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Kekik ve Kekik Yağının Beyaz Karides Büyümesi Üzerine Etkileri, Litopenaeus vannamei

Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 81 - 92, 01.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.22392/actaquatr.976901

Öz

The Bu çalışmada, beyaz karides (Litopenaeus vannamei) yetiştiriciliğinde yem katkı maddesi olarak kekik yaprağı ve kekik yağının farklı besin takviyesi düzeylerinin etkinliğinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Denemede, %1 ve %2 kekik yaprağı (ThyL1% ve ThyL2%), %0,5 ve %1 kekik yağı (ThyO0.5% ve ThyO1%) ve kontrol grubu olmak üzere beş grup oluşturulmuştur. Karidesler (6,67±1,52 g), üç tekerrürlü deneme düzeninde stoklama oranı 15 karides/250 L (günlük %100 su değişimi) olacak şekilde stoklanmıştır. Deneme sonunda, en yüksek final vücut ağırlığı (14,90±2,77) ve ağırlık artışı (8,22±0,72) ThyO1% grubunda belirlenmiş ve kontrol grubu (Final ağırlık: 13,54±3.37, ağırlık artışı: 6.87±0.54) ile karşılaştırıldığında istatistiksel olarak farklı bulunmuştur (p<0.05). Gruplar arasında en iyi yemden değerlendirme oranı benzer şekilde ThyO1% (2,59±0,92) grubunda belirlenirken, yaşama oranları bakımından gruplar arasında fark bulunmamıştır. Hepatopankreas dokularının histolojik incelemesi, gruplar arasında doku morfolojisi açısından fark olmadığını göstermiştir. Kuru madde, ham protein ve ham kül içerikleri gruplar arasında önemli ölçüde farklılık göstermemiştir. En yüksek lipid içeriği ThyO1% grubunda (1,64) saptanmış ve diğer gruplarla karşılaştırıldığında istatistiki fark oluşturmuştur (p<0.05). Doymuş ve doymamış yağ asitleri kompozisyon değerleri tüm gruplar için anlamlı farklılık göstermiştir. (p<0.05). Sonuç olarak, %1 kekik yağı katkılı yemin beyaz karideslerde büyüme destekleyicisi olarak kullanılabileceği ifade edilebilir.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Bligh, E. G., & Dyer, W. J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology, 37(8), 911-917.
  • Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94, 223-253.
  • Cadun, A., Kışla, D., & Çaklı, Ş. (2008). Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life. Food Chemistry, 109(1), 81-87.
  • Chakraborty, S. B., & Hancz, C. (2011). Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3(3), 103-119.
  • Citarasu, T. (2010). Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International, 18(3), 403-414.
  • Davis, P.H. (Ed.). 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, vol.1-9. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dorman, H. J. D., & Deans, S. G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of applied microbiology, 88(2), 308-316.
  • FAO. (2016). State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization Publications, Rome, 2016.
  • Farajzadeh, F., Motamedzadegan, A., Shahidi, S. A., & Hamzeh, S. (2016). The effect of chitosan-gelatin coating on the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under refrigerated condition. Food Control, 67, 163-170. Jayaprakas, V., Sambhu, C., & Sunil Kumar, S. (1996). Effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth and reproductive performance of male Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Fishery Technology, 33, 84-90.
  • Júnior, O. T., Kuhn, F., Padilha, P. M., Nesi, C. N., Mestres, M., Dal Magro, J., & Castellví, S. D. L. (2018). Effect of microencapsulated thyme essential oil on white spot virus infected Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture international, 26(6), 1459-1468.
  • Kim, J. D., Nhut, T. M., Hai, T. N., & Ra, C. S. (2011). Effect of Dietary Essential Oils on Growth, Feed Utilization and Meat Yields of White Leg Shrimp L. Vannamei. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(8), 1136-1141. Kroismayr, A., Schedle, K., Sehm, J., Pfaffl, M. W., Plitzner, C., Foissy, H., Ettle, T., Mayer, H., & Windisch, W. (2008). Effects of antimicrobial feed additives on gut microbiology and blood parameters of weaned piglets. Bodenkultur, 59(59), 111-120.
