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Likenlerin doğal insektisit olarak kullanımı

Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 22 - 27, 01.05.2018
https://doi.org/10.30616/ajb.371020

Öz

Tarım, geçmişten günümüze kadar insanoğlu için en büyük istihdam kaynaklarından biri olmuştur. Bu alanda elde edilen ürünler ülke ekonomilerine önemli ölçüde katkı sağlamaktadır. Bununla birlikte, ürün veriminde düşüşlere sebep olan organizma sayısı bir hayli fazladır. Zararlı organizmalar ile mücadele konusunda tercih edilen uygulamaların başında kimyasal insektisit kullanımı gelmektedir. Fakat bu insektisitlerin yan etkilerinin yüksek düzeyde olması araştırmacıları alternatif çalışma konularına yönlendirmiştir. Biyolojik mücadele başlığı altında ele alınan, doğal ürünler aracılığı ile insektisit üretimi popüler alanlar içerisinde yer almaktadır. Likenler de yapılarında bulunan kendilerine özgü bileşenleri sayesinde doğal insektisit kaynaklarına malzeme olmaktadır. Yıllardır birçok alanda yararlanılan likenlerin gerek ekstraktları gerekse saf bileşenleri aracılığı ile farklı böcek türleri üzerinde toksik etkileri test edilmektedir. Bu noktada, likenlerden yüksek oranda verim elde edilmekle beraber çalışmaların ağırlıklı olarak ekstraktlar üzerinde gerçekleştirildiği dikkat çekmektedir. Tüm bu çalışmalar ışığında, farklı türler üzerinde insektisit aktivite gösteren likenlerdeki aktif bileşenlerin ve böceklerdeki etki mekanizmalarının tespiti üzerine gerçekleştirilecek çalışmaların artırılması ile biyolojik insektisit üretim basamağına katkı sağlanacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Armstrong RA (2004). Lichens, Lichenometry and Global Warming. In: Microbiologist. pp 32–35.
  • Armstrong R, Bradwell T (2010). Growth of Crustose Lichens: A Review. Geogr Ann Ser A, Phys Geogr 92: 3–17.
  • Aslan A (1995). Erzurum-Kars-Artvin Arasında Yer Alan Bölge Likenleri Üzerine Taksonomik İncelemeler. Doctorate Thesis, Uludağ University Institute of Science and Technology, Bursa, Turkey.
  • Bačkor M, Fahselt D (2008). Lichen Photobionts and Metal Toxicity. Symbiosis 46: 1–10.
  • Balaji P, Malarvannan S, Hariharan GN (2007). Efficacy of Roccella montagnei Extracts on Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Entomol 4: 248–252.
  • Brodo IM, Sharnoff SD, Sharnoff S (2001). About the Lichens. In: Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London, pp 3–113.
  • Buckingham SD, Ihara M, Sattelle DB, Matsuda K (2017). Mechanisms of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting GABA Receptors. Curr Med Chem 24: 2935–2945.
  • Cetin H, Tufan-Cetin O, Turk AO, Tay T, Candan M, Yanikoglu A, Sumbul H (2008). Insecticidal Activity of Major Lichen Compounds, (-)- and (+)-Usnic Acid, against the Larvae of House Mosquito, Culex pipiens L. Parasitol Res 102: 1277–1279.
  • Culberson CF, Culberson WL (2001). Future Directions in Lichen Chemistry. Bryologist 104: 230–234.
  • Denecke S, Nowell CJ, Fournier-Level A, Perry T, Batterham P (2015). The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster. Plos One 10: e0145051.
  • Dogan M, Emsen B, Aasim M, Yildirim E (2017). Ceratophyllum demersum L. Extract as a Botanical Insecticide for Controlling the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 27: 11–15.
