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Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 342 - 351, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1168393

Abstract

Environmental and climatic fluctuations as well as abiotic stress factors affect agricultural production and cause a loss in quality and yield. It is important to find alternative solutions for the sustainability of agricultural production to feed the increasing population. Salt stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stress factors and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production is also affected by salt stress since it needs extensive irrigation for high yield. The exogenous application of some plant inducers showed promising results in the induction and improvement of plant tolerance to stress factors. Chitosan (2-amino-2-deoxy-b-D-glucosamine), one of the organic compounds, is getting significant attention in agriculture with its potential. Here, we evaluated the potential of chitosan application for salt stress tolerance on tomato. 0.03% and 0.05% chitosan solutions were applied as a foliar spray to the plant and salt tolerance improvement were investigated under untreated (0 mM NaCl) and 100 mM NaCl conditions. The growth-related (root and shoot diameters, above and below-ground biomass, number of leaves and branches, and plant height), photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll a, b, total carotenoid content), and ion leakage were investigated. According to the results, chitosan application improves plant development in both untreated and salt-stress conditions and improved plant growth. Also, photosynthetic parameters showed that the application of chitosan increased chlorophyll contents under untreated conditions. Our result suggests that the application of chitosan may have a promising effect on salt stress tolerance and further research may shed light on its molecular mechanisms.

