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Sosyal karşılaştırma, örgüt içi rekabet, örgütsel imrenme davranışları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: Turizm akademisyenleri örneği

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 24 - 33, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.53601/tourismandrecreation.1126658

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, turizm akademisyenlerinin sosyal karşılaştırma ve örgüt içi rekabet algısının örgütsel imrenme üzerine etkisini araştırmaktır. Araştırmanın evreni, Türkiye’deki yükseköğretim kamu kurumlarının turizm ile ilişkili bölümlerinde çalışmakta olan akademisyenleri kapsamaktadır. Yargısal örnekleme yöntemi ile birlikte ulaşılan ve anket uygulamasına katılan akademisyenler araştırmanın örneklemini oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında, çevrimiçi bir platform üzerinden anket formu hazırlanmış ve 12-27 Nisan 2022 tarihleri arasında uygulanmıştır. Anket formu, akademisyenlere elektronik posta aracılığıyla gönderilmiş ve 283 akademisyen katılım sağlamıştır. Kullanılan ölçeklerin geçerliliklerini belirlemek için açıklayıcı faktör analizi, değişkenler arası ilişkileri açıklamak için korelasyon analizi, değişkenler arasındaki etki düzeylerini belirlemek için regresyon analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda hem sosyal karşılaştırma hem de örgüt içi rekabet algısı ile örgütsel imrenme arasında pozitif yönlü, anlamlı fakat zayıf düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bir başka deyişle, turizm akademisyenlerin sosyal karşılaştırma ve örgüt içi rekabet algıları arttıkça örgütsel imrenme duyguları da artmaktadır.

