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Were the Gospels Altered? An Evaluation in the Contexts of Textual Criticism and Translation Problem

Year 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, 171 - 196, 30.07.2019

Abstract

The term “biblical criticism” covers many methods developed for the scientific analysis of the sacred texts. Textual criticism is one of these methods and searches for the construction of original texts on the basis of comparison of the existing manuscripts. The application of this method to ancient manuscripts containing traditional Gospels texts allows reaching important results. The translation activity defines the transfer of a text from one language to another basically means to revive the old text in the new language. However, translation is an action with its own flaws. As a matter of fact, the Greek Gospel texts have been translated into many different languages from the very early periods. This article discusses the question of whether the traditional Gospels are historically reliable documents through the examples given from the perspective of the text criticism on the one hand and on the other hand in the context of some determinations on the translation of these texts

References

  • Adams, Nicholas. “A Disharmony of the Gospel”, The Vocation of Theology Today: A Festschrift For David Ford. ed. T. Gieggs-R. Muers-S. Zahl. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade, 2013.
  • Andrew Gregory. The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period Before Irenaeus. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003.
  • Bloomberg, Craig L. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987.
  • Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans, 1983.
  • Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Önsöz: P.N. Anderson. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2014.
  • Chadwick, Henry. (trc. sunum, notlar). Origen: Contra Celsum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Colwell, Ernest Cadman. “Biblical Criticism: Lower and Higher”. Journal of Biblical Literature 67/1 (1948): 1-12.
  • Cornett, Daryl. “Harmonization in the Patristic Period”. Harmony of the Gospels. ed. S.L. Cox-K.H. Easley. 267-270. Nashville, Tennessee: Holman Bible, 2007.
  • Court, John M. “The Growth of the New Testament”. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. ed. Judith M. Lieu-J. W. Rogerson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Durmuş, İsmail. “Rab”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi 34. İstanbul: Diyanet Vakfı İslam Araştırmaları Merkezi, 1988-2002.
  • Duygu, Zafer. İsa, Pavlus, İnciller: Hıristiyanlık Neden ve Nasıl Ortaya Çıktı? İstanbul: Düşün Yayıncılık, 2018.
  • Duygu, Zafer-Akalın, Kutlu. (ed.-haz.-terc.). Kristolojiye Giriş: Miafizit, Dyofizit ve Khalkedoncu Anlayışlar. İstanbul: Divan Yayınları, 2018.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Scriptures: Books That Did Not Make It Into the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2013.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writing. 2 Basım. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Ehrman, Bart D.–Plese, Zlatko. The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Farmer, William R. The Synoptic Problem: A Critical Analysis. New York: The Macmillan Company-Londra: Collier-Macmillan Limited, 1964.
  • Fremantle, W.H.-Schaff, Philip. (İngilizce trc.). The Sacred Writings of St. Jerome. Jazzybee Verlag, 2017.
  • Hill, Charles E. “Polycarp Contra Marcion-Irenaeus Presbyterial Source in AH 4.27-32”. Studia Patristica: c. XL. ed. Frances Margaret Young, Mark J. Edwards, Paul M. Parvis. 399-412. Louvain: Peeters, 2006.
  • Hobson, Alphonzo Augustus. The Diatessaron of Tatian and the Synoptic Problem: Being an Investigation of the Diatessaron for the Light Which It Throws Upon the Solution of the Problem of the Origin of the Synoptic Gospels. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1904.
  • Hoffmann. R. Joseph. (ed.). Celsus, On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Hoffmann. R. Joseph. (ed.-trc.). Porphyry’s Against the Christians: The Literary Remains. New York: Prometheus Books, 1994.
  • Holladay, Carl R. A Critical Introduction to the New Testament: Interpreting the Message and Meaning of Jesus Christ. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2005.
  • Hunt, Emily J. Christianity in the Second Century: The Case of Tatian. Londra-New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Jongkind, Dirk. “The Text and Lexicography of the New Testament in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries”. A History of Biblical Interpretation: C. 3 The Enlightenment through the Nineteenth Century. ed. A.J. Hauser-D.F. Watson. 274-299. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2017.
  • Koester, Helmut. Introduction to the New Testament, C. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity. 2. Basım. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000.
  • Kruger, Michael J. Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2012.
  • Lampe, G.W.B. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Londra-New York: United Bible Societies, 1971.
  • Moloney, Francis J., Harrington, Daniel J. (ed.). The Gospel of John. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1998.
  • Schneemelcher, Wilhelm. (ed.). Robert McLachlan Wilson (İngilizce trc.-ed.). The New Testament Apocrypha, 1. Cilt, Gospels and Related Writings. Louisville-Londra: Westminster John Knox Press, 1991.
  • Stanton, Graham. Gospel Truth? New Light on Jesus and the Gospels. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press, 1995.
  • Stewart, Robert B. (ed.). Bart D. Ehrman and Daniel B. Wallace in Dialogue: The Reliability of the New Testament. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Origen ve Alegorik Kitab-ı Mukaddes Yorumu”. Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19/1 (2010): 183-213.
  • Van Dam, Raymond. Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul. Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985.
  • Van Der Kooij, Arie. “Textual Criticism”, The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. ed. Judith M. Lieu-J.W. Rogerson. 579-590. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. Londra: Routledge, 1995.
  • Watson, Francis. “The Fourfold Gospels”, ed. S.C. Barton, The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. 34-52. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Watson, Francis. Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective. Michigan, Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 2013.
  • Wayment, Thomas A. “A Viewpoint on the Supposedly Lost Gospel Q”, Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5/3 (2004):105-115.
  • Westcott, Brooke Foss- Fenton John Anthony, Hort. (gözden geçirenler, sunum ve ek kısmı). The New Testament: In the Original Greek. Londra-New York: Macmillan, 1896.
  • Wiles. Maurice F. The Spiritual Gospel: The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel in Early Church. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960.
  • Ziegler, Robert A. “Augustine of Hippo’s Doctrine of Scripture: Christian Exegesis in Late Antiquity”. Primary Source 5/2 (2015): 33-39.

