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A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 281 - 290, 19.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221

Öz

This study aims to examine and statistically analyze the cases of food poisoning in Turkey between 2016 and 2020, and the number of people affected by these cases. The data on food poisoning were obtained from news sources published in the written and visual media while weather temperature and relative humidity values were obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Frequency distributions and Kruskal Wallis and Bonferroni non-parametric tests were used to evaluate the data. A total of 504 cases of food poisoning (100.8 cases/year, 42 cases/month) were experienced in Turkey between 2016 and 2020, and the estimated number of people affected by those cases is 27,196. Surprisingly, most cases of food poisoning occurred in autumn and winter while the lowest number of cases took place in summer. Students and employees were most affected by food poisoning. No direct correlation of food poisoning with ambient temperature and relative humidity was determined. The study is the first research conducted in Turkey in this area, and can be used to develop strategies and policies for food safety.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Stein, C., Kuchenmüller, T., Hendrickx, S., Prüss-Űstün, A., Wolfson, L., Engels, D., Schlundt, J. (2007). The global burden of disease assessments—WHO is responsible? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 1(3), e161.
  • [2] Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L., Daszak, P. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451(7181), 990-993.
  • [3] Tauxe, R.V., Doyle, M.P., Kuchenmüller, T., Schlundt, J., Stein, C.E. (2010). Evolving public health approaches to the global challenge of foodborne infections. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139(1), 16-28.
  • [4] Newell, D.G., Koopmans, M., Verhoef, L., Duizer, E., Aidara-Kane, A., Sprong, H., Opsteegh, M., Langelaar, M., Threfall, J., Scheutz, F., van der Giessesn, J., Kruse, H. (2010). Food-borne diseases—the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139, 3-15.
  • [5] Mesquita, J.R., Nascimento, M.S. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with a christmas dinner in Porto, Portugal, December 2008. Eurosurveillance, 14(41), 19355.
  • [6] Meusburger, S., Reichert, S., Heibl, S., Nagl, M., Karner, F., Schachinger, I., Allerberger, F. (2006). Outbreak of foodborne botulism linked to barbecue, Austria, 2006. Weekly Releases (1997–2007), 11(50), 3097.
  • [7] Ingelfinger, J.R. (2008). Melamine and the global implications of food contamination. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(26), 2745-2748.
  • [8] Insulander, M., de Jong, B., Svenungsson, B. (2008). A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008. Eurosurveillance, 13(51), 19071.
  • [9] Friesema, I., De Jong, A., Hofhuis, A., Heck, M., Van den Kerkhof, H., De Jonge, R., Hameryck, D., Nagel, K., van Vilsteren, G., van Beek, P., Notermans, D., van Pelt, W. (2014). Large outbreak of Salmonella Thompson related to smoked salmon in the Netherlands, August to December 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(39), 20918.
  • [10] Harries, M., Monazahian, M., Wenzel, J., Jilg, W., Weber, M., Ehlers, J., Dreesman, J., Mertens, E. (2014). Foodborne hepatitis A outbreak associated with bakery products in northern German, 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(50), 2099.
  • [11] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). List of Selected Multistate Foodborne Outbreak Investigations. Accessed 07 January 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/multistate-outbreaks/outbreaks-list.html.
  • [12] Hald, T., Aspinall, W., Devleesschauwer, B., Cooke, R., Corrigan, T., Havelaar, A.H., Gibb, J.H., Torgerson, R.P., Kirk, D.M., Angulo, J.F., Lake, R.J., Speybroeck, N., Hoffman N. (2016). World Health Organization estimates of the relative contributions of food to the burden of disease due to selected foodborne hazards: a structured expert elicitation. PloS One, 11(1), e0145839.
  • [13] Torgerson, P.R., Devleesschauwer, B., Praet, N., Speybroeck, N., Willingham, A.L., Kasuga, F., Rokni, B.M., Zhou, N.X., Fevre, M.E., Sripa, B., Gargouri, N., Fürst, T., Budke, M.C., Carabin, H., Kirk, D.M., Angulo, J.F., Havelaar, A. de Silva, N. (2015) World health organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of 11 foodborne parasitic diseases, 2010: a data synthesis. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), e1001920.
  • [14] World Health Organization. (2015). Who estimates of the global burden of foodborne disease. Accessed 07 January 2021. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/199350/9789241565165_eng.pdf
  • [15] World Health Organization. (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak situation. Accessed 15 January 2021. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
  • [16] Addis, M., Sisay, D. (2015). A review on major food borne bacterial illnesses. Journal of Tropical Diseases, 3(4), 176-183.
