Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 183 - 199 2019-04-15

İklim Değişikliği Çağında ABD ve Arktik Bölgesi: ABD Arktik Dış Politikasının 2000 Sonrası Gelişimi Üzerine Kısa Bir İnceleme
US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s

Emirhan ALTUNKAYA [1]

63 116

Bu çalışmanın amacı Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin (ABD) Arktik bölgesine yönelik dış politikasının güncel bir analizini sunmaktır. Çalışma özellikle bölgenin politik, ekonomik ve güvenlikle ilişkili öneminin iklim değişikliğinin etkileri sonucunda hızlı bir yükselişe geçtiği 2000’li yıllardan bu yana olan döneme odaklanmaktadır. Bu bakımdan, ABD’nin bölgeye ilişkin dış politikasının birbirini takip eden üç yönetim (Bush, Obama ve Trump yönetimleri) altında nasıl geliştiğini incelemeyi ve ilgili üç yönetimin bölgeye ilişkin öncelikleri arasındaki farkın ortaya çıkartılmasını hedeflemektedir. Çalışmanın araştırma sorusu şu şekildedir; “İklim değişikliği çağında ABD Arktik Politikasının temel hedefleri nelerdir ve bu politika üç yönetim altında nasıl gelişmiştir?” Kullanılan araştırma metodu resmi politika ve güvenlik dokümanlarının niteliksel analizinin yanı sıra, ilgili hükümetlerin bölgeye yönelik aktifliğinin ve açıklamalarının takip edilmesi, aynı zamanda düşünce kuruluşları ve uzmanların bölgedeki ABD politikasına yönelik raporlarının incelenmesinden oluşmaktadır.

The objective of this paper is to provide an updated analysis of the United States (US) foreign policy towards the Arctic Region since the 2000s when the political, economic and security-related significance of the region is growing due to the impacts of climate change. It aims to analyze the development of the US foreign policy towards the region under three respective (Bush, Obama, Trump) administrations and to reveal differing priorities of three respective administrations. Therefore the research question of the following paper is; "What constitutes the main objectives of the US Arctic foreign policy in a climate-changed era and how has it evolved since the 2000s under three administrations?" The method used is a qualitative analysis of official policy and security documents, administration’s engagement and positioning related to the region, but also various reports published by think-tanks and experts to evaluate the US Arctic foreign policy in the face of emerging challenges and opportunities.