İnciller Tahrif Edildi mi? Metin Kritiği ve Tercüme Meselesi Bağlamlarında Bir Değerlendirme

Year 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, 171 - 196, 30.07.2019

Abstract

“Kitab-ı Mukaddes Kritiği” ifadesi, kutsal metinlerin bilimsel açıdan analiz edilmesi amacıyla geliştirilmiş birçok yöntemi kapsamaktadır. Metin kritiği bu yöntemlerden biridir ve mevcut el yazmalarının karşılaştırılması temelinde özgün metinlerin inşa edilmesine yönelik arayışları içermektedir. Bu yöntemin geleneksel İncil metinlerini ihtiva eden eski el yazmalarına uygulanması önemli sonuçlara ulaşmaya olanak vermektedir. Bir metnin bir dilden başka bir dile aktarılmasını tanımlayan tercüme faaliyeti ise eski metne yeni dilde yeniden hayat vermek anlamına gelmektedir. Ancak tercüme, kendisine has kusurlar da barındıran bir eylemdir. Nitekim Yunanca İncil metinleri çok eski tarihlerden itibaren birçok farklı dile tercüme edilmişlerdir. Bu makale, bir taraftan metin kritiği perspektifinden verilen örnekler, öte taraftan ise tercüme metinlere ilişkin birtakım tespitlerden hareketle, geleneksel İncillerin tarihsel açıdan güvenilir belgeler olup olmadıkları sorusunu tartışmaktadır.       

