamparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18 (2), 151-167.
  • Farhady, H., Jafarpour, A., & Birjandi, P. (1994). Testing language skills. Tehran: SAMT Publications. Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet & Higher Education, 7(2), 95-105.
  • Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2007). Blended learning in higher education: framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Gough, E., DeJong, D., Grundmeyer, T., Baron, M., K-12 Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Flipped Classroom Model for Teaching and Learning. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 2017, Vol. 45(3), 390-423.
  • Hung, H. T. (2015) Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81-96.
  • Herman, T., & Banister, S. (2007). Face-to-face versus online coursework: A comparison of costs and learning outcomes. Contemporary Issues in Technology Education, 7(4), 318-326.
  • Kalin, J. (2012). Doing what comes naturally? Student perceptions and use of collaborative technologies. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 6(1), 11-27.
  • Kong, S. C. (2015). An experience of a three-year study on the development of critical thinking skills in flipped secondary classrooms with pedagogical and technological support. Computers & Education, 89, 16-31.
  • Krumsvik, R.J., & Jones, L. Ø., (2016). Flipped classroom i naturfag: Finnes det en sammenheng mellom omvendt undervisning (flipped classroom) og elevprestasjoner i naturfag? Norsk Pedagogisk Tidsskrift. 1-2016, p. 61-73.
  • Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lantolf, J. P. (2004). Sociocultural theory and second and foreign language learning: An overview of sociocultural theory. In K. van Esch, and O. St. John (Eds.), New insights into foreign language learning and teaching. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Maleki, A., & Zangani, E. (2007). A survey on the relationship between English language proficiency and the academic achievement of Iranian EFL students. Asian EFL Journal, 9(1), 86-96.
  • Moranski, K., & Kim, F. (2016). ‘Flipping’ lessons in a multi-section Spanish course: Implications for assigning explicit grammar instruction outside of the classroom. Modern Language Journal, 100 (4), 1-23.
  • Murray, D., Kozniec, T., McGill, T., (2015). Student perceptions of Flipped Learning. School of Engineering and Information Technology. Australian Computer Society.
  • Neumeier, P. (2005). A closer look at blended learning - parameters for designing a blended learning environment for language teaching and learning. ReCALL, 17(2), 163-178.
  • Nielsen, L. (2012). Five reasons I’m not flipping over the flipped classroom. Technology & Learning, 32(10), 46-46.
  • O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85-95.
  • Pea, R. D. (2004). The Social and Technological Dimensions of Scaffolding and Related Theoretical Concepts for Learning, Education, and Human Activity. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 423-451.
  • Pence, P. L. (2016). Flipping a first-year medical–surgical associate degree registered nursing course: A 2-year pilot study. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 11(2), 52-57.
  • Prunuske, A., Batzli, J., Howell, E., & Miller, S. (2012). Using online lectures to make time for active learning. Genetics, 192(1), 67-72.
  • Sahin, A., Cavlazoglu, B., & Zeytuncu, Y. E. (2015). Flipping a college calculus course: A case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 142-152.
  • Strayer, J. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171-193.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological process. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Wang, H. (2006). Teaching Asian students online: What matters and why? PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 15, 69-84.
  • Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31, 57-71.
  • Wood, D., Bruner, J.S. & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100
  • Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K., McKnight, K., McKnight, P., (2014). Extension of a review of Flipped Learning. Creative Commons Attribution. Retrieved from the Flipped Learning Network website: http:// flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3871-5936
Author: Ahmad NOROOZI (Primary Author)
Institution: English Department, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University Isfahan, IRAN
Country: Iran


Author: Ehsan REZVANI
Institution: English Department, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University Isfahan, IRAN
Country: Iran


Orcid: 0000-0002-4502-3017
Author: Ahmad AMERI-GOLESTAN
Institution: English Department, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University Isfahan, IRAN
Country: Iran


Dates

Application Date : February 24, 2019
Acceptance Date : October 23, 2020
Publication Date : October 1, 2020

APA Noroozı, A , Rezvanı, E , Amerı-golestan, A . (2020). THE EFFECT OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS ON L2 LEARNERS’ DEVELOPMENT AND RETENTION OF GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 21 (4) , 14-30 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.803344