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Etiyopya'da Su Yönetiminin Durumu: Sorunlar ve Çözüm Yaklaşımları

Yıl 2021, Cilt 17, Sayı 4, 556 - 568, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.22392/actaquatr.915819

Öz

Su yönetimi, toplumun suya olan ihtiyacının ve suyun doğadaki mevcudiyetinin yarattığı sorunlara en uygun çözümler arayan bir alan olarak kabul edilmektedir. Kentleşme ve nüfusun hızla artması, özellikle Etiyopya gibi gelişmekte olan ülkelerde su kaynakları ile ilgili birçok sorunu beraberinde getirmiştir. Sonuç olarak, milyonlarca insanın içme suyuna ve gelişmiş sanitasyona erişememektedir. Bu çalışma, Etiyopya'daki asıl su sorunlarının su kıtlığından çok su kaynaklarının koordinasyondaki zayıflıklardan, yeterli yetkilendirilmiş kurumların eksikliğinden, hızlı nüfus artışından, teknik, finansal ve hidropolitik sorunlardan kaynaklanma olasılığının daha yüksek olduğunu bulmuştur. Ülkenin doğal kaynaklarının paylaşımı, sınıraşan su kaynaklarının tahsisi ve yönetimine ilişkin politikası, yukarı ve aşağı havza ülkeleri arasında büyük sorunlar yaratmaktadır. Bu çalışma, mevcut sorunları çözebilecek ve ülkenin sosyo-ekonomik kalkınmasını destekleyebilecek gelişmiş yönetim mekanizmaları ve uygun yaklaşımlar önermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Anonymous, (2019). Impacts of the dam. https://www.voanews.com/usa/trump-meets-egypt-ethiopia-sudanfms- about-dam-feud
  • Anonymous, (2020). Regions of Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_Ethiopia
  • Asit K. Biswas., (2008). Integrated Water Resources Management: Is It Working?, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24:1, 5-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620701871718
  • Awulachew, S. B. Yilma, A. D. Loulseged, M. Loiskandl, W. Ayana, M. & Alamirew, T. (2007). Water resources and irrigation development in Ethiopia. Vol. 123.
  • Bilen, Ö. (1997). Turkey and water issues in the Middle East. Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) Regional Development Administration.
  • Bilen, Ö. (2009). Ortadoğu su sorunları ve Türkiye. TESAV, Toplumsal, Ekonomik, Siyasal Araştırmalar Vakfı.
  • Birhane, G., (2002). Present and future water resources development in Ethiopia related to research and capacity building. Integrated water and land management research and capacity building priorities for Ethiopia, 11.
  • Biswas, A. K., Tortajada, C., & Izquierdo-Avino, R. (Eds.). (2009). Water management in 2020 and beyond. Berlin: Springer.
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2019). The World Fact Book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
  • EWNHS,. (2018). Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society and Wetlands International, A First Directory of Ethiopian Wetlands: Descriptions, Ecosystem Services, Causes of Degradation & Recommendations for Restoration and Sustainability. Eclipse Printing and Graphics.
  • FDRE, (1995). Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Federal Negarit Gazetta, 1(1), 40-45.
  • FNGoE, (2000). Ethiopian Water Resources Management, Proclamation No: 197/2000.Federal Negarit Gazeta of Etiopia.
  • Libhaber, M. & Jaramillo, A.O., (2012). Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. IWA Publishing.
  • MoWR, (2002). Ministry of Water Resource. Water Sector Development Program. main report II.
  • NGoE, (1994). Proclamation to Provide for The Utilization of Water Resources. Proclamation No. 92/1994, Negarit Gazeta of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia.
  • Prasifka David W., (1994). Water Supply Planning. Kreiger publishing company.
  • Rowan, C. (2009). The politics of water in Africa: the European Union's role in development aid partnership.Vol. 24. IB Tauris.
  • Schelwald-van der Kley, A. L., & Reijerkerk, L. (2009). Water: A way of life: Sustainable water management in a cultural context. CRC Press.
  • Scudder, T. T. (2012). The future of large dams: Dealing with social, environmental, institutional and political costs. Taylor & Francis.
  • Tortajada, C.& K Biswas, A., (2009). Water Resources Development and Management. Springer.
  • UNEP, (2002). United Nations Environment Programme. Vital water graphics: an overview of the state of the world's fresh and marine waters. Earthprint.
  • UNEP, (2010). United Nations Environment Programme. Africa Water Atlas. ISBN: 978-92-807-3110.
  • Varis, O., Tortajada, C., & Biswas, A. K., (2008). Management of transboundary rivers and lakes. Springer.
  • World Bank, (2019). Population total, Ethiopia. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=ET
  • WWAP, (2012). World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nation World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk. UNESCO.