References

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  • Abd El-Daim, I.A., Bejai, S., Meijer, J., 2014. Improved heat stress tolerance of wheat seedlings by bacterial seed treatment. Plant and Soil, 379(1-2): 337-350.
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  • Al-Tawaha, A.R., Turk, M.A., Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Alu'datt, M.H., Wedyan, M., Al-Ramamneh, E., Hoang, A.T., 2018. Using chitosan to improve growth of maize cultivars under salinity conditions. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 24(3): 437-442.
  • Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Jahan, N., Odat, N., Al-Ramamneh, E.A., Al-Tawaha, A.R., Abu-Zaitoon, Y.M., Fandi, K., Alhawatema, M., Amanullah, Rauf, A., Wedyan, M., Shariati, M.A., Qaisi, A.M., Imran, Tawaha, K., Turk, M., Khanum, S., 2020. Growth, yield and biochemical responses in barley to dap and chitosan application under water stress. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 21(6): 86-93.
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  • Ashour, H.A., Esmail, S.E.A., Kotb, M.S., 2021. Alleviative effects of chitosan or humic acid on Vitex trifolia 'Purpurea' grown under salinity stress. Ornamental Horticulture-Revista Brasileira De Horticultura Ornamental, 27(1): 88-102.
  • Ashraf, M., Harris, P.J.C., 2004. Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Science, 166(1): 3-16.
  • Attia, M.S., Osman, M.S., Mohamed, A.S., Mahgoub, H.A., Garada, M.O., Abdelmouty, E.S., Latef, A., 2021. Impact of foliar application of chitosan dissolved in different organic acids on isozymes, protein patterns and physio-biochemical characteristics of tomato grown under salinity stress. Plants-Basel, 10(2): 1-23.
  • Ayed, S., Bouhaouel, I., Jebari, H., Hamada, W., 2022. Use of biostimulants: towards sustainable approach to enhance durum wheat performances. Plants-Basel, 11(1): 1-19.
  • Babalola, O.O., 2010. Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance. Biotechnology Letters, 32(11): 1559-1570.
  • Balusamy, S.R., Rahimi, S., Sukweenadhi, J., Sunderraj, S., Shanmugam, R., Thangavelu, L., Mijakovic, I., Perumalsamy, H., 2022. Chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles and modified chitosan biomaterials, a potential tool to combat salinity stress in plants. Carbohydrate Polymers, 284: 1-19.
  • Behera, T.K., Krishna, R., Ansari, W.A., Aamir, M., Kumar, P., Kashyap, S.P., Pandey, S., Kole, C., 2022. Approaches involved in the vegetable crops salt stress tolerance improvement: present status and way ahead. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12: 1-20.
  • Bektas, Y., Eulgem, T., 2015. Synthetic plant defense elicitors. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5(804): 1-17.
  • Bektas, Y., Rodriguez-Salus, M., Schroeder, M., Gomez, A., Kaloshian, I., Eulgem, T., 2016. The synthetic elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxy phenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) triggers strong immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. Scientific Reports, 6(1): 1-16.
  • Borlaug, N.E., 1983. Contributions of conventional plant breeding to food production. Science (Washington D C), 219(4585): 689-693.
  • Borlaug, N.E., 2002. Feeding a world of 10 billion people: The miracle ahead. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology Plant, 38(2): 221-228.
  • Bulgari, R., Franzoni, G., Ferrante, A., 2019. Biostimulants application in horticultural crops under abiotic stress conditions. Agronomy-Basel, 9(6): 1-30.
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  • Elansary, H.O., Abdel-Hamid, A.M.E., Yessoufou, K., Al-Mana, F.A., El-Ansary, D.O., Mahmoud, E.A., Al-Yafrasi, M.A., 2020. Physiological and molecular characterization of water-stressed Chrysanthemum under robinin and chitosan treatment. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 42(3): 1-14.
  • Farooq, T., Nisa, Z.U., Hameed, A., Ahmed, T., Hameed, A., 2022. Priming with copper-chitosan nanoparticles elicit tolerance against PEG-induced hyperosmotic stress and salinity in wheat. BMC Chemistry, 16(1): 1-13.
  • Flowers, T.J., 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(396): 307-319.
  • Foolad, M.R., 2004. Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 76(2): 101-119.
  • Geng, W., Li, Z., Hassan, M.J., Peng, Y., 2020. Chitosan regulates metabolic balance, polyamine accumulation, and Na+ transport contributing to salt tolerance in creeping bentgrass. BMC Plant Biology, 20(1): 1-15.
  • Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M., Toulmin, C., 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967): 812-818.
  • Gully, K., 2019. The plant immune system: induction, memory and de-priming of defense responses by endogenous, exogenous and synthetic elicitors. PhD dissertation, Université d'Angers, Beaucouzé, France.
  • Gully, K., Celton, J.M., Degrave, A., Pelletier, S., Brisset, M.N., Bucher, E., 2019. Biotic stress-induced priming and de-priming of transcriptional memory in Arabidopsis and apple. Epigenomes, 3(1): 1-20.
  • Hafez, Y., Attia, K., Alamery, S., Ghazy, A., Al-Doss, A., Ibrahim, E., Rashwan, E., El-Maghraby, L., Awad, A., Abdelaal, K., 2020. Beneficial effects of biochar and chitosan on antioxidative capacity, osmolytes accumulation, and anatomical characters of water-stressed barley plants. Agronomy-Basel, 10(5): 1-18.
  • Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M., Ahmad, A., 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(1): 14-25.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, H., Gonzalez-Morales, S., Benavides-Mendoza, A., Ortega-Ortiz, H., Cadenas-Pliego, G., Juarez-Maldonado, A., 2018a. Effects of Chitosan-PVA and Cu nanoparticles on the growth and antioxidant capacity of tomato under saline stress. Molecules, 23(1): 1-15.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, H., Juarez-Maldonado, A., Benavides-Mendoza, A., Ortega-Ortiz, H., Cadenas-Pliego, G., Sanchez-Aspeytia, D., Gonzalez-Morales, S., 2018b. Chitosan-PVA and copper nanoparticles improve growth and overexpress the SOD and JA genes in tomato Plants under Salt Stress. Agronomy-Basel, 8(9): 1-10.
  • Hidangmayum, A., Dwivedi, P., 2022. Chitosan based nanoformulation for sustainable agriculture with special reference to abiotic stress: A Review. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 30(4): 1264-1283.
  • Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2013. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(7): 1699-1705.
  • Kociecka, J., Liberacki, D., 2021. The potential of using chitosan on cereal crops in the face of climate change. Plants-Basel, 10(6): 1-27.
  • Li, J.C., Han, A.H., Zhang, L., Meng, Y., Xu, L., Ma, F.X., Liu, R.Q., 2022. Chitosan oligosaccharide alleviates the growth inhibition caused by physcion and synergistically enhances resilience in maize seedlings. Scientific Reports, 12(1): 1-12.
  • Liang, W., Ma, X., Wan, P., Liu, L., 2018. Plant salt-tolerance mechanism: A review. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 495(1): 286-291.
  • Lichtenthaler, H.K., Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11: 591-592.
  • Machado, R.M.A., Serralheiro, R.P., 2017. Soil Salinity: Effect on vegetable crop growth. management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization. Horticulturae, 3(2): 1-13.
  • Mahajan, S., Tuteja, N., 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 444(2): 139-58.
  • Mal, D., Verma, J., Levan, A., Reddy, M., Avinash, A., Velaga, P.K., 2019. Seed priming in vegetable crops: a review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(06): 868-874.
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Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 342 - 351, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1168393