  • Emmerich R, Giez I, Lange OL, Proksch P (1993). Toxicity and Antifeedant Activity of Lichen Compounds against the Polyphagous Herbivorous Insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phytochemistry 33: 1389–1394.
  • Emsen B, Bulak Y, Yildirim E, Aslan A, Ercisli S (2012a). Activities of Two Major Lichen Compounds, Diffractaic Acid and Usnic Acid against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 5–10.
  • Emsen B, Yildirim E, Aslan A, Anar M, Ercisli S (2012b). Insecticidal Effect of the Extracts of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. and Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale Against Adults of the Grain Weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 145–149.
  • Emsen B, Aslan A, Yildirim E, Ercisli S (2013). Toxicity Effects of Some Lichen Species Extracts against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 23: 193–199.
  • Emsen B, Yildirim E, Aslan A (2015). Insecticidal Activities of Extracts of Three Lichen Species on Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Plant Prot Sci 51: 156–161.
  • Emsen B, Dogan M, Aasim M, Yildirim E (2016). Insecticidal Activity of In Vitro Propagated Aquatic Plant Ceratophyllum demersum L. against Granary Weevil Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 26: 619–624.
  • Grube M, Spribille T (2012). Exploring Symbiont Management in Lichens. Mol Ecol 21: 3098–3099.
  • Isman MB (1997). Neem and Other Botanical Insecticides: Barriers to Commercialization. Phytoparasitica 25: 339–344.
  • Kordali S, Yildirim E, Yazici G, Emsen B, Kabaagac G, Ercisli S (2012). Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils of Nine Plant Species from Asteraceae and Clusiaceae against Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 11–14.
  • Kordali S, Emsen B, Yildirim E (2013). Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Plant Species against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 23: 241–246.
  • Kranner I, Beckett R, Hochman A, Nash TH (2008). Desiccation-Tolerance in Lichens: A Review. Bryologist 111: 576–593.
  • Millot M, Dieu A, Tomasi S (2016). Dibenzofurans and Derivatives from Lichens and Ascomycetes. Nat Prod Rep 33: 801–811.
  • Murugesan S, Senthilkumar N, Babu DS, Rajasugunasekar D (2016). Chemical Composition, Antifeedant and Insecticidal Activities of Tree Borne Oil Seeds. Pestology 40: 29–41.
  • Nash TH (2008). Lichen Biology. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 486.
  • Nguyen K-H, Chollet-Krugler M, Gouault N, Tomasi S (2013). UV-Protectant Metabolites from Lichens and Their Symbiotic Partners. Nat Prod Rep 30: 1490–1508.
  • Nimis PL, Skert N (2006). Lichen Chemistry and Selective Grazing by the Coleopteran Lasioderma serricorne. Environ Exp Bot 55: 175–182.
  • Oberemok VV, Laikova KV, Gninenko YI, Zaitsev AS, Nyadar PM, Adeyemi TA (2015). A Short History of Insecticides. J Plant Prot Res 55: 221–226.
  • Pant M, Dubey S, Patanjali PK (2016). Recent Advancements in Bio-Botanical Pesticide Formulation Technology Development. In: Herbal Insecticides, Repellents and Biomedicines: Effectiveness and Commercialization. pp 117–126.
  • Rattan RS (2010). Mechanism of Action of Insecticidal Secondary Metabolites of Plant Origin. Crop Prot 29: 913–920.
  • Rikkinen J (2015). Cyanolichens. Biodivers Conserv 24: 973–993.
