Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Deprem Yüklemesi Etkisinde Betonarme Kirişlerin Davranışına Beton Basınç Dayanımı ve Kesme Donatısı Oranının Etkilerinin Deneysel Olarak İncelenmesi

Year 2024, Volume: 16 Issue: 2, 852 - 859, 30.06.2024
https://doi.org/10.29137/umagd.1433706

Abstract

Betonarme kirişlerde tasarım esnasında birçok hata ile karşılaşılmakta olup bu tasarım hatalarının başında kesme donatısı eksikliği gelmektedir. Betonarme kirişlerde meydana gelen ani ve gevrek olarak gerçekleşen kesme kırılması, kirişlerdeki kesme donatısı oranlarının yetersiz olması, kesme donatılarının kancalarının sargılama görevini tam olarak gerçekleştirmesi için gerekli olan 135o açıyla bükülmemesi, perde veya büyük boyutlarda kolonlara bağlanan kısa kirişlere çok yüksek değerlerde kesme kuvveti etki etmesi ve deprem yükleri etkisiyle ortaya çıkan ikinci mertebe etkiler gibi nedenlerden dolayı gerçekleşmektedir. Ülkemizde 6 Şubat 2023 tarihinde meydana gelen Kahramanmaraş depremleri sonrasında betonarme kirişlerin birçoğunda yukarıdaki nedenlerden dolayı ağır kesme hasarları meydana gelmiştir. Bu çalışma kapsamında beton basınç dayanımı ve kesme donatıları arasındaki mesafe değişken olarak seçilmiştir. Beton basınç dayanımı olarak düşük ve normal dayanıma sahip kirişler kullanılırken kirişlerdeki kesme donatıları arasındaki mesafe 75 ve 200 mm belirlenen toplamda 4 adet deney elemanı üretilmiştir. Deney elemanlarına tersinir tekrarlanır deprem yüklemesi uygulanmıştır. Betonarme kiriş deney elemanlarına uygulanan yükleme sonucunda meydana gelen maksimum taşıma gücü, başlangıç rijitliği, deplasman süneklik oranları, enerji tüketim kapasiteleri, göçme mekanizmalar, genel yük deplasman davranışları elde edilmiş ve elde edilen sonuçlar yorumlanmıştır. Beton basınç dayanımı büyük olan deney elemanlarının daha yüksek maksimum taşıma kapasitesi, başlangıç rijitliği, deplasman süneklilik oranı ve enerji tüketim kapasitesi değerlerine sahip olduğu gözlenmiştir. Kesme donatısı arasındaki mesafe fazla olan deney elemanlarının akma dayanımı ve akma noktasındaki deplasman değerinin daha az olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kesme dayanımı yetersiz olan deney elemanlarında ani ve gevrek göçme modu olan kesme göçmesi meydana gelirken kesme dayananımı yeterli olan deney elemanlarında eğilme göçme modu gözlenmiştir.