Abstract

Environmental and climatic fluctuations as well as abiotic stress factors affect agricultural production and cause a loss in quality and yield. It is important to find alternative solutions for the sustainability of agricultural production to feed the increasing population. Salt stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stress factors and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production is also affected by salt stress since it needs extensive irrigation for high yield. The exogenous application of some plant inducers showed promising results in the induction and improvement of plant tolerance to stress factors. Chitosan (2-amino-2-deoxy-b-D-glucosamine), one of the organic compounds, is getting significant attention in agriculture with its potential. Here, we evaluated the potential of chitosan application for salt stress tolerance on tomato. 0.03% and 0.05% chitosan solutions were applied as a foliar spray to the plant and salt tolerance improvement were investigated under untreated (0 mM NaCl) and 100 mM NaCl conditions. The growth-related (root and shoot diameters, above and below-ground biomass, number of leaves and branches, and plant height), photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll a, b, total carotenoid content), and ion leakage were investigated. According to the results, chitosan application improves plant development in both untreated and salt-stress conditions and improved plant growth. Also, photosynthetic parameters showed that the application of chitosan increased chlorophyll contents under untreated conditions. Our result suggests that the application of chitosan may have a promising effect on salt stress tolerance and further research may shed light on its molecular mechanisms.

References

  • Abberton, M., Batley, J., Bentley, A., Bryant, J., Cai, H., Cockram, J., Costa De Oliveira, A., Cseke, L.J., Dempewolf, H., De Pace, C., Edwards, D., Gepts, P., Greenland, A., Hall, A.E., Henry, R., Hori, K., Howe, G.T., Hughes, S., Humphreys, M., Lightfoot, D., Marshall, A., Mayes, S., Nguyen, H.T., Ogbonnaya, F.C., Ortiz, R., Paterson, A.H., Tuberosa, R., Valliyodan, B., Varshney, R.K., Yano, M., 2015. Global agricultural intensification during climate change: a role for genomics. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 14(4): 1095-1098.
  • Abd El-Daim, I.A., Bejai, S., Meijer, J., 2014. Improved heat stress tolerance of wheat seedlings by bacterial seed treatment. Plant and Soil, 379(1-2): 337-350.
  • Acosta-Motos, J.R., Penella, C., Hernandez, J.A., Diaz-Vivancos, P., Sanchez-Blanco, M.J., Navarro, J.M., Gomez-Bellot, M.J., Barba-Espin, G., 2020. Towards a sustainable agriculture: strategies involving phytoprotectants against salt stress. Agronomy-Basel, 10(2): 1-32.
  • Al-Tawaha, A.R., Turk, M.A., Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Alu'datt, M.H., Wedyan, M., Al-Ramamneh, E., Hoang, A.T., 2018. Using chitosan to improve growth of maize cultivars under salinity conditions. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 24(3): 437-442.
  • Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Jahan, N., Odat, N., Al-Ramamneh, E.A., Al-Tawaha, A.R., Abu-Zaitoon, Y.M., Fandi, K., Alhawatema, M., Amanullah, Rauf, A., Wedyan, M., Shariati, M.A., Qaisi, A.M., Imran, Tawaha, K., Turk, M., Khanum, S., 2020. Growth, yield and biochemical responses in barley to dap and chitosan application under water stress. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 21(6): 86-93.
  • Anonymous, 2021. Worldwide Tomato Production Statistics. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT, 2021 [Online]. (https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL/visualize), (Accessed: 15.08.2022).
  • Ashour, H.A., Esmail, S.E.A., Kotb, M.S., 2021. Alleviative effects of chitosan or humic acid on Vitex trifolia 'Purpurea' grown under salinity stress. Ornamental Horticulture-Revista Brasileira De Horticultura Ornamental, 27(1): 88-102.
  • Ashraf, M., Harris, P.J.C., 2004. Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Science, 166(1): 3-16.
  • Attia, M.S., Osman, M.S., Mohamed, A.S., Mahgoub, H.A., Garada, M.O., Abdelmouty, E.S., Latef, A., 2021. Impact of foliar application of chitosan dissolved in different organic acids on isozymes, protein patterns and physio-biochemical characteristics of tomato grown under salinity stress. Plants-Basel, 10(2): 1-23.
  • Ayed, S., Bouhaouel, I., Jebari, H., Hamada, W., 2022. Use of biostimulants: towards sustainable approach to enhance durum wheat performances. Plants-Basel, 11(1): 1-19.
  • Babalola, O.O., 2010. Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance. Biotechnology Letters, 32(11): 1559-1570.
  • Balusamy, S.R., Rahimi, S., Sukweenadhi, J., Sunderraj, S., Shanmugam, R., Thangavelu, L., Mijakovic, I., Perumalsamy, H., 2022. Chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles and modified chitosan biomaterials, a potential tool to combat salinity stress in plants. Carbohydrate Polymers, 284: 1-19.
  • Behera, T.K., Krishna, R., Ansari, W.A., Aamir, M., Kumar, P., Kashyap, S.P., Pandey, S., Kole, C., 2022. Approaches involved in the vegetable crops salt stress tolerance improvement: present status and way ahead. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12: 1-20.