  • [17] Havelaar, A.H., Kirk, M.D., Torgerson, P.R., Gibb, H.J., Hald, T., Lake, R.J., Praet, N., Bellinger, C.D., de Silva, R.N., Gargouri, N., Speybroeck, N., Cawthorne, A., Mathers, C., Stein, C., Angulo, J.F., Devleesschauwer, B. (2015). World Health Organization global estimates and regional comparisons of the burden of foodborne disease in 2010. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), e1001923.
  • [18] Hernández-Cortez, C., Palma-Martínez, I., Gonzalez-Avila, U.L., Guerrero-Andujano,A., Colmenero Solís, R., Castro-Escarpulli, G. (2017). Chapter 3: Food Poisoning Caused by Bacteria (Food Toxins). In Poisoning - From Specific Toxic Agents to Novel Rapid and Simplified Techniques for Analysis, Edited by Ntambwe Malangu, InTechopen, Croatia, 33-72p.
  • [19] Kalyoussef, S., Feja, K.N. (2014). Foodborne illnesses. Advances in Pediatrics, 61(1), 287-312.
  • [20] Valero, A., Carrasco, E., García-Gimeno, R.M. (2012). Principles and Methodologies for The Determination of Shelf-life in Foods. In Trends in Vital Food and Control Engineering, Edited by Ayman Amer Eissa, InTechOpen, Croatia, 3-42p.
  • [21] Tirado, M.C., Clarke, R., Jaykus, L.A., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Frank, J.M. (2010). Climate change and food safety: A review. Food Research International, 43(7), 1745-1765.
  • [22] Park, M.S., Park, K.H., Bahk, G.J. (2018). Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases. Science of the Total Environment, 610, 10-16.
  • [23] Semenza, J.C. (2014). Climate change and human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 7347-7353.
  • [24] Wu, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L., Xu, B. (2016). Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environment International, 86, 14-23.
  • [25] Hoelzer, K., Switt, A.I.M., Wiedmann, M., Boor, K.J. (2018). Emerging needs and opportunities in foodborne disease detection and prevention: From tools to people. Food Microbiology, 75, 65-71.
  • [26] Institute of Medicine, 2012. Building Public-private Partnerships in Food and Nutrition:Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 13p.
  • [27] Hathaway, S.C. (2013). Food control from farm to fork: implementing the standards of Codex and the OIE. Rev Sci Tech Oie, 32, 479-485.
  • [28] Urazel, B., Çelikal, A., Karbeyaz, K., Akkaya, H. (2014). Gıda zehirlenmesine bağlı rapor düzenlenen adli olguların değerlendirilmesi. Dicle Medical Journal, 41(1), 113-117.
  • [29] Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211.
  • [30] Peng, G.J., Chang, M.H., Fang, M., Liao, C.D., Tsai, C.F., Tseng, S.H., Kao, M.Y., Chou, K.H., Cheng, H.F. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152.
  • [31] Mun, S. (2020). The effects of ambient temperature changes on foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 85, 102432.
  • [32] Hall, G.V., D'Souza, R.M., Kirk, M.D. (2002). Foodborne disease in the new millennium: out of the frying pan and into the fire?. Medical Journal of Australia, 177(11), 614-618.
  • [33] Yun, J., Greiner, M., Höller, C., Messelhäusser, U., Rampp, A., Klein, G. (2016). Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1-7.
  • [34] Kendrovski, V., Karadzovski, Z., Spasenovska, M. (2011). Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(6), 264.
  • [35] Koluman, A., Dikici, A., Kahraman, T., İncili, G.K. (2017). Food Safety and Climate Change: Seasonality and Emerging Food Borne Pathogens. Journal of Gastroenterology Research, 1(1), 24-29.
  • [36] Patz, J. A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Holloway, T., Foley, J. A. (2005). Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 438, 310-317
  • [37] Kim, Y.S., Park, K.H., Chun, H.S., Choi, C., Bahk, G.J. (2015). Correlations between climatic conditions and foodborne disease. Food Research International, 68, 24–30.
  • [38] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, United States, 2016, Annual Report. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Accessed: 22.12.2020. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/59698.
  • [39] Kovats, R.S., Edwards, S.J., Hajat, S., Armstrong, B.G., Ebi, K.L., Menne, B. (2004). The effect of temperature on food poisoning: a time-series analysis of salmonellosis in ten European countries. Epidemiology & Infection, 132(3), 443-453.
  • [40] Louis, V.R., Gillespie, I.A., O'Brien, S.J., Russek-Cohen, E., Pearson, A.D., Colwell, R.R. (2005). Temperature-driven campylobacter seasonality in England and Wales. Apply Environmental Microbiology, 71(1), 85–92.