  • Shrestha G, St. Clair LL (2013). Lichens: A Promising Source of Antibiotic and Anticancer Drugs. Phytochem Rev 12: 229–244.
  • Shrestha G, St. Clair LL, O’Neill KL (2015). The Immunostimulating Role of Lichen Polysaccharides: A Review. Phyther Res 29: 317–322.
  • Shukla V, Joshi GP, Rawat MSM (2010). Lichens as a Potential Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds: A Review. Phytochem Rev 9: 303–314.
  • Sierro N, Battey JN, Ouadi S, Bovet L, Goepfert S, Bakaher N, Peitsch MC, Ivanov NV (2013). Reference Genomes and Transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Genome Biol 14: R60.
  • Silva MDC, Sá RA, Napoleão TH, Gomes FS, Santos NDL, Albuquerque AC, Xavier HS, Paiva PMG, Correia MTS, Coelho LCBB (2009). Purified Cladonia verticillaris Lichen Lectin: Insecticidal Activity on Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae). Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63: 334–340.
  • Sipman HJM (2002). The Significance of the Northern Andes for Lichens. Bot Rev 68: 88–99.
  • Suzuki MT, Parrot D, Berg G, Grube M, Tomasi S (2016). Lichens as Natural Sources of Biotechnologically Relevant Bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100: 583–595.
  • Szczepaniak K, Biziuk M (2003). Aspects of the Biomonitoring Studies Using Mosses and Lichens as Indicators of Metal Pollution. Environ Res 93: 221–230.
  • Tewary DK, Bhardwaj A, Shanker A (2005). Pesticidal Activities in Five Medicinal Plants Collected from Mid Hills of Western Himalayas. Ind Crops Prod 22: 241–247.
  • Tufan Çetin Ö, Sümbül H (2008). Liken Ekstraktları ve Sekonder Bileşiklerinin Böcek Kontrolünde Kullanımları. Türk Liken Topluluğu Bülteni 5: 8–10.
  • Tutel B (1986). Liken Biyolojisi ve Faydaları. Marmara Üniversitesi Eczac Fakültesi Derg 2: 185–194.
  • Uysal H, Altun D, Aslan A (2009). Drosophila melanogaster’de Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Likeninin Ömür Uzunluğu Üzerine Etkisi. TÜBAV Bilim Derg 2: 271–276.
  • Walia S, Saha S, Tripathi V, Sharma KK (2017). Phytochemical Biopesticides: Some Recent Developments. Phytochem Rev 16: 989–1007.
  • Xu ZQ, Li WH, Bao WK, Xu Q (2005). A Review on Primary Succession of Vegetation. Acta Ecol Sin 25: 3383–3389.
  • Yildirim E, Kesdek M, Kordali S (2005). Effects of Essential Oils of Three Plant Species on Tribolium confusum Du Val and Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Curculionidae). Fresenius Environ Bull 14: 574–578.
  • Yıldırım E, Çalmaşur Ö, Kesdek M (2009). Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam and Cyromazine Seed Treatments for the Control of Cabbage Insect Pests in Erzurum, in Turkey. Atatürk Univ J Agric Fac 40: 23–34.
  • Yildirim E, Aslan A, Emsen B, Cakir A, Ercisli S (2012a). Insecticidal Effect of Usnea longissima (Parmeliaceae) Extract against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Int J Agric Biol 14: 303–306.
  • Yildirim E, Emsen B, Aslan A, Bulak Y, Ercisli S (2012b). Insecticidal Activity of Lichens against the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 151–156.
  • Yildirim E, Emsen B, Kordali S (2013). Insecticidal Effects of Monoterpenes on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Appl Bot Food Qual 86: 198–204.
  • Zambare VP, Christopher LP (2012). Biopharmaceutical Potential of Lichens. Pharm Biol 50: 778–798.