  • Declaration on the Protection of Arctic Environment (1991)
  • Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council (1996)
  • UN Convention on Law of the Sea (1982)
  • US National Security Decision Memorandum No. 144 (NSDM-144) (1971), United States Arctic Policy and Arctic Policy Group
  • US National Security Decision Memorandum No. 202 (NSDM-202) (1973). Arctic Program Review and Recommendations
  • US National Security Decision Directive No. 90 (NSDD-90) (1983). United States Arctic Policy
  • US Congress (1984). Arctic Research and Policy Act
  • US Presidential Decision Directive 26 (PDD-26) (1994). United States Policy on the Arctic and Antarctic Regions
  • US National Security Presidential Directive 66 (NSDP-66) (2009). Arctic Region Policy
  • US Department of Navy (2009). Navy Arctic Roadmap, 2009
  • US Department of Navy (2013). Navy Arctic Roadmap
  • US Department of Defense (2013). Arctic Strategy
  • US Department of Homeland Security (2013). Coast Guard Arctic Strategy
  • White House (2010). National Security Strategy
  • White House (2013). National Strategy for the Arctic Region
  • White House (2014). Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region
  • White House (2016). Advancing implementation of the National Strategy for the Arctic Region
  • KRASKA, J. (Eds.). (2011). Arctic security in an age of climate change. New York: Cambridge University Press WESTERMEYER, W., SHUSTERISCH, K. (Eds.). (1984). United States Arctic interests: the 1980s and 1990s. New York: Springer
  • MCCARTHY, J. et al. (2001). Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Third Assesment Report, New York: Cambridge University Press
  • US Geological Survey (2008). Circum-arctic resource appraisal: Estimates of undiscovered oil and gas north of the Arctic Circle. USGS Fact Sheet, Virginia: US Geological Survey
  • O’ROURKE, R. (2016). Coastguard arctic implementation capabilities. CRS Report RL34391, Washington: the United States Congressional Research Service
  • BRIGHAM, L. (1994). Environmental protection for the Arctic Ocean. in Vartanov R., Broadus J., (Eds.) (1994). The Oceans and Environmental Security: Shared U.S. and Russian Perspectives, (pp.163-190) Washington: Island Press
  • COHEN, A. (2011). Russia in the Arctic: Challenges to U.S. energy and geopolitics in the High North. in Blank S. (Eds.) (2011). Russia in the Arctic, (pp.1-43) Carlisle: US Army War College Press
  • CONLEY, H. & KRAUT, J. (2010, April). U.S. strategic interests in the Arctic: An assessment of current challenges and new opportunities for cooperation. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Special Report of the CSIS Europe Program, pp.1-33
  • CONLEY, H., TOLAND T., DONALD M. & JEROGOVA N. (2013, May). The new foreign policy frontier: US interests and actors in the Arctic. Center for Strategic & International Studies, Special Report of the CSIS Europe Program, pp.1-102
  • EBINGER C. & BANKS J. (2014, March). Offshore oil and gas Governance in the Arctic: A leadership role for the U.S. Brookings Energy Security Initiative, Policy Brief 14-1, pp.1-59
  • HUEBERT, R. (2009, May). United States Arctic Policy: The reluctant arctic power. University of Calgary, SPP Briefing Papers, Vol. 2, No.2, pp.1-27, DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v2i0.42321
  • HUEBERT, R. (2014, March), Canada, the Arctic Council, Greenpeace, and Arctic oil drilling: Complicating an already complicated picture. Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute, Policy Paper, Calgary, pp.1-9
  • DUGGER, J. (1984). Arctic Oil and Gas. in Westermeyer W. & Shusterich K. (Eds.) (1984). United States Arctic Interests: The 1980s and 1990s (pp. 19-38), New York: Springer
  • KEIL, K. (2014). The Arctic: A new region of conflict? The case of oil and gas. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 49, No.2, 162-190, DOI: 10.1177/0010836713482555
  • NORBERG, A. (2014). The Arctic, a strategic hotspot: The High North in a military/strategic perspective. Swedish Peace Council Report, pp.1-6
  • POUFFLE J. (2017, November). US Arctic Foreign Policy in the Era of President Trump: A Preliminary Assesment. Canadian Global Affairs Institute, Policy Paper, Calgary, pp.1-26
  • BONIKOWSKY, L. (4.10.2012). The Arctic, country by country. Diplomat Online Magazine, Access Date: 25.06.2018, http://diplomatonline.com/mag/2012/10/the-arctic-country-by-country
  • DLOUHY, J. (4.01.2018). Trump Seeks to Open Most U.S. Coastal Waters to New Drilling. Bloomberg, Access Date: 20.06.2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/ articles/2018-01-04/trump-seen-urging-all-u-s-coastal-waters-be-opened-to-drilling
  • ENGE, B. (30.08.2017). USA: Trump Turns His Back on the Arctic. High North News, Access Date: 27.06.2018, http://www.highnorthnews.com/usa-trump-turns-his-back-on-the-arctic/
  • FEARS, D. & EILERPIN, J. (20.12.2016). President Obama bans oil drilling in large areas of Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Washington Post, Access Date: 16.06.2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ president-Obama-expected-to-ban-oil-drilling-in-large-areas-of-Atlantic-and-Arctic-oceans
  • LAMOTHE, D. (17.05.2017). Trump pledges to build Coast Guard icebreakers, but it is unclear how different his plan is from Obama’s. Washington Post, Access Date: 02.07.2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2017/05/17/ trump-pledges-to-build-coast-guard-icebreakers-but-its-unclear-how-different-his-plan-is-than-obamas/?utm_term=.839b70fb84d3
  • OSBORN, A. (30.01.2017), Putin's Russia in biggest Arctic military push since Soviet fall, Reuters, Access Date: 20.11.2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-russia-arctic-insight/putins-russia-in-biggest-arctic-military-push-since-soviet-fall-idUSKBN15E0W0
  • STOLBERG, S. (19.06.2008), Bush Calls for End to Ban on Offshore Oil Drilling, NY Times, Access Date: 20.11.2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/19/washington/ 19drill.html
  • ULJUA, R. (22.12.2017). Trump’s National Security Strategy mentions the Arctic, but not climate change. High North News, Access Date: 03.07.2018, http://www.highnorthnews.com/trumps-national-security-strategy-mentions-the-arctic-but-not-climate-change/
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3244-2973
Author: Emirhan ALTUNKAYA (Primary Author)
Institution: GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: April 15, 2019

Bibtex @research article { igusbd448166, journal = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {2148-4287}, eissn = {2148-7189}, address = {İstanbul Gelisim University}, year = {2019}, volume = {6}, pages = {183 - 199}, doi = {10.17336/igusbd.448166}, title = {US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s}, key = {cite}, author = {ALTUNKAYA, Emirhan} }
APA ALTUNKAYA, E . (2019). US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6 (1), 183-199. DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.448166
MLA ALTUNKAYA, E . "US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 6 (2019): 183-199 <http://dergipark.org.tr/igusbd/issue/44577/448166>
Chicago ALTUNKAYA, E . "US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 6 (2019): 183-199
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s AU - Emirhan ALTUNKAYA Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.17336/igusbd.448166 DO - 10.17336/igusbd.448166 T2 - İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 183 EP - 199 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2148-4287-2148-7189 M3 - doi: 10.17336/igusbd.448166 UR - https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.448166 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Istanbul Gelisim University Journal of Social Sciences US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s %A Emirhan ALTUNKAYA %T US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s %D 2019 %J İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi %P 2148-4287-2148-7189 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17336/igusbd.448166 %U 10.17336/igusbd.448166
ISNAD ALTUNKAYA, Emirhan . "US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 6 / 1 (April 2019): 183-199. https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.448166
AMA ALTUNKAYA E . US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s. IGUJSS. 2019; 6(1): 183-199.
Vancouver ALTUNKAYA E . US and the Arctic Region in the Era of Climate Change: A Brief Analysis of the Evolution of US Arctic Foreign Policy Since 2000s. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2019; 6(1): 199-183.