  • [41] Fleury, M., Charron, D.F., Holt, J.D., Allen, O.B., Maarouf, A.R. (2006). A time series analysis of the relationship of ambient temperature and common bacterial enteric infections in two Canadian provinces. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50(6), 385-391.
  • [42] Dominianni, C., Lane, K., Ahmed, M., Johnson, S., McKelvey, W., Ito, K. (2018). Hot Weather Impacts on New York City Restaurant Food Safety Violations and Operations. Journal of Food Protection, 81(7), 1048-1054.
  • [43] Nichols, G.L., Richardson, J.F., Sheppard, S.K., Lane, C., Sarran, C. (2012). Campylobacter epidemiology: a descriptive study reviewing 1 million cases in England and Wales between 1989 and 2011. BMJ Open, 2, e001179.
  • [44] Djennad, A., Iacono, G.L., Sarran, C., Lane, C., Elson, R., Höser, C., Lake, R.I., Colon-Gonzalez, J.F., Kovats, S., Semenza, C.J., Bailey, T.C., Kesses, A., Fleming, E.L., Nichols, L.G. (2019). Seasonality and the effects of weather on Campylobacter infections. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(255), 1-10.

Türkiye’de Gıda Zehirlenmesi Vakalarının İncelenmesi: 2016-2020

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 281 - 290, 19.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı; 2016-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye’de yaşanan gıda zehirlenme vakalarını, bu vakalardan etkilenen kişi sayılarını incelemek ve istatistiksel olarak analiz etmektir. Gıda zehirlenmelerine ait veriler yazılı ve görsel medyada çıkan ve haber niteliği taşıyan kaynaklardan elde edilmiştir. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde frekans dağılımları, nonparametrik testlerden Kruskal Wallis ve Bonferroni testi kullanılmıştır. 2016-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye’de toplam 504 gıda zehirlenme vakası (100,8 vaka sayısı/yıl, 42 vaka sayısı/ay) yaşanmış ve bu vakalardan tahmini 27 196 kişi etkilenmiştir. Şaşırtıcı bir şekilde gıda zehirlenme vakaları en çok sonbahar ve kış mevsiminde en az yaz mevsiminde gerçekleşmiştir. Gıda zehirlenmelerinden en çok öğrenciler ve çalışanlar etkilenmiştir. Hava sıcaklığı ve nispi nemin gıda zehirlenme vakalarıyla doğrudan bir ilişkisi saptanmamıştır. Çalışma bu alanda Türkiye’de yapılan ilk araştırmadır.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Stein, C., Kuchenmüller, T., Hendrickx, S., Prüss-Űstün, A., Wolfson, L., Engels, D., Schlundt, J. (2007). The global burden of disease assessments—WHO is responsible? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 1(3), e161.
  • [2] Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L., Daszak, P. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451(7181), 990-993.
  • [3] Tauxe, R.V., Doyle, M.P., Kuchenmüller, T., Schlundt, J., Stein, C.E. (2010). Evolving public health approaches to the global challenge of foodborne infections. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139(1), 16-28.
  • [4] Newell, D.G., Koopmans, M., Verhoef, L., Duizer, E., Aidara-Kane, A., Sprong, H., Opsteegh, M., Langelaar, M., Threfall, J., Scheutz, F., van der Giessesn, J., Kruse, H. (2010). Food-borne diseases—the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139, 3-15.
  • [5] Mesquita, J.R., Nascimento, M.S. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with a christmas dinner in Porto, Portugal, December 2008. Eurosurveillance, 14(41), 19355.
  • [6] Meusburger, S., Reichert, S., Heibl, S., Nagl, M., Karner, F., Schachinger, I., Allerberger, F. (2006). Outbreak of foodborne botulism linked to barbecue, Austria, 2006. Weekly Releases (1997–2007), 11(50), 3097.
  • [7] Ingelfinger, J.R. (2008). Melamine and the global implications of food contamination. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(26), 2745-2748.
  • [8] Insulander, M., de Jong, B., Svenungsson, B. (2008). A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008. Eurosurveillance, 13(51), 19071.
  • [9] Friesema, I., De Jong, A., Hofhuis, A., Heck, M., Van den Kerkhof, H., De Jonge, R., Hameryck, D., Nagel, K., van Vilsteren, G., van Beek, P., Notermans, D., van Pelt, W. (2014). Large outbreak of Salmonella Thompson related to smoked salmon in the Netherlands, August to December 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(39), 20918.