Use of lichens as natural insecticide

Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 22 - 27, 01.05.2018
https://doi.org/10.30616/ajb.371020

Öz

Agriculture has become one of the greatest sources of employment for mankind from the past to the present. The products obtained in this area provide a significant contribution to the national economies. However, the number of organisms causing the decline in crop yield is quite high. The preferred applications for combating harmful organisms are the use of chemical insecticides. However, the high level of side effects of these insecticides led researchers to alternative study areas. Insecticide production through natural products that is under the title of biological struggle, is within popular areas. Lichens are also materials for natural insecticide sources due to their unique constituents in the constructions. For many years, the toxic effects of lichens utilized in many fields on different insect species have been tested through their extracts and pure components. At this point, it is noteworthy that while high yield is obtained from lichens, the studies are predominantly carried out on the extracts. In the light of all these studies, it will be contributed to biological insecticide production stage by increasing of the studies performed on determination of the active components in lichens showing insecticidal activity on different species and on mechanisms of action in insects.

Kaynakça

  • Armstrong RA (2004). Lichens, Lichenometry and Global Warming. In: Microbiologist. pp 32–35.
  • Armstrong R, Bradwell T (2010). Growth of Crustose Lichens: A Review. Geogr Ann Ser A, Phys Geogr 92: 3–17.
  • Aslan A (1995). Erzurum-Kars-Artvin Arasında Yer Alan Bölge Likenleri Üzerine Taksonomik İncelemeler. Doctorate Thesis, Uludağ University Institute of Science and Technology, Bursa, Turkey.
  • Bačkor M, Fahselt D (2008). Lichen Photobionts and Metal Toxicity. Symbiosis 46: 1–10.
  • Balaji P, Malarvannan S, Hariharan GN (2007). Efficacy of Roccella montagnei Extracts on Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Entomol 4: 248–252.
  • Brodo IM, Sharnoff SD, Sharnoff S (2001). About the Lichens. In: Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London, pp 3–113.
  • Buckingham SD, Ihara M, Sattelle DB, Matsuda K (2017). Mechanisms of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting GABA Receptors. Curr Med Chem 24: 2935–2945.
  • Cetin H, Tufan-Cetin O, Turk AO, Tay T, Candan M, Yanikoglu A, Sumbul H (2008). Insecticidal Activity of Major Lichen Compounds, (-)- and (+)-Usnic Acid, against the Larvae of House Mosquito, Culex pipiens L. Parasitol Res 102: 1277–1279.
  • Culberson CF, Culberson WL (2001). Future Directions in Lichen Chemistry. Bryologist 104: 230–234.
  • Denecke S, Nowell CJ, Fournier-Level A, Perry T, Batterham P (2015). The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster. Plos One 10: e0145051.
  • Dogan M, Emsen B, Aasim M, Yildirim E (2017). Ceratophyllum demersum L. Extract as a Botanical Insecticide for Controlling the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 27: 11–15.
  • Emmerich R, Giez I, Lange OL, Proksch P (1993). Toxicity and Antifeedant Activity of Lichen Compounds against the Polyphagous Herbivorous Insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phytochemistry 33: 1389–1394.
  • Emsen B, Bulak Y, Yildirim E, Aslan A, Ercisli S (2012a). Activities of Two Major Lichen Compounds, Diffractaic Acid and Usnic Acid against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 5–10.
  • Emsen B, Yildirim E, Aslan A, Anar M, Ercisli S (2012b). Insecticidal Effect of the Extracts of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. and Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale Against Adults of the Grain Weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 145–149.
  • Emsen B, Aslan A, Yildirim E, Ercisli S (2013). Toxicity Effects of Some Lichen Species Extracts against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 23: 193–199.
  • Emsen B, Yildirim E, Aslan A (2015). Insecticidal Activities of Extracts of Three Lichen Species on Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Plant Prot Sci 51: 156–161.
  • Emsen B, Dogan M, Aasim M, Yildirim E (2016). Insecticidal Activity of In Vitro Propagated Aquatic Plant Ceratophyllum demersum L. against Granary Weevil Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 26: 619–624.
  • Grube M, Spribille T (2012). Exploring Symbiont Management in Lichens. Mol Ecol 21: 3098–3099.
  • Isman MB (1997). Neem and Other Botanical Insecticides: Barriers to Commercialization. Phytoparasitica 25: 339–344.
  • Kordali S, Yildirim E, Yazici G, Emsen B, Kabaagac G, Ercisli S (2012). Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils of Nine Plant Species from Asteraceae and Clusiaceae against Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 11–14.