  • Bektas, Y., Eulgem, T., 2015. Synthetic plant defense elicitors. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5(804): 1-17.
  • Bektas, Y., Rodriguez-Salus, M., Schroeder, M., Gomez, A., Kaloshian, I., Eulgem, T., 2016. The synthetic elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxy phenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) triggers strong immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. Scientific Reports, 6(1): 1-16.
  • Borlaug, N.E., 1983. Contributions of conventional plant breeding to food production. Science (Washington D C), 219(4585): 689-693.
  • Borlaug, N.E., 2002. Feeding a world of 10 billion people: The miracle ahead. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology Plant, 38(2): 221-228.
  • Bulgari, R., Franzoni, G., Ferrante, A., 2019. Biostimulants application in horticultural crops under abiotic stress conditions. Agronomy-Basel, 9(6): 1-30.
  • Cuartero, J., Fernandez-Munoz, R., 1999. Tomato and salinity. Scientia Horticulturae, 78(1-4): 83-125.
  • Elansary, H.O., Abdel-Hamid, A.M.E., Yessoufou, K., Al-Mana, F.A., El-Ansary, D.O., Mahmoud, E.A., Al-Yafrasi, M.A., 2020. Physiological and molecular characterization of water-stressed Chrysanthemum under robinin and chitosan treatment. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 42(3): 1-14.
  • Farooq, T., Nisa, Z.U., Hameed, A., Ahmed, T., Hameed, A., 2022. Priming with copper-chitosan nanoparticles elicit tolerance against PEG-induced hyperosmotic stress and salinity in wheat. BMC Chemistry, 16(1): 1-13.
  • Flowers, T.J., 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(396): 307-319.
  • Foolad, M.R., 2004. Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 76(2): 101-119.
  • Geng, W., Li, Z., Hassan, M.J., Peng, Y., 2020. Chitosan regulates metabolic balance, polyamine accumulation, and Na+ transport contributing to salt tolerance in creeping bentgrass. BMC Plant Biology, 20(1): 1-15.
  • Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M., Toulmin, C., 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967): 812-818.
  • Gully, K., 2019. The plant immune system: induction, memory and de-priming of defense responses by endogenous, exogenous and synthetic elicitors. PhD dissertation, Université d'Angers, Beaucouzé, France.
  • Gully, K., Celton, J.M., Degrave, A., Pelletier, S., Brisset, M.N., Bucher, E., 2019. Biotic stress-induced priming and de-priming of transcriptional memory in Arabidopsis and apple. Epigenomes, 3(1): 1-20.
  • Hafez, Y., Attia, K., Alamery, S., Ghazy, A., Al-Doss, A., Ibrahim, E., Rashwan, E., El-Maghraby, L., Awad, A., Abdelaal, K., 2020. Beneficial effects of biochar and chitosan on antioxidative capacity, osmolytes accumulation, and anatomical characters of water-stressed barley plants. Agronomy-Basel, 10(5): 1-18.
  • Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M., Ahmad, A., 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(1): 14-25.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, H., Gonzalez-Morales, S., Benavides-Mendoza, A., Ortega-Ortiz, H., Cadenas-Pliego, G., Juarez-Maldonado, A., 2018a. Effects of Chitosan-PVA and Cu nanoparticles on the growth and antioxidant capacity of tomato under saline stress. Molecules, 23(1): 1-15.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, H., Juarez-Maldonado, A., Benavides-Mendoza, A., Ortega-Ortiz, H., Cadenas-Pliego, G., Sanchez-Aspeytia, D., Gonzalez-Morales, S., 2018b. Chitosan-PVA and copper nanoparticles improve growth and overexpress the SOD and JA genes in tomato Plants under Salt Stress. Agronomy-Basel, 8(9): 1-10.
  • Hidangmayum, A., Dwivedi, P., 2022. Chitosan based nanoformulation for sustainable agriculture with special reference to abiotic stress: A Review. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 30(4): 1264-1283.
  • Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2013. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(7): 1699-1705.
  • Kociecka, J., Liberacki, D., 2021. The potential of using chitosan on cereal crops in the face of climate change. Plants-Basel, 10(6): 1-27.
  • Li, J.C., Han, A.H., Zhang, L., Meng, Y., Xu, L., Ma, F.X., Liu, R.Q., 2022. Chitosan oligosaccharide alleviates the growth inhibition caused by physcion and synergistically enhances resilience in maize seedlings. Scientific Reports, 12(1): 1-12.
  • Liang, W., Ma, X., Wan, P., Liu, L., 2018. Plant salt-tolerance mechanism: A review. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 495(1): 286-291.
  • Lichtenthaler, H.K., Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11: 591-592.
  • Machado, R.M.A., Serralheiro, R.P., 2017. Soil Salinity: Effect on vegetable crop growth. management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization. Horticulturae, 3(2): 1-13.
  • Mahajan, S., Tuteja, N., 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 444(2): 139-58.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Nazlı ÖZKURT>
Siirt University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Siirt, TÜRKİYE
0000-0003-4064-3740
Türkiye