  • [10] Harries, M., Monazahian, M., Wenzel, J., Jilg, W., Weber, M., Ehlers, J., Dreesman, J., Mertens, E. (2014). Foodborne hepatitis A outbreak associated with bakery products in northern German, 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(50), 2099.
  • [11] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). List of Selected Multistate Foodborne Outbreak Investigations. Accessed 07 January 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/multistate-outbreaks/outbreaks-list.html.
  • [12] Hald, T., Aspinall, W., Devleesschauwer, B., Cooke, R., Corrigan, T., Havelaar, A.H., Gibb, J.H., Torgerson, R.P., Kirk, D.M., Angulo, J.F., Lake, R.J., Speybroeck, N., Hoffman N. (2016). World Health Organization estimates of the relative contributions of food to the burden of disease due to selected foodborne hazards: a structured expert elicitation. PloS One, 11(1), e0145839.
  • [13] Torgerson, P.R., Devleesschauwer, B., Praet, N., Speybroeck, N., Willingham, A.L., Kasuga, F., Rokni, B.M., Zhou, N.X., Fevre, M.E., Sripa, B., Gargouri, N., Fürst, T., Budke, M.C., Carabin, H., Kirk, D.M., Angulo, J.F., Havelaar, A. de Silva, N. (2015) World health organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of 11 foodborne parasitic diseases, 2010: a data synthesis. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), e1001920.
  • [14] World Health Organization. (2015). Who estimates of the global burden of foodborne disease. Accessed 07 January 2021. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/199350/9789241565165_eng.pdf
  • [15] World Health Organization. (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak situation. Accessed 15 January 2021. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
  • [16] Addis, M., Sisay, D. (2015). A review on major food borne bacterial illnesses. Journal of Tropical Diseases, 3(4), 176-183.
  • [17] Havelaar, A.H., Kirk, M.D., Torgerson, P.R., Gibb, H.J., Hald, T., Lake, R.J., Praet, N., Bellinger, C.D., de Silva, R.N., Gargouri, N., Speybroeck, N., Cawthorne, A., Mathers, C., Stein, C., Angulo, J.F., Devleesschauwer, B. (2015). World Health Organization global estimates and regional comparisons of the burden of foodborne disease in 2010. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), e1001923.
  • [18] Hernández-Cortez, C., Palma-Martínez, I., Gonzalez-Avila, U.L., Guerrero-Andujano,A., Colmenero Solís, R., Castro-Escarpulli, G. (2017). Chapter 3: Food Poisoning Caused by Bacteria (Food Toxins). In Poisoning - From Specific Toxic Agents to Novel Rapid and Simplified Techniques for Analysis, Edited by Ntambwe Malangu, InTechopen, Croatia, 33-72p.
  • [19] Kalyoussef, S., Feja, K.N. (2014). Foodborne illnesses. Advances in Pediatrics, 61(1), 287-312.
  • [20] Valero, A., Carrasco, E., García-Gimeno, R.M. (2012). Principles and Methodologies for The Determination of Shelf-life in Foods. In Trends in Vital Food and Control Engineering, Edited by Ayman Amer Eissa, InTechOpen, Croatia, 3-42p.
  • [21] Tirado, M.C., Clarke, R., Jaykus, L.A., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Frank, J.M. (2010). Climate change and food safety: A review. Food Research International, 43(7), 1745-1765.
  • [22] Park, M.S., Park, K.H., Bahk, G.J. (2018). Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases. Science of the Total Environment, 610, 10-16.
  • [23] Semenza, J.C. (2014). Climate change and human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 7347-7353.
  • [24] Wu, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L., Xu, B. (2016). Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environment International, 86, 14-23.
  • [25] Hoelzer, K., Switt, A.I.M., Wiedmann, M., Boor, K.J. (2018). Emerging needs and opportunities in foodborne disease detection and prevention: From tools to people. Food Microbiology, 75, 65-71.
  • [26] Institute of Medicine, 2012. Building Public-private Partnerships in Food and Nutrition:Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 13p.
  • [27] Hathaway, S.C. (2013). Food control from farm to fork: implementing the standards of Codex and the OIE. Rev Sci Tech Oie, 32, 479-485.
  • [28] Urazel, B., Çelikal, A., Karbeyaz, K., Akkaya, H. (2014). Gıda zehirlenmesine bağlı rapor düzenlenen adli olguların değerlendirilmesi. Dicle Medical Journal, 41(1), 113-117.
  • [29] Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211.
  • [30] Peng, G.J., Chang, M.H., Fang, M., Liao, C.D., Tsai, C.F., Tseng, S.H., Kao, M.Y., Chou, K.H., Cheng, H.F. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152.
  • [31] Mun, S. (2020). The effects of ambient temperature changes on foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 85, 102432.