References

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  • Akyüz, A. M., & Durmuş, İ. (2022). Akademisyenlerin Akademik Başarı Çabalarında Kuruma Sadakat, Kıskançlık ve İmrenme Davranışlarının Etkisi: PLS-SEM ile Ölçek Geliştirme, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 21(82), 695-717.
  • Alkan, B. N. (2019). Otel İşletmelerinde Algılanan Nepotizm Düzeyinin Örgütsel Adalet ve Yaşam Tatmini Üzerindeki Etkileri: Hatay İli Örneği, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Gaziantep.
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  • Becker-Ritterspach, F. & Dörrenbächer, C. (2011). An Organizational Politics Perspective on Intra-Firm Competition in Multinational Corporations. Management International Review, 51(4). 533-559.
  • Brooks, A. W., Huang K., Abi-Esber, N., Buell, R. W., Huang, L. & Hall, B. (2019). Mitigating Malicious Envy: Why Successful Individuals Should Reveal Their Failures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(4), 667-687.
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  • Collins, R. L. (1996). For Better or Worse: The Impact of Upward Social Comparison on Self-Evaluations. Psychological bulletin, 119(1), 51-69.
  • Chan, K. & Prendergast, G. (2007). Materialism and Social Comparison Among Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(2), 213-228.
  • Child, D. (2006). The Essentials of Factor Analysis. Third edition. London: Continuum
  • Çelebi, F., Hasan, G. Ü. L., & Akkuş, D. B. (2021). Örgütsel İmrenme ve İmrenilme: Akademisyenler Üzerinde Bir Araştırma ve Ölçek Uyarlaması. Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 23(40), 72-97.
  • Çiçek, B., & Kaynak, İ. (2022). Örgüt İçi Rekabetin Örgütsel Kıskançlığa Etkisinde Öz Saygının Rolü: Sivil Havacılık Çalışanları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. İzmir İktisat Dergisi, 37(1), 110-134.
  • Daniels, A. M. (2007). Cooperation Versus Competition: Is There Really Such An İssue? New Directions for Youth Development, 115, 43-56.
  • Delpriore, D. J., Hill, S. E. & Buss D. M. (2012). Envy: Functional Specificity and Sex- Differentiated Design Features. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 317-322.
  • Dinçer, Ö. (2013). Örgüt Geliştirme. İstanbul: Alfa Basım Yayım.
  • Dogan, K. & Vecchio, R. P. (2001). Managing Envy and Jealousy in The Workplace. Compensation ve Benefits Review, 33(2), 57-64.
  • Durmaz, M. G. & Gümüştekin, G. (2021). Negatif Duyguların Bir Yansıması Olarak İşyeri Kıskançlığı. Uluslararası İşletme, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Perspektifleri Dergisi (IJBEMP), 5(2), 716-731.
  • Durmuş, İ. (2021). Kurum yöneticilerinin etik liderlik davranışları ile çalışanların kuruma ve yöneticilerine olan sadakatlerinin imrenme ve kıskançlık davranışları moderatörlüğünde akademik başarı çabaları üzerindeki olası etkilerinin incelenmesi, Doktora Tezi, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Gümüşhane.
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  • Eslami, A. & Arshadi, N. (2016). Effect of Organizational Competitive Climate on Organizational Prosocial Behavior: Workplace Envy as a Mediator, International Journal of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, 10(5), 1798-1801.
  • Ferreira, K. & Botelho, D. (2017). Why Do They Have It and Not I? Envy And Consumption. Latin America Advances in Consumer Research, 4, 108-113.
  • Festinger, L. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.
  • Garcia, S. M., Tor, A., & Schiff, T. M. (2013). The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 634-650.
  • Gerber, J. P. (2020). Social Comparison Theory. İçinde, Zeigler-Hill, V., & T. K. Shackelford (Eds). In Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, New York: Springer.
  • Ghadi, M. Y. (2018). Empirical Examination of Theoretical Model of Workplace Envy: Evidences from Jordan. Management Research Review, 41(12), 1438-1459.
  • Gilhooly, L. (2020). The Need to be 'Liked' in the Selfie Generation: The Relationship Between Social Media Use and Social Comparison in Young Adult Women. Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University.
  • González-Navarro, P., Zurriaga-Llorens, R., Tosin Olateju, A., & Llinares-Insa, L. I. (2018). Envy and Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Moderation Role of Leadership in Public and Private Organizations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1455.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Khalid, S., Irshad, M. Z. & Mahmood, B. (2012). Job Satisfaction Among Academic Staff: A Comparative Analysis Between Public and Private Sector Universities of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 126-136.
  • Khon, A. (1992). No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Boston New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Kwiatkowska, M. M., Rogoza, R. & Volkodav, T. (2020). Psychometric Properties of the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale: Assessment of Structure, Reliability, and Measurement Invariance Across the United States, Germany, Russia, and Poland. Current Psychology, 41, 2908-2918.
  • Landkammer, F. & Sassenberg, K. (2016). Competing While Cooperating with The Same Others: The Consequences of Conflicting Demands in Co-Opetition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(12), 1670-1686.
  • Lange, J., Weidman, A. C. & Crusius, J. (2018). The Painful Duality of Envy: Evidence for An Integrative Theory and A Meta-Analysis on The Relation of Envy and Schadenfreude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(4), 572-598.
  • Lazarus, R. S., Cohen-Charash, Y., Payne, R., & Cooper, C. (2001). Discrete Emotions in Organizational Life. Içinde, R. L. Payne and G. L. Cooper (Eds). Emotions at work: Theory, research and applications for management, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2021). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Envy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 45(3), 418-427.
  • Luft, J. (2016). Cooperation and Competition Among Employees: Experimental evidence on the Role of Management Control Systems. Management Accounting Research, 31, 75-85.
  • Maris, Z. D., Saidabadi, R. Y., & Niazazari, K. (2016). Explaining The Role of Spiritual Leadership in Envy Management Of Faculty Members Through The Role Of Professional Mediator. Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 6(2), 211-224.
  • Mosquera, P. M. R., Parrott, W. G. & Mendoza, A. H. D. (2010). I Fear Your Envy, I Rejoice in Your Coveting: On the Ambivalent Experience of Being Envied by Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 842-854.
  • Nandedkar, A. (2016). Investigating Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Envy: An Evidence from The Information Technology Industry. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 19(4), 419-451
  • Özdemir, S. (2021). Kıskançlık Olgusu ve Akademik Örgütlere Yansıması. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Vizyoner Dergisi, 12(30), 652-676.
  • Özkoç, A. G. & Çaliskan, N. (2015). The Impact of Organizational Envy on Organizational Climate Created Among Employees: An Application in Accommodation Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(1), 40-49.
  • Phua, J., Jin, S.V. & Kim, J. (2017), Gratifications of Using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snapchat to Follow Brands: The Moderating Effect of Social Comparison, Trust, Tie Strength, and Network Homophily on Brand Identification, Brand Engagement, Brand Commitment, and Membership Intention, Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.
  • Polat, Y. B. (2017). Haset, İmrenme ve Kıskançlık Duygu Durumlarının Ayrıştırılması. Aydın Toplum ve İnsan Dergisi, 3(2), 29-42.
  • Pomery, E. A., Gibbons, F. X. & Stock, M. L. (2012). Social Comparison. İçinde, V.S. Ramachandran (Edt). Encyclopedia of human behavior. Elsevier Science & Technology Books.
  • Rentzsch, K., Schroder-Abe, M. & Schutz, A. (2015). Envy Mediates the Relation Between Low Academic Self-Esteem and Hostile Tendencies. Journal of Research in Personality, 58, 143-153.
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Examining the relationship between social comparison, intra-organizational competition, organizational envy behaviors: The case of tourism academicians

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 24 - 33, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.53601/tourismandrecreation.1126658

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of tourism academicians’ perception of social comparison and intra-organizational competition on organizational envy. The universe of the research includes academicians working in tourism-related departments of higher education public institutions in Turkey. The academics who were reached with the judgmental sampling method and participated in the survey form the sample of the research. Within the scope of the research, a questionnaire form was prepared on an online platform and applied between 12-27 April 2022. The questionnaire form was sent to the academicians via electronic mail and 283 academicians participated. Explanatory factor analysis was performed to determine the validity of the scales used, correlation analysis was performed to explain the relationships between the variables, and regression analysis was performed to determine the effect levels between the variables. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that there is a positive, significant but weak relationship between both social comparison and intra-organizational competition perception and organizational envy. In other words, as the perceptions of social comparison and intra-organizational competition of tourism academicians increase, also organizational envy feelings increase.

