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Contents of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn Elements in Donkey Milk Produced in Muğla, Turkey

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 275 - 280, 19.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219

Öz

In this study, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn trace elements were determined in donkey milk, which was produced in Muğla (Turkey). Milk samples of twenty different donkeys were collected from donkeys in the breastfeeding period from 6 different districts in Muğla. Milk samples were dissolved by microwave digestion system and Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn elements were determined by the electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of Cu was 2.96±0.29 mg/kg, Fe was 5.22±0.74 mg/kg, Mn was 0.09±0.05 mg/kg, and Zn was 16.27±3.35 mg/kg. In addition, accuracy of the method was checked with standard reference material (ERM-BD151, skimmed milk powder). For each element, the detection limit and the quantification limit values were reported.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Paksoy, N., Dinç, H., Altun, S.K. (2018). Evaluation of levels of essential elements and heavy metals in milks of dairy donkeys, goats and sheep in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50(3).
  • [2] Madhusudan, N.C., Ramachandra, C.D., Udaykumar, N.D., Sharnagouda, H.D., Nagraj, N.D., Jagjivan, R.D. (2017). Composition, characteristics, nutritional value and health benefits of donkey milk-A review. Dairy Science & Technology.
  • [3] Tavşanlı, H., Gökmen, M., Önen, A. (2020). Chemical and microbiological quality of donkey milk. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 67(3), 243-24.
  • [4] Prasad, S., Saluja, R., Joshi, V., Garg, J.K. (2020). Heavy metal pollution in surface water of the Upper Ganga River, India: human health risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(11), 1-15.
  • [5] Potortì, A.G., Di Bella, G., Turco, V.L., Rando, R., Dugo, G. (2013). Non-toxic and potentially toxic elements in Italian donkey milk by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 31(1), 161-172.
  • [6] Aspri, M., Economou, N., Papademas, P. (2017). Donkey milk: An overview on functionality, technology, and future prospects, Food Reviews International, 33, 316-333.
  • [7] Yirmibeşoğlu, S.S.S, Öztürk, B.E.T (2020). Comparing microbiological profiles, bioactivities, and physicochemical and sensory properties of donkey milk kefir and cow milk kefir, Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 44, 774-781.
  • [8] Conte, F., Panebianco, A. (2019). Potential hazards associated with raw donkey milk consumption: A review, International Journal of Food Science. Article ID 5782974. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5782974.
  • [9] Esener, O.B.B., Balkan, B.M. Uvez, E.A. Yildiz, G., Hafizoglu, M., Yilmazer, N., Gurevin, E.G. (2018) Donkey milk kefir induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by decreasing iNOS in mice, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 93(6), 424-431.
  • [10] Hikmet, D., Altun, S.K. (2017) Presence of Escherichia Coli in Urfa Cheese and ın vitro screening of donkey milk and essential oil of micromeria congesta for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(2), 139-145.
  • [11] Chen, L., Li, X., Li, Z., Deng, L. (2020). Analysis of 17 elements in cow, goat, buffalo, yak, and camel milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RSC Advances, 10(12), 6736-6742.
  • [12] Longodor, A. L., Mireșan, V., Odagiu, A., Marchiș, Z., Baltă, I., Andronie, L., Coroian, A. (2019). Heavy Metals from Donkey (Equus asinus) Milk. ProEnvironment/ProMediu, 12(40).
  • [13] Kılıç, M., Bozkaya, O. (2017). Çiğ süt örneklerinde ağır metal ve metal kontaminasyonlarının belirlenmesi ve sağlık üzerine etkisi. Ankara Sağlık Hizmetleri Dergisi, 16(1), 1-10.
  • [14] Mama, C.N., Nnaji, C.C., Emenike, P.C., Chibueze, C.V. (2020). Potential environmental and human health risk of soil and roadside dust in a rapidly growing urban settlement. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 17(4), 2385-2400.