References

  • Adams, Nicholas. “A Disharmony of the Gospel”, The Vocation of Theology Today: A Festschrift For David Ford. ed. T. Gieggs-R. Muers-S. Zahl. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade, 2013.
  • Andrew Gregory. The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period Before Irenaeus. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003.
  • Bloomberg, Craig L. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987.
  • Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans, 1983.
  • Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Önsöz: P.N. Anderson. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2014.
  • Chadwick, Henry. (trc. sunum, notlar). Origen: Contra Celsum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Colwell, Ernest Cadman. “Biblical Criticism: Lower and Higher”. Journal of Biblical Literature 67/1 (1948): 1-12.
  • Cornett, Daryl. “Harmonization in the Patristic Period”. Harmony of the Gospels. ed. S.L. Cox-K.H. Easley. 267-270. Nashville, Tennessee: Holman Bible, 2007.
  • Court, John M. “The Growth of the New Testament”. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. ed. Judith M. Lieu-J. W. Rogerson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Durmuş, İsmail. “Rab”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi 34. İstanbul: Diyanet Vakfı İslam Araştırmaları Merkezi, 1988-2002.
  • Duygu, Zafer. İsa, Pavlus, İnciller: Hıristiyanlık Neden ve Nasıl Ortaya Çıktı? İstanbul: Düşün Yayıncılık, 2018.
  • Duygu, Zafer-Akalın, Kutlu. (ed.-haz.-terc.). Kristolojiye Giriş: Miafizit, Dyofizit ve Khalkedoncu Anlayışlar. İstanbul: Divan Yayınları, 2018.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Scriptures: Books That Did Not Make It Into the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2013.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writing. 2 Basım. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Ehrman, Bart D.–Plese, Zlatko. The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Farmer, William R. The Synoptic Problem: A Critical Analysis. New York: The Macmillan Company-Londra: Collier-Macmillan Limited, 1964.
  • Fremantle, W.H.-Schaff, Philip. (İngilizce trc.). The Sacred Writings of St. Jerome. Jazzybee Verlag, 2017.
  • Hill, Charles E. “Polycarp Contra Marcion-Irenaeus Presbyterial Source in AH 4.27-32”. Studia Patristica: c. XL. ed. Frances Margaret Young, Mark J. Edwards, Paul M. Parvis. 399-412. Louvain: Peeters, 2006.
  • Hobson, Alphonzo Augustus. The Diatessaron of Tatian and the Synoptic Problem: Being an Investigation of the Diatessaron for the Light Which It Throws Upon the Solution of the Problem of the Origin of the Synoptic Gospels. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1904.
  • Hoffmann. R. Joseph. (ed.). Celsus, On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Hoffmann. R. Joseph. (ed.-trc.). Porphyry’s Against the Christians: The Literary Remains. New York: Prometheus Books, 1994.
  • Holladay, Carl R. A Critical Introduction to the New Testament: Interpreting the Message and Meaning of Jesus Christ. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2005.
  • Hunt, Emily J. Christianity in the Second Century: The Case of Tatian. Londra-New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Jongkind, Dirk. “The Text and Lexicography of the New Testament in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries”. A History of Biblical Interpretation: C. 3 The Enlightenment through the Nineteenth Century. ed. A.J. Hauser-D.F. Watson. 274-299. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2017.
  • Koester, Helmut. Introduction to the New Testament, C. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity. 2. Basım. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000.
  • Kruger, Michael J. Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2012.
  • Lampe, G.W.B. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Londra-New York: United Bible Societies, 1971.
  • Moloney, Francis J., Harrington, Daniel J. (ed.). The Gospel of John. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1998.
  • Schneemelcher, Wilhelm. (ed.). Robert McLachlan Wilson (İngilizce trc.-ed.). The New Testament Apocrypha, 1. Cilt, Gospels and Related Writings. Louisville-Londra: Westminster John Knox Press, 1991.
  • Stanton, Graham. Gospel Truth? New Light on Jesus and the Gospels. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press, 1995.
  • Stewart, Robert B. (ed.). Bart D. Ehrman and Daniel B. Wallace in Dialogue: The Reliability of the New Testament. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
  • Tarakçı, Muhammet. “Origen ve Alegorik Kitab-ı Mukaddes Yorumu”. Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19/1 (2010): 183-213.
  • Van Dam, Raymond. Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul. Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985.
  • Van Der Kooij, Arie. “Textual Criticism”, The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. ed. Judith M. Lieu-J.W. Rogerson. 579-590. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. Londra: Routledge, 1995.
  • Watson, Francis. “The Fourfold Gospels”, ed. S.C. Barton, The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. 34-52. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Watson, Francis. Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective. Michigan, Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 2013.
  • Wayment, Thomas A. “A Viewpoint on the Supposedly Lost Gospel Q”, Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5/3 (2004):105-115.
  • Westcott, Brooke Foss- Fenton John Anthony, Hort. (gözden geçirenler, sunum ve ek kısmı). The New Testament: In the Original Greek. Londra-New York: Macmillan, 1896.
  • Wiles. Maurice F. The Spiritual Gospel: The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel in Early Church. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960.
  • Ziegler, Robert A. “Augustine of Hippo’s Doctrine of Scripture: Christian Exegesis in Late Antiquity”. Primary Source 5/2 (2015): 33-39.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Zafer Duygu> (Primary Author)
MARDİN ARTUKLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MARDİN ARAŞTIRMALARI UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ
0000-0002-8762-9850
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1

Cite

ISNAD Duygu, Zafer . "İnciller Tahrif Edildi mi? Metin Kritiği ve Tercüme Meselesi Bağlamlarında Bir Değerlendirme". Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 28 / 1 (July 2019): 171-196 .