References

  • Akar, F. (2019). Üniversitede Akademisyen ve Yönetici Yetenekleri: Yetenek Yönetiminin Uygulanabilirliği Konusunda Bir İnceleme. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7(2), 14-541.
  • Akyüz, A. M., & Durmuş, İ. (2022). Akademisyenlerin Akademik Başarı Çabalarında Kuruma Sadakat, Kıskançlık ve İmrenme Davranışlarının Etkisi: PLS-SEM ile Ölçek Geliştirme, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 21(82), 695-717.
  • Alkan, B. N. (2019). Otel İşletmelerinde Algılanan Nepotizm Düzeyinin Örgütsel Adalet ve Yaşam Tatmini Üzerindeki Etkileri: Hatay İli Örneği, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Gaziantep.
  • Arnkelsson, G. B. & Smith, W. P. (2000). The Impact of Stable and Unstable Attributes on Ability Assessment in Social Comparison. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(8), 36-947.
  • Becker-Ritterspach, F. & Dörrenbächer, C. (2011). An Organizational Politics Perspective on Intra-Firm Competition in Multinational Corporations. Management International Review, 51(4). 533-559.
  • Brooks, A. W., Huang K., Abi-Esber, N., Buell, R. W., Huang, L. & Hall, B. (2019). Mitigating Malicious Envy: Why Successful Individuals Should Reveal Their Failures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(4), 667-687.
  • Buunk, A. P., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). Social Comparison: The End of a Theory and The Emergence of a Field. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102(1), 3-21.
  • Collins, R. L. (1996). For Better or Worse: The Impact of Upward Social Comparison on Self-Evaluations. Psychological bulletin, 119(1), 51-69.
  • Chan, K. & Prendergast, G. (2007). Materialism and Social Comparison Among Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(2), 213-228.
  • Child, D. (2006). The Essentials of Factor Analysis. Third edition. London: Continuum
  • Çelebi, F., Hasan, G. Ü. L., & Akkuş, D. B. (2021). Örgütsel İmrenme ve İmrenilme: Akademisyenler Üzerinde Bir Araştırma ve Ölçek Uyarlaması. Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 23(40), 72-97.
  • Çiçek, B., & Kaynak, İ. (2022). Örgüt İçi Rekabetin Örgütsel Kıskançlığa Etkisinde Öz Saygının Rolü: Sivil Havacılık Çalışanları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. İzmir İktisat Dergisi, 37(1), 110-134.
  • Daniels, A. M. (2007). Cooperation Versus Competition: Is There Really Such An İssue? New Directions for Youth Development, 115, 43-56.
  • Delpriore, D. J., Hill, S. E. & Buss D. M. (2012). Envy: Functional Specificity and Sex- Differentiated Design Features. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 317-322.
  • Dinçer, Ö. (2013). Örgüt Geliştirme. İstanbul: Alfa Basım Yayım.
  • Dogan, K. & Vecchio, R. P. (2001). Managing Envy and Jealousy in The Workplace. Compensation ve Benefits Review, 33(2), 57-64.
  • Durmaz, M. G. & Gümüştekin, G. (2021). Negatif Duyguların Bir Yansıması Olarak İşyeri Kıskançlığı. Uluslararası İşletme, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Perspektifleri Dergisi (IJBEMP), 5(2), 716-731.
  • Durmuş, İ. (2021). Kurum yöneticilerinin etik liderlik davranışları ile çalışanların kuruma ve yöneticilerine olan sadakatlerinin imrenme ve kıskançlık davranışları moderatörlüğünde akademik başarı çabaları üzerindeki olası etkilerinin incelenmesi, Doktora Tezi, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Gümüşhane.
  • Eroğlu, O. & Yalçın, A. (2013). Rekabet ve Mekânsal Kuramlara İlişkin Genel Bir Değerlendirme. Kafkas Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(6), 95-114.
  • Eslami, A. & Arshadi, N. (2016). Effect of Organizational Competitive Climate on Organizational Prosocial Behavior: Workplace Envy as a Mediator, International Journal of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, 10(5), 1798-1801.
  • Ferreira, K. & Botelho, D. (2017). Why Do They Have It and Not I? Envy And Consumption. Latin America Advances in Consumer Research, 4, 108-113.
  • Festinger, L. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.
  • Garcia, S. M., Tor, A., & Schiff, T. M. (2013). The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 634-650.
  • Gerber, J. P. (2020). Social Comparison Theory. İçinde, Zeigler-Hill, V., & T. K. Shackelford (Eds). In Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, New York: Springer.
  • Ghadi, M. Y. (2018). Empirical Examination of Theoretical Model of Workplace Envy: Evidences from Jordan. Management Research Review, 41(12), 1438-1459.
  • Gilhooly, L. (2020). The Need to be 'Liked' in the Selfie Generation: The Relationship Between Social Media Use and Social Comparison in Young Adult Women. Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University.