  • [15] Bartholomew, C.S., Li, N., Li, Y., Dai, W., Nibagwire, D., Guo, T. (2020). Characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dust for children in Jinhua, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(5), 5042-5055.
  • [16] Singh, M., Yadav, P., Garg, V.K., Sharma, A., Singh, B. and Sharma, H. (2015). Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(8), 5299-5304.
  • [17] Miedico, O., Tarallo, M., Pompa, C., Chiaravalle, A.E. (2016). Trace elements in sheep and goat milk samples from Apulia and Basilicata regions (Italy): Valuation by multivariate data analysis. Small Ruminant Research, 135, 60-65.
  • [18] Długaszek, M. (2019). Studies on relationships between essential and toxic elements in selected body fluids, cells and tissues. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 297, 57-66.
  • [19] Osredkar, J., Sustar, N. (2011). Copper and zinc, biological role and significance of copper/zinc imbalance. Journal of Clinic Toxicol S, 3(2161), 0495.
  • [20] Prasad, A.S. (2003). Zinc deficiency: has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health organisations.
  • [21] Plum, L.M., Rink, L., Haase, H. (2010). The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(4), 1342-1365.
  • [22] Al-Fartusie, F.S., Mohssan, S.N. (2017). Essential trace elements and their vital roles in human body. Indian Journal of Advances in Chemical Sciences, 5(3), 127-136.
  • [23] Salimei, E., Fantuz, F. (2012). Equid milk for human consumption. International Dairy Journal, 24(2), 130-142.
  • [24] Honda, R., Tawara, K., Nishijo, M., Nakagawa, H., Tanebe, K., Saito, S. (2003). Cadmium exposure and trace elements in human breast milk. Toxicology, 186(3), 255-259.
  • [25] Yamawaki, N., Yamada, M., Kan-no, T., Kojima, T., Kaneko, T., Yonekubo, A. (2005). Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast milk from Japanese women. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 19(2-3), 171-181.
  • [26] Nascimento, R. S., Froes, R. E., Silva, N. O., Naveira, R. L., Mendes, D. B., Neto, W. B., Silva, J. B. B. (2010). Comparison between ordinary least squares regression and weighted least squares regression in the calibration of metals present in human milk determined by ICP-OES. Talanta, 80(3), 1102-1109.
  • [27] Wessling-Resnick, M. (2014). Iron. Modern nutrition in health and disease. (Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler RG, eds).
  • [28] Aggett, P.J. (2012). Iron. Present knowledge in nutrition. (Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds).
  • [29] Coates, P.M., Betz, J.M., Blackman, M.R., Cragg, G.M., Levine, M., Moss, J., White, J.D. (Eds.). (2010). Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. CRC Press.
  • [30] Prohaska, T., Köllensperger, G., Krachler, M., De Winne, K., Stingeder, G., Moens, L. (2000). Determination of trace elements in human milk by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 15(4), 335-340.
  • [31] Roger, M. (2011). The Minerals You Need, USA: Safe Goods Publishing, p21.
  • [32] Emsley, J. (2001). Manganese. Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 249p.
  • [33] Fraga, C.G. (2005). Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26(4-5), 235-244.
  • [34] Palacios, C. (2006). The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(8), 621-628.
  • [35] Henn, B.C., Ettinger, A.S., Schwartz, J., Téllez-Rojo, M.M., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Hernández-Avila, M., Wright, R.O. (2010). Early postnatal blood manganese levels and children’s neurodevelopment. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(4), 433.
  • [36] Avila, D.S., Puntel, R.L., Aschner, M. (2013). Manganese in health and disease. In Interrelations between essential metal ions and human diseases (199-227). Springer, Dordrecht.
  • [37] Law, N.A., Caudle, M.T., Pecoraro, V.L. (1998). Manganese redox enzymes and model systems: properties, structures, and reactivity. In Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, 46, 305-440.
  • [38] Treiber, N., Maity, P., Singh, K., Ferchiu, F., Wlaschek, M., Scharffetter-Kochanek, K. (2012). The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in skin aging. Dermato-Endocrinology, 4(3), 232-235.