  • [32] Hall, G.V., D'Souza, R.M., Kirk, M.D. (2002). Foodborne disease in the new millennium: out of the frying pan and into the fire?. Medical Journal of Australia, 177(11), 614-618.
  • [33] Yun, J., Greiner, M., Höller, C., Messelhäusser, U., Rampp, A., Klein, G. (2016). Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1-7.
  • [34] Kendrovski, V., Karadzovski, Z., Spasenovska, M. (2011). Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(6), 264.
  • [35] Koluman, A., Dikici, A., Kahraman, T., İncili, G.K. (2017). Food Safety and Climate Change: Seasonality and Emerging Food Borne Pathogens. Journal of Gastroenterology Research, 1(1), 24-29.
  • [36] Patz, J. A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Holloway, T., Foley, J. A. (2005). Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 438, 310-317
  • [37] Kim, Y.S., Park, K.H., Chun, H.S., Choi, C., Bahk, G.J. (2015). Correlations between climatic conditions and foodborne disease. Food Research International, 68, 24–30.
  • [38] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, United States, 2016, Annual Report. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Accessed: 22.12.2020. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/59698.
  • [39] Kovats, R.S., Edwards, S.J., Hajat, S., Armstrong, B.G., Ebi, K.L., Menne, B. (2004). The effect of temperature on food poisoning: a time-series analysis of salmonellosis in ten European countries. Epidemiology & Infection, 132(3), 443-453.
  • [40] Louis, V.R., Gillespie, I.A., O'Brien, S.J., Russek-Cohen, E., Pearson, A.D., Colwell, R.R. (2005). Temperature-driven campylobacter seasonality in England and Wales. Apply Environmental Microbiology, 71(1), 85–92.
  • [41] Fleury, M., Charron, D.F., Holt, J.D., Allen, O.B., Maarouf, A.R. (2006). A time series analysis of the relationship of ambient temperature and common bacterial enteric infections in two Canadian provinces. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50(6), 385-391.
  • [42] Dominianni, C., Lane, K., Ahmed, M., Johnson, S., McKelvey, W., Ito, K. (2018). Hot Weather Impacts on New York City Restaurant Food Safety Violations and Operations. Journal of Food Protection, 81(7), 1048-1054.
  • [43] Nichols, G.L., Richardson, J.F., Sheppard, S.K., Lane, C., Sarran, C. (2012). Campylobacter epidemiology: a descriptive study reviewing 1 million cases in England and Wales between 1989 and 2011. BMJ Open, 2, e001179.
  • [44] Djennad, A., Iacono, G.L., Sarran, C., Lane, C., Elson, R., Höser, C., Lake, R.I., Colon-Gonzalez, J.F., Kovats, S., Semenza, C.J., Bailey, T.C., Kesses, A., Fleming, E.L., Nichols, L.G. (2019). Seasonality and the effects of weather on Campylobacter infections. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(255), 1-10.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Burhan BAŞARAN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Department of Travel, Tourism and Recreation Services, Ardeşen Vocational School, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University
0000-0001-6506-6113
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { akademik-gida1011221, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, eissn = {2148-015X}, address = {Fevzipaşa Bulv. Çelik İş Merkezi, No: 162, Kat: 3, D:302, Çankaya, İzmir}, publisher = {Sidas Medya A.Ş.}, year = {2021}, volume = {19}, pages = {281 - 290}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221}, title = {A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media}, key = {cite}, author = {Başaran, Burhan} }
APA Başaran, B. (2021). A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media . Akademik Gıda , 19 (3) , 281-290 . DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221
MLA Başaran, B. "A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media" . Akademik Gıda 19 (2021 ): 281-290 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/akademik-gida/issue/65451/1011221>
Chicago Başaran, B. "A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media". Akademik Gıda 19 (2021 ): 281-290
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media AU - Burhan Başaran Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 281 EP - 290 VL - 19 IS - 3 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221 UR - https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media %A Burhan Başaran %T A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media %D 2021 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 19 %N 3 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221
ISNAD Başaran, Burhan . "A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media". Akademik Gıda 19 / 3 (Ekim 2021): 281-290 . https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221
AMA Başaran B. A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media. Akademik Gıda. 2021; 19(3): 281-290.
Vancouver Başaran B. A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media. Akademik Gıda. 2021; 19(3): 281-290.
IEEE B. Başaran , "A Study of Food Poisoning Cases in Turkey from 2016 to 2020 According to the Written and Visual Media", Akademik Gıda, c. 19, sayı. 3, ss. 281-290, Eki. 2021, doi:10.24323/akademik-gida.1011221

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