  • González-Navarro, P., Zurriaga-Llorens, R., Tosin Olateju, A., & Llinares-Insa, L. I. (2018). Envy and Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Moderation Role of Leadership in Public and Private Organizations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1455.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Khalid, S., Irshad, M. Z. & Mahmood, B. (2012). Job Satisfaction Among Academic Staff: A Comparative Analysis Between Public and Private Sector Universities of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 126-136.
  • Khon, A. (1992). No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Boston New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Kwiatkowska, M. M., Rogoza, R. & Volkodav, T. (2020). Psychometric Properties of the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale: Assessment of Structure, Reliability, and Measurement Invariance Across the United States, Germany, Russia, and Poland. Current Psychology, 41, 2908-2918.
  • Landkammer, F. & Sassenberg, K. (2016). Competing While Cooperating with The Same Others: The Consequences of Conflicting Demands in Co-Opetition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(12), 1670-1686.
  • Lange, J., Weidman, A. C. & Crusius, J. (2018). The Painful Duality of Envy: Evidence for An Integrative Theory and A Meta-Analysis on The Relation of Envy and Schadenfreude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(4), 572-598.
  • Lazarus, R. S., Cohen-Charash, Y., Payne, R., & Cooper, C. (2001). Discrete Emotions in Organizational Life. Içinde, R. L. Payne and G. L. Cooper (Eds). Emotions at work: Theory, research and applications for management, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Leahy, R. L. (2021). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Envy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 45(3), 418-427.
  • Luft, J. (2016). Cooperation and Competition Among Employees: Experimental evidence on the Role of Management Control Systems. Management Accounting Research, 31, 75-85.
  • Maris, Z. D., Saidabadi, R. Y., & Niazazari, K. (2016). Explaining The Role of Spiritual Leadership in Envy Management Of Faculty Members Through The Role Of Professional Mediator. Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 6(2), 211-224.
  • Mosquera, P. M. R., Parrott, W. G. & Mendoza, A. H. D. (2010). I Fear Your Envy, I Rejoice in Your Coveting: On the Ambivalent Experience of Being Envied by Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 842-854.
  • Nandedkar, A. (2016). Investigating Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Envy: An Evidence from The Information Technology Industry. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 19(4), 419-451
  • Özdemir, S. (2021). Kıskançlık Olgusu ve Akademik Örgütlere Yansıması. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Vizyoner Dergisi, 12(30), 652-676.
  • Özkoç, A. G. & Çaliskan, N. (2015). The Impact of Organizational Envy on Organizational Climate Created Among Employees: An Application in Accommodation Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(1), 40-49.
  • Phua, J., Jin, S.V. & Kim, J. (2017), Gratifications of Using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snapchat to Follow Brands: The Moderating Effect of Social Comparison, Trust, Tie Strength, and Network Homophily on Brand Identification, Brand Engagement, Brand Commitment, and Membership Intention, Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.
  • Polat, Y. B. (2017). Haset, İmrenme ve Kıskançlık Duygu Durumlarının Ayrıştırılması. Aydın Toplum ve İnsan Dergisi, 3(2), 29-42.
  • Pomery, E. A., Gibbons, F. X. & Stock, M. L. (2012). Social Comparison. İçinde, V.S. Ramachandran (Edt). Encyclopedia of human behavior. Elsevier Science & Technology Books.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Behavioral Sciences
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Emre YAŞAR> (Primary Author)
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1573-0930
Türkiye


Nesrin AYDIN ALAKUŞ>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7263-4457
Türkiye


Bilal Nadir ALKAN>
NEVŞEHİR HACI BEKTAŞ VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4330-3613
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date June 6, 2022
Acceptance Date June 16, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Yaşar, E. , Aydın Alakuş, N. & Alkan, B. N. (2022). Sosyal karşılaştırma, örgüt içi rekabet, örgütsel imrenme davranışları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: Turizm akademisyenleri örneği . Tourism and Recreation , 4 (1) , 24-33 . DOI: 10.53601/tourismandrecreation.1126658