  • [39] Uauy, R., Olivares, M., Gonzalez, M. (1998). Essentiality of copper in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(5), 952S-959S.
  • [40] Angelova, M., Asenova, S., Nedkova, V., Koleva-Kolarova, R. (2011). Copper in the human organism. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 9(1), 88-98.
  • [41] Tan, J.C., Burns, D.L., Jones, H.R. (2006). Severe ataxia, myelopathy, and peripheral neuropathy due to acquired copper deficiency in a patient with history of gastrectomy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 30(5), 446-450.
  • [42] Malacarne, M., Criscione, A., Franceschi, P., Bordonaro, S., Formaggioni, P., Marletta, D., Summer, A. (2019). New insights into chemical and mineral composition of donkey milk throughout nine months of lactation. Animals, 9(12), 1161.

Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 275 - 280, 19.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219

Öz

Bu çalışma kapsamında, Muğla ilinde üretilen eşek sütlerinde Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn elementlerinin tayini yapıldı. Muğla’da 6 farklı ilçeden emzirme döneminde olduğu tespit edilen eşeklerden, 20 adet eşek sütü örneği toplandı. Toplanan süt örnekleri, mikrodalga çözündürme sistemi ile çözündürüldükten sonra Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn elementleri Elektrotermal Atomlaştırıcı Atomik Absorpsiyon Spektrometresi ile tayin edildi. Eşek sütü örneklerinde elementlerin derişim ortalaması Cu 2.96±0.29 mg/kg, Fe 5.22±0.74 mg/kg, Mn 0.09±0.05 mg/kg ve Zn 16.27±3.35 mg/kg olarak tespit edildi. Her bir element için gözlenebilme sınırı (LOD) ve tayin sınırı (LOQ) değerleri hesaplandı ve yöntemin doğruluğu standart referans malzeme ile (ERM-BD151, yağsız süt tozu) kontrol edildi.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Paksoy, N., Dinç, H., Altun, S.K. (2018). Evaluation of levels of essential elements and heavy metals in milks of dairy donkeys, goats and sheep in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50(3).
  • [2] Madhusudan, N.C., Ramachandra, C.D., Udaykumar, N.D., Sharnagouda, H.D., Nagraj, N.D., Jagjivan, R.D. (2017). Composition, characteristics, nutritional value and health benefits of donkey milk-A review. Dairy Science & Technology.
  • [3] Tavşanlı, H., Gökmen, M., Önen, A. (2020). Chemical and microbiological quality of donkey milk. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 67(3), 243-24.
  • [4] Prasad, S., Saluja, R., Joshi, V., Garg, J.K. (2020). Heavy metal pollution in surface water of the Upper Ganga River, India: human health risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(11), 1-15.
  • [5] Potortì, A.G., Di Bella, G., Turco, V.L., Rando, R., Dugo, G. (2013). Non-toxic and potentially toxic elements in Italian donkey milk by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 31(1), 161-172.
  • [6] Aspri, M., Economou, N., Papademas, P. (2017). Donkey milk: An overview on functionality, technology, and future prospects, Food Reviews International, 33, 316-333.
  • [7] Yirmibeşoğlu, S.S.S, Öztürk, B.E.T (2020). Comparing microbiological profiles, bioactivities, and physicochemical and sensory properties of donkey milk kefir and cow milk kefir, Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 44, 774-781.
  • [8] Conte, F., Panebianco, A. (2019). Potential hazards associated with raw donkey milk consumption: A review, International Journal of Food Science. Article ID 5782974. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5782974.
  • [9] Esener, O.B.B., Balkan, B.M. Uvez, E.A. Yildiz, G., Hafizoglu, M., Yilmazer, N., Gurevin, E.G. (2018) Donkey milk kefir induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by decreasing iNOS in mice, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 93(6), 424-431.
  • [10] Hikmet, D., Altun, S.K. (2017) Presence of Escherichia Coli in Urfa Cheese and ın vitro screening of donkey milk and essential oil of micromeria congesta for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(2), 139-145.