  • Lee, S., Najiah, M., Wendy, W., & Nadirah, M. (2009). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites. Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 3(3), 332-336.
  • Li, J., Tan, B., & Mai, K. (2009). Dietary probiotic Bacillus OJ and isomaltooligosaccharides influence the intestine microbial populations, immune responses and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture, 291(1-2), 35-40.
  • Okpala, C. O. R., Choo, W. S., & Dykes, G. A. (2014). Quality and shelf-life assessment of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) freshly harvested and stored on ice. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 55(1), 110-116.
  • Rengpipat, S., Phianphak, W., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., & Menasveta. P. (1998). Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth. Aquaculture, 167(3-4), 301-313.
  • Rengpipat, S., Rukpratanporn, S., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., & Menasaveta, P. (2000). Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture, 191(4), 271-288.
  • Roberts, R. J., & Smail, D. A. (2004). Laboratory methods. In: Fish Pathology, 3rd edn (Roberts, R.J. ed.), pp. 380–412. W.B. Saunders, London.
  • Sugiharto, S. (2016). Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2), 99-111.
  • Sönmez, A. Y., Bilen, S., Alak, G., Hisar, O., Yanık, T., & Biswas, G. (2015). Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils. Fish physiology and biochemistry, 41(1), 165-175.
  • Takashima, F., & Hibiya, T. (1995). An Atlas of Fish Histology Normal and Pathological Features, 2nd edn. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 195 pp.
  • Tiihonen, K., Kettunen, H., Bento, M. H. L., Saarinen, M., Lahtinen, S., Ouwehand, A. C., Schulze, H., & Rautonen, N. (2010). The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota. British Poultry Science, 51(3), 381-392.
  • Valladão, G. M. R., Gallani, S. U., Kotzent, S., Assane, I. M., & Pilarski, F. (2019). Effects of dietary thyme essential oil on hemato-immunological indices, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of Nile tilapia. Aquaculture international, 27(2), 399-411.
  • Villeda, C. (2013). Effect of dietary essential oils supplementation on growth performance, protein digestibility and digestive enzymes in juvenile gilthead seabream fed a low fishmeal diet. Doctoral dissertation. Universidade do Algarve.
  • Windisch, W., Schedle, K., Plitzner, C., & Kroismayr, A. (2008). Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of animal science, 86, E140-E148.
  • Zargar, A., Rahimi‐Afzal, Z., Soltani, E., Taheri Mirghaed, A., Ebrahimzadeh‐Mousavi, H. A., Soltani, M., & Yuosefi, P. (2019). Growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed Thymus vulgaris essential oils. Aquaculture Research, 50(11), 3097-3106.
  • Zeng, Q. Z., Thorarinsdottir, K. A., & Olafsdottir, G. (2005). Quality changes of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) stored under different cooling conditions. Journal of food science, 70(7), 459-466.
  • Zhang, Q., Tan, B., Mai, K., Zhang, W., Ma, H., Ai, Q., & Liufu, Z. (2011). Dietary administration of Bacillus (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and isomaltooligosaccharide influences the intestinal microflora, immunological parameters and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp, Penaeus japonicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae). Aquaculture Research, 42(7), 943-952.
  • Zheng, Z. L., Tan, J. Y., Liu, H. Y., Zhou, X. H., Xiang, X., & Wang, K. Y. (2009). Evaluation of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on growth, antioxidant effect and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 292(3-4), 214-218.
  • Ziaei-Nejad, S., Rezaei, M. H., Takami, G. A., Lovett, D. L., Mirvaghefi, A. R., & Shakouri, M. (2006). The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture, 252(2-4), 516-524.