  • Kordali S, Emsen B, Yildirim E (2013). Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Plant Species against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 23: 241–246.
  • Kranner I, Beckett R, Hochman A, Nash TH (2008). Desiccation-Tolerance in Lichens: A Review. Bryologist 111: 576–593.
  • Millot M, Dieu A, Tomasi S (2016). Dibenzofurans and Derivatives from Lichens and Ascomycetes. Nat Prod Rep 33: 801–811.
  • Murugesan S, Senthilkumar N, Babu DS, Rajasugunasekar D (2016). Chemical Composition, Antifeedant and Insecticidal Activities of Tree Borne Oil Seeds. Pestology 40: 29–41.
  • Nash TH (2008). Lichen Biology. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 486.
  • Nguyen K-H, Chollet-Krugler M, Gouault N, Tomasi S (2013). UV-Protectant Metabolites from Lichens and Their Symbiotic Partners. Nat Prod Rep 30: 1490–1508.
  • Nimis PL, Skert N (2006). Lichen Chemistry and Selective Grazing by the Coleopteran Lasioderma serricorne. Environ Exp Bot 55: 175–182.
  • Oberemok VV, Laikova KV, Gninenko YI, Zaitsev AS, Nyadar PM, Adeyemi TA (2015). A Short History of Insecticides. J Plant Prot Res 55: 221–226.
  • Pant M, Dubey S, Patanjali PK (2016). Recent Advancements in Bio-Botanical Pesticide Formulation Technology Development. In: Herbal Insecticides, Repellents and Biomedicines: Effectiveness and Commercialization. pp 117–126.
  • Rattan RS (2010). Mechanism of Action of Insecticidal Secondary Metabolites of Plant Origin. Crop Prot 29: 913–920.
  • Rikkinen J (2015). Cyanolichens. Biodivers Conserv 24: 973–993.
  • Shrestha G, St. Clair LL (2013). Lichens: A Promising Source of Antibiotic and Anticancer Drugs. Phytochem Rev 12: 229–244.
  • Shrestha G, St. Clair LL, O’Neill KL (2015). The Immunostimulating Role of Lichen Polysaccharides: A Review. Phyther Res 29: 317–322.
  • Shukla V, Joshi GP, Rawat MSM (2010). Lichens as a Potential Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds: A Review. Phytochem Rev 9: 303–314.
  • Sierro N, Battey JN, Ouadi S, Bovet L, Goepfert S, Bakaher N, Peitsch MC, Ivanov NV (2013). Reference Genomes and Transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Genome Biol 14: R60.
  • Silva MDC, Sá RA, Napoleão TH, Gomes FS, Santos NDL, Albuquerque AC, Xavier HS, Paiva PMG, Correia MTS, Coelho LCBB (2009). Purified Cladonia verticillaris Lichen Lectin: Insecticidal Activity on Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae). Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63: 334–340.
  • Sipman HJM (2002). The Significance of the Northern Andes for Lichens. Bot Rev 68: 88–99.
  • Suzuki MT, Parrot D, Berg G, Grube M, Tomasi S (2016). Lichens as Natural Sources of Biotechnologically Relevant Bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100: 583–595.
  • Szczepaniak K, Biziuk M (2003). Aspects of the Biomonitoring Studies Using Mosses and Lichens as Indicators of Metal Pollution. Environ Res 93: 221–230.
  • Tewary DK, Bhardwaj A, Shanker A (2005). Pesticidal Activities in Five Medicinal Plants Collected from Mid Hills of Western Himalayas. Ind Crops Prod 22: 241–247.
  • Tufan Çetin Ö, Sümbül H (2008). Liken Ekstraktları ve Sekonder Bileşiklerinin Böcek Kontrolünde Kullanımları. Türk Liken Topluluğu Bülteni 5: 8–10.
  • Tutel B (1986). Liken Biyolojisi ve Faydaları. Marmara Üniversitesi Eczac Fakültesi Derg 2: 185–194.
  • Uysal H, Altun D, Aslan A (2009). Drosophila melanogaster’de Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Likeninin Ömür Uzunluğu Üzerine Etkisi. TÜBAV Bilim Derg 2: 271–276.
  • Walia S, Saha S, Tripathi V, Sharma KK (2017). Phytochemical Biopesticides: Some Recent Developments. Phytochem Rev 16: 989–1007.
  • Xu ZQ, Li WH, Bao WK, Xu Q (2005). A Review on Primary Succession of Vegetation. Acta Ecol Sin 25: 3383–3389.
  • Yildirim E, Kesdek M, Kordali S (2005). Effects of Essential Oils of Three Plant Species on Tribolium confusum Du Val and Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Curculionidae). Fresenius Environ Bull 14: 574–578.
  • Yıldırım E, Çalmaşur Ö, Kesdek M (2009). Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam and Cyromazine Seed Treatments for the Control of Cabbage Insect Pests in Erzurum, in Turkey. Atatürk Univ J Agric Fac 40: 23–34.
  • Yildirim E, Aslan A, Emsen B, Cakir A, Ercisli S (2012a). Insecticidal Effect of Usnea longissima (Parmeliaceae) Extract against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Int J Agric Biol 14: 303–306.
  • Yildirim E, Emsen B, Aslan A, Bulak Y, Ercisli S (2012b). Insecticidal Activity of Lichens against the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22: 151–156.
  • Yildirim E, Emsen B, Kordali S (2013). Insecticidal Effects of Monoterpenes on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Appl Bot Food Qual 86: 198–204.
  • Zambare VP, Christopher LP (2012). Biopharmaceutical Potential of Lichens. Pharm Biol 50: 778–798.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Biyoloji
Yayınlanma Tarihi 2018
Bölüm Reviews
Yazarlar