  • [11] Chen, L., Li, X., Li, Z., Deng, L. (2020). Analysis of 17 elements in cow, goat, buffalo, yak, and camel milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RSC Advances, 10(12), 6736-6742.
  • [12] Longodor, A. L., Mireșan, V., Odagiu, A., Marchiș, Z., Baltă, I., Andronie, L., Coroian, A. (2019). Heavy Metals from Donkey (Equus asinus) Milk. ProEnvironment/ProMediu, 12(40).
  • [13] Kılıç, M., Bozkaya, O. (2017). Çiğ süt örneklerinde ağır metal ve metal kontaminasyonlarının belirlenmesi ve sağlık üzerine etkisi. Ankara Sağlık Hizmetleri Dergisi, 16(1), 1-10.
  • [14] Mama, C.N., Nnaji, C.C., Emenike, P.C., Chibueze, C.V. (2020). Potential environmental and human health risk of soil and roadside dust in a rapidly growing urban settlement. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 17(4), 2385-2400.
  • [15] Bartholomew, C.S., Li, N., Li, Y., Dai, W., Nibagwire, D., Guo, T. (2020). Characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dust for children in Jinhua, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(5), 5042-5055.
  • [16] Singh, M., Yadav, P., Garg, V.K., Sharma, A., Singh, B. and Sharma, H. (2015). Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(8), 5299-5304.
  • [17] Miedico, O., Tarallo, M., Pompa, C., Chiaravalle, A.E. (2016). Trace elements in sheep and goat milk samples from Apulia and Basilicata regions (Italy): Valuation by multivariate data analysis. Small Ruminant Research, 135, 60-65.
  • [18] Długaszek, M. (2019). Studies on relationships between essential and toxic elements in selected body fluids, cells and tissues. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 297, 57-66.
  • [19] Osredkar, J., Sustar, N. (2011). Copper and zinc, biological role and significance of copper/zinc imbalance. Journal of Clinic Toxicol S, 3(2161), 0495.
  • [20] Prasad, A.S. (2003). Zinc deficiency: has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health organisations.
  • [21] Plum, L.M., Rink, L., Haase, H. (2010). The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(4), 1342-1365.
  • [22] Al-Fartusie, F.S., Mohssan, S.N. (2017). Essential trace elements and their vital roles in human body. Indian Journal of Advances in Chemical Sciences, 5(3), 127-136.
  • [23] Salimei, E., Fantuz, F. (2012). Equid milk for human consumption. International Dairy Journal, 24(2), 130-142.
  • [24] Honda, R., Tawara, K., Nishijo, M., Nakagawa, H., Tanebe, K., Saito, S. (2003). Cadmium exposure and trace elements in human breast milk. Toxicology, 186(3), 255-259.
  • [25] Yamawaki, N., Yamada, M., Kan-no, T., Kojima, T., Kaneko, T., Yonekubo, A. (2005). Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast milk from Japanese women. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 19(2-3), 171-181.
  • [26] Nascimento, R. S., Froes, R. E., Silva, N. O., Naveira, R. L., Mendes, D. B., Neto, W. B., Silva, J. B. B. (2010). Comparison between ordinary least squares regression and weighted least squares regression in the calibration of metals present in human milk determined by ICP-OES. Talanta, 80(3), 1102-1109.
  • [27] Wessling-Resnick, M. (2014). Iron. Modern nutrition in health and disease. (Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler RG, eds).
  • [28] Aggett, P.J. (2012). Iron. Present knowledge in nutrition. (Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds).
  • [29] Coates, P.M., Betz, J.M., Blackman, M.R., Cragg, G.M., Levine, M., Moss, J., White, J.D. (Eds.). (2010). Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. CRC Press.
  • [30] Prohaska, T., Köllensperger, G., Krachler, M., De Winne, K., Stingeder, G., Moens, L. (2000). Determination of trace elements in human milk by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 15(4), 335-340.
