The present study was conducted within the framework of sociocultural theory to examine the effect of
flipped instruction on Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ development of conditional
sentences. The study benefited from quantitative methodology within which 60 intermediate Iranian male
EFL learners who were checked for their language proficiency by an Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT)
to meet the homogeneity assumption were selected and given a pre- and post-test as well as a delayed
post-test on conditional sentences. Half of the learners formed the experimental group and the remaining
participants were assigned to the control group. The flipped instruction occurred through WhatsApp and
was amplified by face to face discussions on the linguistic materials. Online learning environment armed
the learners with the formal instruction of conditional sentences while the in-class time was devoted to
tap into meaningful interaction for internalizing the previously-uploaded audio and video grammar tasks.
The learners in the control group were provided with direct instruction by using traditional whiteboards.
Results revealed that the experimental group, receiving flipped teaching, outperformed the control group
that received conventional type of grammar instruction. Moreover, the use of flipped model resulted in
significant improvement in learning and retention of conditional sentences. Findings also demonstrated that
learners benefited from flipped-taught grammar augmented through feedback in the face-to-face classroom,
which acts as the mediator between the teacher and the learners. It can be strongly recommended that
teachers can take advantage of flipped instruction in providing effective instruction of language skills and
sub-skills and facilitate the learning process for the learners as well.
English Language Teaching, Flipped instruction, grammar learning, sociocultural theory