References

  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., Kopraman, Y., Mertoğlu, Ç., & Kara, M. E. (2010). Improving shear capacity and ductility of shear-deficient RC beams using CFRP strips. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 29(19), 2975-2991.
  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., & Kara, M. E. (2005). Improving shear capacity of existing RC beams using external bonding of steel plates. Engineering structures, 27(5), 781-791.
  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., Ocakli, R. Ö., & Kopraman, Y. (2011). Retrofitting of shear damaged RC beams using diagonal CFRP strips. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 30(17), 1495-1507.
  • Altin, S., Özgür, A. N. I. L., TOPTA, T., & Kara, M. E. (2011). Retrofitting of shear damaged RC beams using CFRP strips. Steel and Composite Structures, An International Journal, 11(3), 207-223.
  • Altin, S., Tankut, T., Anil, Ö., & Demirel, Y. (2003). Response of reinforced concrete beams with clamps applied externally: an experimental study. Engineering Structures, 25(9), 1217-1229.
  • Alyousif, A., Anil, O., Sahmaran, M., Lachemi, M., Yildirim, G., & Ashour, A. F. (2015). Tests of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete beams with different shear span-to-depth ratios and main longitudinal reinforcement. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 34(18), 1491-1505.
  • Alyousif, A., Anil, O., Sahmaran, M., Lachemi, M., Yildirim, G., & Ashour, A. F. (2016). Comparison of shear behaviour of engineered cementitious composite and normal concrete beams with different shear span lengths. Magazine of Concrete Research, 68(5), 217-228.
  • Baltzopoulos, G., Baraschino, R., Cito, P., Chioccarelli, E., & Iervolino, I. Preliminary engineering report on ground motion data of the Feb. 2023 Turkey seismic sequence; 2023.
  • Erdik, M., Tümsa, M. B. D., Pınar, A., Altunel, E., & Zülfikar, A. C. (2023). A preliminary report on the February 6, 2023 earthquakes in Türkiye. Research Briefs.
  • Doǧangün, A. (2004). Performance of reinforced concrete buildings during the May 1, 2003 Bingöl Earthquake in Turkey. Engineering Structures, 26(6), 841-856.
  • Gülerce, Z., Askan, A., Kale, Ö., Sandıkkaya, A., Işık, N.S., İlhan, O., Can, G., Ilgaç, M., Ozacar, A.A., Sopacı, E., et al. February 6, 2023 Kahramanmaraş-Pazarcik (Mw = 7.7) and Elbistan (Mw = 7.5) Earthquakes: Preliminary Analysis of Strong Ground Motion Characteristics; 2023.
  • Tapan, M., Comert, M., Demir, C., Sayan, Y., Orakcal, K., & Ilki, A. (2013). Failures of structures during the October 23, 2011 Tabanlı (Van) and November 9, 2011 Edremit (Van) earthquakes in Turkey. Engineering Failure Analysis, 34, 606-628.
  • Schmitt R, Herman M, Barnhart W, Furlong K, Benz H. The 2023 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey, Earthquake Sequence. Published March 27, 2023. Accessed April 20, 2023. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/storymap/index-turkey2023.html
  • Sezen, H & Moehle, JP 2004, Shear strength model for lightly reinforced concrete columns, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol 130(11) 1692-703.
  • Stein RS, Toda S, Özbakir AD, et al. Interactions, stress changes, mysteries, and partial forecasts of the 2023 Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye, earthquakes. Published March 2, 2023. Accessed April 20, 2023. https://temblor.net/temblor/insights-stress-changes-mysteries-turkeyearthquakes-2023-15070/
  • Yurdakul, Ö., Duran, B., Tunaboyu, O., & Avşar, Ö. (2021). Field reconnaissance on seismic performance of RC buildings after the January24,2020Elazığ-Sivriceearthquake. NaturalHazards, 105(1),859-88

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Concrete Compressive Strength and Shear Reinforcement Ratio on the Behaviour of RC Beams Under Earthquake Load

Year 2024, Volume: 16 Issue: 2, 852 - 859, 30.06.2024
https://doi.org/10.29137/umagd.1433706

Abstract

Many errors are encountered during the design of reinforced concrete beams, and the most important of these design errors is the lack of shear reinforcement. Sudden and brittle shear failure in reinforced concrete beams, insufficient shear reinforcement ratios in the beams, shear reinforcement hooks not bending at the 135o angle required to fully perform the wrapping function, very high shear forces acting on short beams connected to shear walls or large size columns, and This occurs due to reasons such as second order effects arising from earthquake loads. After the Kahramanmaras earthquakes that occurred on February 6, 2023 in our country, many of the reinforced concrete beams suffered severe shear damage due to the above reasons. Within the scope of this study, concrete compressive strength and the distance between shear reinforcements were selected as variables. While beams with low and normal strength were used as concrete compressive strength, a total of 4 test elements were produced, with the distance between the shear reinforcements in the beams being determined as 75 and 200 mm. Cyclic earthquake load was applied to the test elements. The maximum bearing capacity, initial stiffness, displacement ductility ratios, energy dissipation capacities, collapse mechanisms, general load displacement behaviors resulting from the loading applied to the reinforced concrete beam test elements were obtained and the obtained results were interpreted. It was observed that the test elements with higher concrete compressive strength had higher maximum bearing capacity, initial stiffness, displacement ductility ratio and energy consumption capacity values. It has been determined that the yield strength and displacement at the yield point of the test elements with a greater distance between the shear reinforcement are lower. While shear failure, which is a sudden and brittle failure mode, occurred in the test elements with insufficient shear strength, a bending failure mode was observed in the test elements with sufficient shear strength.