Buğrahan EMSEN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KARAMANOGLU MEHMETBEY UNIVERSITY, KAMİL ÖZDAĞ FACULTY OF SCIENCE, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
0000-0002-9636-2596
Türkiye


Ali ASLAN>
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yuzuncu Yil University
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mayıs 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { ajb371020, journal = {Anatolian Journal of Botany}, eissn = {2602-2818}, address = {anatolianjbot@gmail.com}, publisher = {Abdullah KAYA}, year = {2018}, volume = {2}, number = {1}, pages = {22 - 27}, doi = {10.30616/ajb.371020}, title = {Use of lichens as natural insecticide}, key = {cite}, author = {Emsen, Buğrahan and Aslan, Ali} }
APA Emsen, B. & Aslan, A. (2018). Use of lichens as natural insecticide . Anatolian Journal of Botany , 2 (1) , 22-27 . DOI: 10.30616/ajb.371020
MLA Emsen, B. , Aslan, A. "Use of lichens as natural insecticide" . Anatolian Journal of Botany 2 (2018 ): 22-27 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ajb/issue/35132/371020>
Chicago Emsen, B. , Aslan, A. "Use of lichens as natural insecticide". Anatolian Journal of Botany 2 (2018 ): 22-27
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Likenlerin doğal insektisit olarak kullanımı AU - BuğrahanEmsen, AliAslan Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.30616/ajb.371020 DO - 10.30616/ajb.371020 T2 - Anatolian Journal of Botany JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 22 EP - 27 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - -2602-2818 M3 - doi: 10.30616/ajb.371020 UR - https://doi.org/10.30616/ajb.371020 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Anatolian Journal of Botany Use of lichens as natural insecticide %A Buğrahan Emsen , Ali Aslan %T Use of lichens as natural insecticide %D 2018 %J Anatolian Journal of Botany %P -2602-2818 %V 2 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30616/ajb.371020 %U 10.30616/ajb.371020
ISNAD Emsen, Buğrahan , Aslan, Ali . "Use of lichens as natural insecticide". Anatolian Journal of Botany 2 / 1 (Mayıs 2018): 22-27 . https://doi.org/10.30616/ajb.371020
AMA Emsen B. , Aslan A. Use of lichens as natural insecticide. Ant J Bot. 2018; 2(1): 22-27.
Vancouver Emsen B. , Aslan A. Use of lichens as natural insecticide. Anatolian Journal of Botany. 2018; 2(1): 22-27.
IEEE B. Emsen ve A. Aslan , "Use of lichens as natural insecticide", Anatolian Journal of Botany, c. 2, sayı. 1, ss. 22-27, May. 2018, doi:10.30616/ajb.371020

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