Effects of Thyme and Thyme Oil on Growth of White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 81 - 92, 01.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.22392/actaquatr.976901

Öz

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different levels of thyme leaf and thyme oil as feed additives in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture. In the experiment, five groups were formed as 1% and 2% thyme leaves (ThyL1% and ThyL2%), 0.5% and 1% thyme oil (ThyO0.5% and ThyO1%), and control group. Shrimps (6.67±1.52 g) were stocked at a stocking rate of 15 shrimp/250 L (100% water change day-1) in a three-replications. At the end of the trial, the highest final body weight (14.90±2.77) and weight gain (8.22±0.72) were determined in the ThyO1% group and were statistically different compared to the control group (Final weight: 13.54±3.37, weight gain: 6.87±0.54) (p<0.05). While the best feed conversion ratio between the groups was similarly determined in the ThyO1% (2.59±0.92) group, there was no difference between the groups in terms of survival rates. Histological examination of hepatopancreatic tissues showed no difference in tissue morphology between the groups. Dry matter, crude protein, and crude ash contents did not differ significantly between the groups. The highest lipid content was found in the ThyO1% group (1.64) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids composition values differed significantly for all groups. (p<0.05). As a result, it can be stated that 1% thyme oil added feed can be used as a growth promoter in white shrimp culture.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Bligh, E. G., & Dyer, W. J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology, 37(8), 911-917.
  • Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94, 223-253.
  • Cadun, A., Kışla, D., & Çaklı, Ş. (2008). Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life. Food Chemistry, 109(1), 81-87.
  • Chakraborty, S. B., & Hancz, C. (2011). Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3(3), 103-119.
  • Citarasu, T. (2010). Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International, 18(3), 403-414.
  • Davis, P.H. (Ed.). 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, vol.1-9. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dorman, H. J. D., & Deans, S. G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of applied microbiology, 88(2), 308-316.
  • FAO. (2016). State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization Publications, Rome, 2016.
  • Farajzadeh, F., Motamedzadegan, A., Shahidi, S. A., & Hamzeh, S. (2016). The effect of chitosan-gelatin coating on the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under refrigerated condition. Food Control, 67, 163-170. Jayaprakas, V., Sambhu, C., & Sunil Kumar, S. (1996). Effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth and reproductive performance of male Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Fishery Technology, 33, 84-90.
  • Júnior, O. T., Kuhn, F., Padilha, P. M., Nesi, C. N., Mestres, M., Dal Magro, J., & Castellví, S. D. L. (2018). Effect of microencapsulated thyme essential oil on white spot virus infected Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture international, 26(6), 1459-1468.
  • Kim, J. D., Nhut, T. M., Hai, T. N., & Ra, C. S. (2011). Effect of Dietary Essential Oils on Growth, Feed Utilization and Meat Yields of White Leg Shrimp L. Vannamei. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(8), 1136-1141. Kroismayr, A., Schedle, K., Sehm, J., Pfaffl, M. W., Plitzner, C., Foissy, H., Ettle, T., Mayer, H., & Windisch, W. (2008). Effects of antimicrobial feed additives on gut microbiology and blood parameters of weaned piglets. Bodenkultur, 59(59), 111-120.
  • Lee, S., Najiah, M., Wendy, W., & Nadirah, M. (2009). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites. Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 3(3), 332-336.
  • Li, J., Tan, B., & Mai, K. (2009). Dietary probiotic Bacillus OJ and isomaltooligosaccharides influence the intestine microbial populations, immune responses and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture, 291(1-2), 35-40.
  • Okpala, C. O. R., Choo, W. S., & Dykes, G. A. (2014). Quality and shelf-life assessment of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) freshly harvested and stored on ice. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 55(1), 110-116.
  • Rengpipat, S., Phianphak, W., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., & Menasveta. P. (1998). Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth. Aquaculture, 167(3-4), 301-313.
  • Rengpipat, S., Rukpratanporn, S., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., & Menasaveta, P. (2000). Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture, 191(4), 271-288.
  • Roberts, R. J., & Smail, D. A. (2004). Laboratory methods. In: Fish Pathology, 3rd edn (Roberts, R.J. ed.), pp. 380–412. W.B. Saunders, London.
  • Sugiharto, S. (2016). Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2), 99-111.
  • Sönmez, A. Y., Bilen, S., Alak, G., Hisar, O., Yanık, T., & Biswas, G. (2015). Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils. Fish physiology and biochemistry, 41(1), 165-175.
  • Takashima, F., & Hibiya, T. (1995). An Atlas of Fish Histology Normal and Pathological Features, 2nd edn. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 195 pp.
  • Tiihonen, K., Kettunen, H., Bento, M. H. L., Saarinen, M., Lahtinen, S., Ouwehand, A. C., Schulze, H., & Rautonen, N. (2010). The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota. British Poultry Science, 51(3), 381-392.
  • Valladão, G. M. R., Gallani, S. U., Kotzent, S., Assane, I. M., & Pilarski, F. (2019). Effects of dietary thyme essential oil on hemato-immunological indices, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of Nile tilapia. Aquaculture international, 27(2), 399-411.
  • Villeda, C. (2013). Effect of dietary essential oils supplementation on growth performance, protein digestibility and digestive enzymes in juvenile gilthead seabream fed a low fishmeal diet. Doctoral dissertation. Universidade do Algarve.
  • Windisch, W., Schedle, K., Plitzner, C., & Kroismayr, A. (2008). Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of animal science, 86, E140-E148.
  • Zargar, A., Rahimi‐Afzal, Z., Soltani, E., Taheri Mirghaed, A., Ebrahimzadeh‐Mousavi, H. A., Soltani, M., & Yuosefi, P. (2019). Growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed Thymus vulgaris essential oils. Aquaculture Research, 50(11), 3097-3106.
  • Zeng, Q. Z., Thorarinsdottir, K. A., & Olafsdottir, G. (2005). Quality changes of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) stored under different cooling conditions. Journal of food science, 70(7), 459-466.
  • Zhang, Q., Tan, B., Mai, K., Zhang, W., Ma, H., Ai, Q., & Liufu, Z. (2011). Dietary administration of Bacillus (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and isomaltooligosaccharide influences the intestinal microflora, immunological parameters and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp, Penaeus japonicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae). Aquaculture Research, 42(7), 943-952.
  • Zheng, Z. L., Tan, J. Y., Liu, H. Y., Zhou, X. H., Xiang, X., & Wang, K. Y. (2009). Evaluation of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on growth, antioxidant effect and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 292(3-4), 214-218.
  • Ziaei-Nejad, S., Rezaei, M. H., Takami, G. A., Lovett, D. L., Mirvaghefi, A. R., & Shakouri, M. (2006). The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture, 252(2-4), 516-524.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Mevlüt AKTAŞ
İSKENDERUN TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7851-0014
Türkiye


Münevver Ayçe GENÇ
İSKENDERUN TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9838-8423
Türkiye


Yasemin BİRCAN YILDIRIM
İSKENDERUN TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7776-4701
Türkiye


Doğukan KAYA (Sorumlu Yazar)
TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8832-5496
Türkiye


Özlem ÇALIŞICI Bu kişi benim
İSKENDERUN TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5960-316X
Türkiye


Ercüment GENÇ
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7474-2208
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Aktaş, M. , Genç, M. A. , Bircan Yıldırım, Y. , Kaya, D. , Çalışıcı, Ö. & Genç, E. (2022). Effects of Thyme and Thyme Oil on Growth of White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei . Acta Aquatica Turcica , 18 (1) , 81-92 . DOI: 10.22392/actaquatr.976901