References

  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., Kopraman, Y., Mertoğlu, Ç., & Kara, M. E. (2010). Improving shear capacity and ductility of shear-deficient RC beams using CFRP strips. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 29(19), 2975-2991.
  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., & Kara, M. E. (2005). Improving shear capacity of existing RC beams using external bonding of steel plates. Engineering structures, 27(5), 781-791.
  • Altin, S., Anil, Ö., Ocakli, R. Ö., & Kopraman, Y. (2011). Retrofitting of shear damaged RC beams using diagonal CFRP strips. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 30(17), 1495-1507.
  • Altin, S., Özgür, A. N. I. L., TOPTA, T., & Kara, M. E. (2011). Retrofitting of shear damaged RC beams using CFRP strips. Steel and Composite Structures, An International Journal, 11(3), 207-223.
  • Altin, S., Tankut, T., Anil, Ö., & Demirel, Y. (2003). Response of reinforced concrete beams with clamps applied externally: an experimental study. Engineering Structures, 25(9), 1217-1229.
  • Alyousif, A., Anil, O., Sahmaran, M., Lachemi, M., Yildirim, G., & Ashour, A. F. (2015). Tests of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete beams with different shear span-to-depth ratios and main longitudinal reinforcement. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 34(18), 1491-1505.
  • Alyousif, A., Anil, O., Sahmaran, M., Lachemi, M., Yildirim, G., & Ashour, A. F. (2016). Comparison of shear behaviour of engineered cementitious composite and normal concrete beams with different shear span lengths. Magazine of Concrete Research, 68(5), 217-228.
  • Baltzopoulos, G., Baraschino, R., Cito, P., Chioccarelli, E., & Iervolino, I. Preliminary engineering report on ground motion data of the Feb. 2023 Turkey seismic sequence; 2023.
  • Erdik, M., Tümsa, M. B. D., Pınar, A., Altunel, E., & Zülfikar, A. C. (2023). A preliminary report on the February 6, 2023 earthquakes in Türkiye. Research Briefs.
  • Doǧangün, A. (2004). Performance of reinforced concrete buildings during the May 1, 2003 Bingöl Earthquake in Turkey. Engineering Structures, 26(6), 841-856.
  • Gülerce, Z., Askan, A., Kale, Ö., Sandıkkaya, A., Işık, N.S., İlhan, O., Can, G., Ilgaç, M., Ozacar, A.A., Sopacı, E., et al. February 6, 2023 Kahramanmaraş-Pazarcik (Mw = 7.7) and Elbistan (Mw = 7.5) Earthquakes: Preliminary Analysis of Strong Ground Motion Characteristics; 2023.
  • Tapan, M., Comert, M., Demir, C., Sayan, Y., Orakcal, K., & Ilki, A. (2013). Failures of structures during the October 23, 2011 Tabanlı (Van) and November 9, 2011 Edremit (Van) earthquakes in Turkey. Engineering Failure Analysis, 34, 606-628.
  • Schmitt R, Herman M, Barnhart W, Furlong K, Benz H. The 2023 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey, Earthquake Sequence. Published March 27, 2023. Accessed April 20, 2023. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/storymap/index-turkey2023.html
  • Sezen, H & Moehle, JP 2004, Shear strength model for lightly reinforced concrete columns, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol 130(11) 1692-703.
  • Stein RS, Toda S, Özbakir AD, et al. Interactions, stress changes, mysteries, and partial forecasts of the 2023 Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye, earthquakes. Published March 2, 2023. Accessed April 20, 2023. https://temblor.net/temblor/insights-stress-changes-mysteries-turkeyearthquakes-2023-15070/
  • Yurdakul, Ö., Duran, B., Tunaboyu, O., & Avşar, Ö. (2021). Field reconnaissance on seismic performance of RC buildings after the January24,2020Elazığ-Sivriceearthquake. NaturalHazards, 105(1),859-88
There are 16 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Earthquake Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sercan Tuna Akkaya 0000-0003-0730-8270

Ömer Mercimek 0000-0002-5367-6077

Ozgur Anıl 0000-0002-1939-0366

Merve Nilay Karaca 0009-0002-0691-7701

Early Pub Date June 30, 2024
Publication Date June 30, 2024
Submission Date February 8, 2024
Acceptance Date May 30, 2024
Published in Issue Year 2024 Volume: 16 Issue: 2

Cite

APA Akkaya, S. T., Mercimek, Ö., Anıl, O., Karaca, M. N. (2024). Deprem Yüklemesi Etkisinde Betonarme Kirişlerin Davranışına Beton Basınç Dayanımı ve Kesme Donatısı Oranının Etkilerinin Deneysel Olarak İncelenmesi. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 16(2), 852-859. https://doi.org/10.29137/umagd.1433706

All Rights Reserved. Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Engineering.