Yasemin BEKTAŞ> (Primary Author)
Siirt University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Siirt, TÜRKİYE
0000-0002-6884-2234
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tutad1168393, journal = {Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2306}, eissn = {2528-858X}, address = {}, publisher = {Siirt University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {342 - 351}, doi = {10.19159/tutad.1168393}, title = {Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)}, key = {cite}, author = {Özkurt, Nazlı and Bektaş, Yasemin} }
APA Özkurt, N. & Bektaş, Y. (2022). Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) . Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi , 9 (3) , 342-351 . DOI: 10.19159/tutad.1168393
MLA Özkurt, N. , Bektaş, Y. "Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)" . Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 342-351 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tutad/issue/73473/1168393>
Chicago Özkurt, N. , Bektaş, Y. "Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)". Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 342-351
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) AU - NazlıÖzkurt, YaseminBektaş Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.19159/tutad.1168393 DO - 10.19159/tutad.1168393 T2 - Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 342 EP - 351 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - 2148-2306-2528-858X M3 - doi: 10.19159/tutad.1168393 UR - https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1168393 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) %A Nazlı Özkurt , Yasemin Bektaş %T Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) %D 2022 %J Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi %P 2148-2306-2528-858X %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.19159/tutad.1168393 %U 10.19159/tutad.1168393
ISNAD Özkurt, Nazlı , Bektaş, Yasemin . "Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)". Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 / 3 (October 2022): 342-351 . https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1168393
AMA Özkurt N. , Bektaş Y. Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). TÜTAD. 2022; 9(3): 342-351.
Vancouver Özkurt N. , Bektaş Y. Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2022; 9(3): 342-351.
IEEE N. Özkurt and Y. Bektaş , "Alleviation of Salt Stress with Chitosan Foliar Application and Its Effects on Growth and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)", Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 342-351, Oct. 2022, doi:10.19159/tutad.1168393

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