The State of Water Management in Ethiopia: Problems and Solution Approaches

Yıl 2021, Cilt 17, Sayı 4, 556 - 568, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.22392/actaquatr.915819

Öz

Water management is considered to be a field that searches for optimal solutions to the problems posed by society's need for water and the availability of water in nature. Urbanization and rapid increase in population have brought many problems related to water resources, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. As a result, millions of people do not have access to potable water and improved sanitation. This study found that the main water problems in Ethiopia are more likely to result from weaknesses in coordination, lack of adequate authorized institutions, rapid population growth, technical, financial, and hydro political problems rather than water scarcity. The country's policy on sharing its natural resources, allocation, and management of transboundary water resources creates major problems between upstream and downstream countries. The study recommends advanced management mechanisms and appropriate approaches that can solve the existing problems and promote the socio-economic development of the country.

Kaynakça

  • Anonymous, (2019). Impacts of the dam. https://www.voanews.com/usa/trump-meets-egypt-ethiopia-sudanfms- about-dam-feud
  • Anonymous, (2020). Regions of Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_Ethiopia
  • Asit K. Biswas., (2008). Integrated Water Resources Management: Is It Working?, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24:1, 5-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620701871718
  • Awulachew, S. B. Yilma, A. D. Loulseged, M. Loiskandl, W. Ayana, M. & Alamirew, T. (2007). Water resources and irrigation development in Ethiopia. Vol. 123.
  • Bilen, Ö. (1997). Turkey and water issues in the Middle East. Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) Regional Development Administration.
  • Bilen, Ö. (2009). Ortadoğu su sorunları ve Türkiye. TESAV, Toplumsal, Ekonomik, Siyasal Araştırmalar Vakfı.
  • Birhane, G., (2002). Present and future water resources development in Ethiopia related to research and capacity building. Integrated water and land management research and capacity building priorities for Ethiopia, 11.
  • Biswas, A. K., Tortajada, C., & Izquierdo-Avino, R. (Eds.). (2009). Water management in 2020 and beyond. Berlin: Springer.
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2019). The World Fact Book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
  • EWNHS,. (2018). Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society and Wetlands International, A First Directory of Ethiopian Wetlands: Descriptions, Ecosystem Services, Causes of Degradation & Recommendations for Restoration and Sustainability. Eclipse Printing and Graphics.
  • FDRE, (1995). Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Federal Negarit Gazetta, 1(1), 40-45.
  • FNGoE, (2000). Ethiopian Water Resources Management, Proclamation No: 197/2000.Federal Negarit Gazeta of Etiopia.
  • Libhaber, M. & Jaramillo, A.O., (2012). Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. IWA Publishing.
  • MoWR, (2002). Ministry of Water Resource. Water Sector Development Program. main report II.
  • NGoE, (1994). Proclamation to Provide for The Utilization of Water Resources. Proclamation No. 92/1994, Negarit Gazeta of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia.
  • Prasifka David W., (1994). Water Supply Planning. Kreiger publishing company.
  • Rowan, C. (2009). The politics of water in Africa: the European Union's role in development aid partnership.Vol. 24. IB Tauris.
  • Schelwald-van der Kley, A. L., & Reijerkerk, L. (2009). Water: A way of life: Sustainable water management in a cultural context. CRC Press.
  • Scudder, T. T. (2012). The future of large dams: Dealing with social, environmental, institutional and political costs. Taylor & Francis.
  • Tortajada, C.& K Biswas, A., (2009). Water Resources Development and Management. Springer.
  • UNEP, (2002). United Nations Environment Programme. Vital water graphics: an overview of the state of the world's fresh and marine waters. Earthprint.
  • UNEP, (2010). United Nations Environment Programme. Africa Water Atlas. ISBN: 978-92-807-3110.
  • Varis, O., Tortajada, C., & Biswas, A. K., (2008). Management of transboundary rivers and lakes. Springer.
  • World Bank, (2019). Population total, Ethiopia. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=ET
  • WWAP, (2012). World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nation World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk. UNESCO.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Çevre Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Awol Kedir JEWARO (Sorumlu Yazar)
Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
0000-0002-9860-4077
Türkiye


İbrahim DİLER
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2182-2615
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 17, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Jewaro, A. K. & Diler, İ. (2021). The State of Water Management in Ethiopia: Problems and Solution Approaches . Acta Aquatica Turcica , 17 (4) , 556-568 . DOI: 10.22392/actaquatr.915819