  • [31] Roger, M. (2011). The Minerals You Need, USA: Safe Goods Publishing, p21.
  • [32] Emsley, J. (2001). Manganese. Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 249p.
  • [33] Fraga, C.G. (2005). Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26(4-5), 235-244.
  • [34] Palacios, C. (2006). The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(8), 621-628.
  • [35] Henn, B.C., Ettinger, A.S., Schwartz, J., Téllez-Rojo, M.M., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Hernández-Avila, M., Wright, R.O. (2010). Early postnatal blood manganese levels and children’s neurodevelopment. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(4), 433.
  • [36] Avila, D.S., Puntel, R.L., Aschner, M. (2013). Manganese in health and disease. In Interrelations between essential metal ions and human diseases (199-227). Springer, Dordrecht.
  • [37] Law, N.A., Caudle, M.T., Pecoraro, V.L. (1998). Manganese redox enzymes and model systems: properties, structures, and reactivity. In Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, 46, 305-440.
  • [38] Treiber, N., Maity, P., Singh, K., Ferchiu, F., Wlaschek, M., Scharffetter-Kochanek, K. (2012). The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in skin aging. Dermato-Endocrinology, 4(3), 232-235.
  • [39] Uauy, R., Olivares, M., Gonzalez, M. (1998). Essentiality of copper in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(5), 952S-959S.
  • [40] Angelova, M., Asenova, S., Nedkova, V., Koleva-Kolarova, R. (2011). Copper in the human organism. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 9(1), 88-98.
  • [41] Tan, J.C., Burns, D.L., Jones, H.R. (2006). Severe ataxia, myelopathy, and peripheral neuropathy due to acquired copper deficiency in a patient with history of gastrectomy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 30(5), 446-450.
  • [42] Malacarne, M., Criscione, A., Franceschi, P., Bordonaro, S., Formaggioni, P., Marletta, D., Summer, A. (2019). New insights into chemical and mineral composition of donkey milk throughout nine months of lactation. Animals, 9(12), 1161.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Dilek YILDIZ Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, Çevre Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi
0000-0003-3341-8107
Türkiye


Feyyaz KESKİN Bu kişi benim
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, Çevre Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi
0000-0002-2813-994X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { akademik-gida1011219, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, eissn = {2148-015X}, address = {Fevzipaşa Bulv. Çelik İş Merkezi, No: 162, Kat: 3, D:302, Çankaya, İzmir}, publisher = {Sidas Medya A.Ş.}, year = {2021}, volume = {19}, pages = {275 - 280}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219}, title = {Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldız, Dilek and Keskin, Feyyaz} }
APA Yıldız, D. & Keskin, F. (2021). Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri . Akademik Gıda , 19 (3) , 275-280 . DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219
MLA Yıldız, D. , Keskin, F. "Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri" . Akademik Gıda 19 (2021 ): 275-280 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/akademik-gida/issue/65451/1011219>
Chicago Yıldız, D. , Keskin, F. "Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri". Akademik Gıda 19 (2021 ): 275-280
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri AU - Dilek Yıldız , Feyyaz Keskin Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 275 EP - 280 VL - 19 IS - 3 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219 UR - https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri %A Dilek Yıldız , Feyyaz Keskin %T Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri %D 2021 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 19 %N 3 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219
ISNAD Yıldız, Dilek , Keskin, Feyyaz . "Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri". Akademik Gıda 19 / 3 (Ekim 2021): 275-280 . https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219
AMA Yıldız D. , Keskin F. Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri. Akademik Gıda. 2021; 19(3): 275-280.
Vancouver Yıldız D. , Keskin F. Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri. Akademik Gıda. 2021; 19(3): 275-280.
IEEE D. Yıldız ve F. Keskin , "Muğla İlinde Üretilen Eşek Sütlerinin Cu, Fe, Mn ve Zn Element İçerikleri", Akademik Gıda, c. 19, sayı. 3, ss. 275-280, Eki. 2021, doi:10.24323/akademik-gida.1011219

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